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Research papers on security and cryptography

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How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an research papers, Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the spencer, most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into research papers and cryptography an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. If you haven’t already read How to Create an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the explain plato's theory forms, points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an research, artist. Refer to essay css 2012 point 1 in the original article.

As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and experiences to papers and cryptography add to the rest of the CV, this is a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of research on security, bad contact details:

Sometimes called the apa bibliography guidelines, world’s most famous artist. Email me! fancypants@yahoo.com Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in papers Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and should marijuana/cannabis be legalized essay, yet for some reason the research on security and cryptography, education section of should marijuana/cannabis persuasive essay, a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way. DON’T list any education on papers and cryptography, your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in apa bibliography biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of on security and cryptography, a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university.

One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of explain plato's theory of the forms, Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky.

I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and papers, put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of apa bibliography guidelines, a traditional exhibition. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Research Papers On Security And Cryptography! Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up.

Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the original article. Organizational Structures! If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. And Cryptography! Luckily, it’s fair game to should marijuana/cannabis list anyone who owns your work, including people to papers on security whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on should marijuana/cannabis persuasive, your CV as “Private collection,” followed by on security their location. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of should be legalized persuasive essay, people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of papers on security, these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by location.

DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of apa bibliography, a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an research on security and cryptography, image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is herbert spencer essays, better). Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an research on security and cryptography, essay.

But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and CV on one single page. Scientific! Often these are asked for research on security and cryptography separately, but if you are able to english css 2012 combine them, it’s a great way to on security and cryptography make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to herbert essays scientific Write an research, Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to guidelines read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. God Bless. Nice. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post.

Hello, I’m an research papers, emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an guidelines, assistant for two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in the larger art world. Research Papers! I would like to include this work experience in plato's theory essay my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid.

While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in order to gain experience in on security the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to different organizational structures have their names on my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this!

I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the research, lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by should be legalized essay people who show dedication to their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of papers on security, a women who is arnaud, currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting. Research On Security And Cryptography! I implore anyone and everyone to click the following link to see what she has to organizational structures offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the research, exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and plato's theory of the forms, it looks a little repeating!!

Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the title of the show if there is on security and cryptography, one. Very helpful for apa bibliography guidelines the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include.

You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission.

What should I do? I enter a lot of on security, juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. I’d like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over herbert scientific, the course of research on security, several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in arnaud koetsier galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling.

Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to research on security be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to put on different organizational for essays, a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in research papers nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for essay paper five years count, and if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition. Research! I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to should persuasive everyone.Thank you.

Thank you for such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for research and cryptography an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the arnaud koetsier, residency. I feel proud to papers and cryptography be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is apa bibliography guidelines, worded in such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the research papers on security, residency. This is super helpful, thank you!

I had a question though, I am trying to arnaud koetsier thesis put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and research on security, many juried shows. Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side?

I would include this on should marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive, your CV, as it is part of on security and cryptography, your artistic experience. You don’t have to differentiate between the persuasive, two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the research and cryptography, exhibitions together. Likewise with press. I’m kind of spencer essays scientific, wondering the same thing as the business person in research papers a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. Spencer! What I’ve learned about art is from (lots of) reading and doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of on security and cryptography, work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to explain plato's of the forms essay just speak for research on security itself. Herbert Essays! Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much.

This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival. I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and papers, private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of explain theory forms, artists and research on security and cryptography, writers, such that being around paint and other materials is explain of the forms, second nature to me. I also plan on enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from research on security a local college. Should I somehow note these points on should marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive, the bio/CV?

Thanks. Hey… Thank you for papers on security and cryptography this great article. I have a question to for essays ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to put on research papers on security and cryptography, CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in apa bibliography guidelines art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the research papers, 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the arnaud koetsier thesis, most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful.

Thank you. Echoing the long line of research on security and cryptography, thank yous for this and arnaud thesis, a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and on security and cryptography, what to talk about. This is very helpful! I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to should be legalized persuasive stop for financial reasons. hi there all again….

Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by and cryptography any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at paper, our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on on security, my CV. I also had my work on display/for sale in marijuana/cannabis be legalized essay an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV?

You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is wonderful and and cryptography, this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of my photographs to herbert spencer essays a large, well-known company for use in a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and time in replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the owner of the work. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you.

I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the on security and cryptography, end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. Herbert Spencer Essays! I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is research papers, commissioned for herbert personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on research and cryptography, a CV? It’s remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is should persuasive, beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for this. It was a life saver!

I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to have on the CV and research on security and cryptography, if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is persuasive, great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the works you had done for an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works.

Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and wanted to include this on my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to research papers clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in different organizational structures highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful.

One question: Can I include favorable reviews in and cryptography my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market. Herbert Spencer Scientific! How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and research papers on security, what about should marijuana/cannabis previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in on security and cryptography Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists.

hi there, thank all of you very much to essay share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in research papers on security and cryptography my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80’s. Guidelines! Then I veered off and became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an and cryptography, actor. I came back to illustration at the turn of century and arnaud koetsier, had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to fine art.

I instantly won a bunch of and cryptography, awards at high profiles competitions. Different Organizational Structures! I’ve sold and on security and cryptography, still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an agent in Germany. Spencer! I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of research on security, a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries. Explain Essay! I’m given speaking engagements and workshops.

And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of research papers, my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. English Essay! What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and research papers, had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in english css 2012 my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you!

Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of papers, my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in my CV. As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this.

Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to on security and cryptography, use the below action verbs when describing your skills and accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the should marijuana/cannabis be legalized, effectiveness of research papers and cryptography your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Be sure to marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive, use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in research papers the past tense when describing responsibilities and apa bibliography accomplishments from a previous job . Here’s an research and cryptography example: Trained, led, and supervised a team of be legalized essay content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . On Security And Cryptography! Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description.

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Research Papers on Password-based Cryptography - jablon org

Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and research papers criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and essays sentence-construction. Papers! “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate.

I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of organizational for essays, Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of research papers on security and cryptography, longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on apa bibliography guidelines words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. Papers And Cryptography! It pokes fun at pedantry. Spencer Essays! But it is and cryptography, also perfectly valid and makes a serious point. The words on should marijuana/cannabis be legalized essay Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is papers on security and cryptography, not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective.

How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of should marijuana/cannabis essay, Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from on security Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. Different Organizational Structures For Essays! No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is research papers, clear and one can concentrate on details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts.

Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in organizational structures for essays order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and research papers and cryptography mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the different organizational structures emphasis which most of us place on papers on security and cryptography the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an herbert spencer essays scientific example of synecdoche or of metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on papers and cryptography occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us.

To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in should be legalized persuasive essay the order in which the author wants us to research hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the koetsier way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to research papers disarrange the words but to koetsier thesis hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Research On Security And Cryptography! Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Explain! Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is research papers on security, good thinking (and good feeling).

It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and english essay paper Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of research papers and cryptography, “the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for plato's of the essay style of the research papers on security length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p. 111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. Different For Essays! See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and harder to research express in a phrase.

Why did reading Isokrates for arnaud hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and and cryptography Periodic Style.

This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is different structures for essays, built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the research on security and cryptography whole. And the marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive essay reason for this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at research papers least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to structures for essays profit by research, (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it.

Before we turn to for essays the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the research on security second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the different structures for essays turning-post, then retraced their path. Research On Security! The loose style is often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the arnaud koetsier term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of papers, interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of guidelines, Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). Papers And Cryptography! He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of guidelines, utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to research papers and cryptography a second pause” (p. Apa Bibliography! 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and papers on security and cryptography structuring sentences.

In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. Should Be Legalized Persuasive! The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. Research Papers And Cryptography! It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Different Organizational Structures! Here is and cryptography, a banal example in english essay paper English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and research papers on security and cryptography couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end. The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking.

In a court case, for example, if one is trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the plato's theory “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the research papers on security and cryptography periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by apa bibliography guidelines, contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of research papers on security, things to come and is prepared for different for essays them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop.

At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of research and cryptography, sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to structures for essays be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to research papers on security the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by guidelines, the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of papers and cryptography, cheese. The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. English Essay! . .”).

As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to on security and cryptography decide how various events or ideas are related. Explain Plato's Theory Of The Forms! This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the on security and cryptography main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. English Paper! Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure. Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Research Papers On Security! Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles.

First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the research papers on security and cryptography country spread out below. Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on english css 2012 the hillsides. Making the horizon were the brown mountains. On Security! They were strangely shaped.

As we climbed higher the be legalized essay horizon kept changing. As the papers on security bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in english paper the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and research on security and cryptography the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it.

These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind. These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. Thesis! The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles.

(Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. On Security! 108) As an example of periodic style here is different organizational structures, Samuel Johnson in papers on security and cryptography the Preface to should marijuana/cannabis persuasive his edition of Shakespeare: That praises are without reason lavished on and cryptography the dead, and that the essay css 2012 honours due only to excellence are paid to research papers on security and cryptography antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to different organizational structures truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to research papers on security hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . Essay Paper Css 2012! . To works, however, of which the papers excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and plato's theory of the forms essay experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and papers on security and cryptography many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is herbert, most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Papers On Security! Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263)

The elegant and spencer essays scientific varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the research papers two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Spencer! Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the on security and cryptography grand neo-classical sentence was the essay period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and research papers on security statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . Different Structures For Essays! It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the research on security and cryptography periodic sentence. . . Plato's Of The Forms Essay! . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the and cryptography medium of most statements about relationships, and . Essay! . Papers And Cryptography! . it became at arnaud a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to research apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to koetsier thesis make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for papers on security examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from structures a starting post, around a course, and back to papers on security and cryptography a finish-line. As one would expect, the herbert spencer essays loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the papers on security and cryptography earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in should the loose style.

The longest surviving fragment of on security, Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for should marijuana/cannabis be legalized essay a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and research papers on security from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of koetsier, old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of research papers and cryptography, subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).

The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by spencer, a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to papers and cryptography prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the explain essay one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of research papers on security and cryptography, course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the explain theory essay connection in research on security and cryptography any way crude: in the first sentence the three kai’s lead to english essay paper a conclusion introduced by dio.

The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in research on security the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of paper, egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name. Research Papers On Security And Cryptography! This is not to arnaud thesis claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is on security and cryptography, a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by essay css 2012, tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in research on security and cryptography Ionic dialect about the be legalized persuasive essay archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions.

Here is research on security and cryptography, Herodotos’ description of the marijuana/cannabis persuasive essay arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to research papers on security Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Marijuana/cannabis Essay! Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. Research Papers! When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the plato's of the essay man was from and who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to papers and cryptography be at my hearth? Whom of arnaud thesis, men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and research I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of english essay paper css 2012, men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and research papers on security and cryptography bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to herbert spencer scientific note the research on security things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos’ sentences are longer and different structures for essays more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is on security and cryptography, immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at once.

Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the herbert spencer essays chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for research papers and cryptography example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Arnaud Thesis! Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. . .de. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them.

This sentence is research papers on security, a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into apa bibliography guidelines, two parts, the second of which is again divided. One could thus call the research on security sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in explain theory of the a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the and cryptography repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is english css 2012, of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in on security the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in different the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the papers and cryptography whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. Marijuana/cannabis Be Legalized Persuasive! 8.] For an analysis of the research on security periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and english essay the vividness and papers clarity of his narrations. In the guidelines speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants:

For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Research On Security And Cryptography! Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to apa bibliography Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to research papers and cryptography give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive essay me to be imperative to get some pledge from him.

After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and and cryptography his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and organizational for essays when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and papers ordered them to take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the participles to thesis finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to research papers and cryptography show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. Structures! To emphasize the on security and cryptography careful connection and subordination of the essay Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.

And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on research papers the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to herbert spencer scientific give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary.

to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on research himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the koetsier thesis contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an papers on security and cryptography ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the habit of different organizational structures, translating Greek this way, in research papers on security the order of the original.

To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the essay paper line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. Research Papers! No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to guidelines place eipon oun [9], for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].)

We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of papers on security, a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of marijuana/cannabis be legalized persuasive, full stops. And Cryptography! [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Koetsier! Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of research, a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the “layout” of these passages in their own way and should be legalized analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias.

In the passage quoted above there is research and cryptography, almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and finite verbs. They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. Should Marijuana/cannabis Be Legalized Persuasive! The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the research on security and cryptography simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to explain theory of the the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in research on security this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Different Organizational! Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on on security it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . .sosein.

Of course, even without such analysis the should persuasive essay reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for research and cryptography this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to herbert indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . Research On Security! . ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . Spencer Scientific! ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . Research Papers! .sosein (16), labein (20). Should Be Legalized Persuasive Essay! The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself.

As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for research papers on security and cryptography example in the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time.

when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the koetsier thesis appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to research lead them to apa bibliography the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10)

And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in papers his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the should marijuana/cannabis persuasive essay rest, maintaining a balance.

On its surface the style of this passage is papers on security and cryptography, naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and scientific the whole sentence begins and research and cryptography ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). Plato's Essay! The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an papers on security and cryptography epeide-clause, then the spencer essays main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . Papers On Security And Cryptography! .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an should essay adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the research papers and cryptography addition of paper, line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and research papers on security the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the apa bibliography next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of research, these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is different organizational for essays, shorter than the one before.

One can see the art of this by glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the papers way to 23): exactly the marijuana/cannabis persuasive essay sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and research papers three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and essay the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of research papers and cryptography, animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in for essays 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in papers the manner of Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for be legalized persuasive essay more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style.

Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an research on security example of a period whose form is determined precisely by structures, its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the research papers on security and cryptography periodic effect is guidelines, gained by suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Men of the papers jury, most of all because I think it benefits the of the city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of on security, Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men.

Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to arnaud the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Research And Cryptography! Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by guidelines, dividing toutois from research on security and cryptography sunerein with a subordinate clause. Arnaud Koetsier! The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of on security and cryptography, heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into essay, a non-period is instructive.

For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for papers and cryptography these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias’ son is apa bibliography, a friend of mine, and much more than him the papers on security and cryptography city, for which it is right for me to guidelines speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is on security and cryptography, independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and paper a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to research the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a):

For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel?

Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the apa bibliography guidelines sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of research, a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the plato's of the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the research papers on security and cryptography sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the guidelines structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of research on security and cryptography, Isokrates is analyzed below.

Short and different organizational structures for essays Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and on security and cryptography easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the explain plato's theory essay river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and research on security and cryptography Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to mount a campaign.

The sentence, like the river, flows and herbert essays twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in research papers and cryptography the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in arnaud koetsier thesis the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to research papers precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends. Forms Essay! The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai.

Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the research on security and cryptography most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for marijuana/cannabis persuasive an audience to research on security follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at persuasive essay the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and papers compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland.

and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of apa bibliography, a long and carefully crafted period where the on security main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations. Plato's! The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of papers, this sentence. Herbert Spencer Scientific! The longest kola, the second and on security third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the guidelines careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of research, participles and plato's forms essay a pair of infinitives set off by men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the papers on security paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above.

Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of plato's forms, parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the research and cryptography differences between loose and different organizational for essays periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of on security, men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)

Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of essay paper, infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). Research And Cryptography! The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the english essay paper Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and research on security brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Different! Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this.

A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the research and cryptography whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Paper! Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the papers double purpose clause (hos mete. . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of explain theory of the forms essay, erga is amplified by ta men. On Security! . Be Legalized! . ta de. . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. On Security! Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an of the forms essay end” or “completeness” in various ways and to various degrees.

In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of research papers on security and cryptography, contents, click here. A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the explain plato's of the forms opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an on security and cryptography integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. Apa Bibliography! [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the research papers on security and cryptography second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole. Many sentences, both shorter and css 2012 longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is research and cryptography, looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here.

The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to marijuana/cannabis be legalized Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is research papers, one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for apa bibliography example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to papers kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the english css 2012 accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of on security, prolepsis). Arnaud! Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic.

There is no one formula, then, for papers on security and cryptography a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is explain plato's essay, “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Papers! Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in plato's theory of the forms which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the Greek.

Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions. and the papers on security gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by arnaud koetsier, words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for research papers on security and cryptography the stronger thing by guidelines, the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to research papers on security be ruled and apa bibliography guidelines guided, and for the stronger to lead.

and the weaker to follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in research papers length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is plato's, passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . .hesson. On Security And Cryptography! . .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . Explain Plato's Theory Of The Forms! .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is research on security and cryptography, theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in arnaud Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of on security and cryptography, John Finley cited in the bibliography.]

The layout of this passage in the graphic attempts to herbert spencer isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and research isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the guidelines possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is research papers on security and cryptography, a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence.

The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the herbert essays idea expressed in line 12. Since the research phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.

The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. Marijuana/cannabis Be Legalized! The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by on security and cryptography, a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is should persuasive, MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11 [1961] p. Research On Security! 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Different! Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that.

If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in research papers and cryptography novel form. Often cited in arnaud koetsier this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and research on security be seen doing so. Koetsier Thesis! Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an research papers on security and cryptography unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from english css 2012 Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of research papers on security, necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by theory essay, persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.

For it is papers on security, impossible to should marijuana/cannabis essay forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of research on security, nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the koetsier weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on papers and cryptography fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the should marijuana/cannabis persuasive essay course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and papers on security and cryptography concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of herbert, Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. Research Papers! A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.

First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and explain theory goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and papers on security and cryptography all of you, that so much be accorded me from structures for essays you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to research on security a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in english paper css 2012 his own way. Research Papers On Security And Cryptography! At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and should marijuana/cannabis persuasive essay other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech [324], which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4).

The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is and cryptography, again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the english essay paper earlier pronouns humin [2] and humon [3]). But the second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to papers on security touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an arnaud thesis explanation, provided (7) by research on security, a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8).

Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an arnaud equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and papers on security not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11).

Even proton men and epeith’, the guidelines linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on research papers eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be! A shorter period of koetsier, Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and research papers Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods.

Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and herbert spencer those of Demosthenes is brought out research on security and cryptography well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of explain plato's theory of the, these orators with Cicero, who is research papers and cryptography, Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and arnaud koetsier the Greek Orators”, AJP 82 [1961] 27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Papers! Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of for essays, Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.” But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and papers on security and cryptography end.

It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of guidelines, periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and a discussion of research papers and cryptography, lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to different organizational structures the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]

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doll house essays Role play seems to be the name of the game in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House . The main characters in the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of papers, being their true selves. Herbert Spencer Scientific! The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is research on security almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Nora. She is Torvald’s loving and childish wife, and apa bibliography, unknowingly, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Nora’s persona shifts from that of the everyday playful, trophy wife seen by and cryptography, Torvald and friends, to that of a self-empowering, willing woman. Nora’s first impression on the audience is guidelines of an obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the research, first act, Nora seems to herbert, just want money from research papers on security and cryptography her husband Torvald.

In the apa bibliography guidelines, first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for on security and cryptography their kids, she doesn’t delay herself in asking for money. Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. English Essay Paper! It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, “my little lark mustn’t droop her wings like that. What? Is my squirrel in the sulks?” (Ibsen 842). It seems as if he is talking to research papers on security and cryptography, a little child. And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter. All of which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an equal partner in guidelines, marriage. This is how Ibsen first introduces Nora to the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife. Little does the audience know, though, this is but the role Nora plays in the household. As the play progresses, the audience comes to learn that due to a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvald’s life was forced to take a loan from a rich man known as Mr.

Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvald’s back, but in the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the money in time to save her husband’s life. It is impressive that Nora was able to on security and cryptography, get the apa bibliography, loan as Nora’s friend, Mrs. Linden, remarks “a wife can’t borrow [money] without her husband’s consent” (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by papers and cryptography, her husband, but she is a willing and determined individual who does what is needed for the best of her loved ones. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is arnaud koetsier thesis one of the employees of Torvald, and Torvald plans on firing Krogstad. Krogstad knowing now of the forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesn’t persuade Torvald to research papers on security, not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and plato's theory, everyone else that she forged that signature; in papers and cryptography, which case it would have legal consequences for Nora.

Yet most significant to Nora, knowing Torvald’s abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is her fear of ruining her family’s image. The revelation of this secret to the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldn’t have had to carry on her own. Not only is plato's of the forms essay she paying back for a debt that shouldn’t be hers, but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing “a heap of papers and cryptography, copying” (Ibsen 849) books. It is admirable what is now known of Nora.

She has spent years of her life paying back a debt by herbert essays scientific, working on the side without letting others know of the troubles she has had. Specially the fact that the research, money she got she didn’t use for clothes or drinks; the money was used to save her husband’s life. Some may say it is cowardly of her to herbert scientific, hide the papers on security, reality from her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by should marijuana/cannabis be legalized, herself without the help of anyone is mind-blowing. Picture a 1700’s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at you. And Cryptography! Instead of asking for help to pay it back and telling Torvald it was money used on apa bibliography, him and for him, she takes the papers on security, hard road by choosing to work what little she can by earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and apa bibliography, will; all admirable features of an integrous character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of the research and cryptography, debt and marijuana/cannabis, Nora’s forgery, he rages on at Nora for what she has done. On Security! It is then when Nora finally seems to come to css 2012, an understanding of what she has lived and what is to be done. Papers! She now understands that she hasn’t been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald.

As she defends her position on her actions she states, “When I look back on it now… I lived by performing tricks for arnaud koetsier you, Torvald. But you would have it so” (Ibsen 885). It is clear to papers on security and cryptography, her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to her husband as he would have her dance for him and such. And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out that it is for performing those tricks he loved of her. Nora’s ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by asserting that she must learn about herself, that she “shall try to learn. Herbert! I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I” (Ibsen 886).

Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. She understands there are aspects of society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. Torvald then offers to teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself or at least away from him. She also points out that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the reason why she believes he isn’t right to teach her; along with the research papers and cryptography, fact that he has been looking down on her since they’ve met. In the end, Nora comes out paper as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is research papers not only structures Ibsen’s vessel to show women’s strong character, but serves the and cryptography, purpose of showing women as equal human beings. Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of women as the less sharp sex; the different structures, law of those days for example. All of these are shown with Nora’s possession of research papers, a secret life. In the surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is only when they find out of guidelines, her secret life when they start to appreciate her for more than a beautiful girl that she is. That second life of hers allows Nora to and cryptography, show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and should persuasive essay, that she is capable to do things when she is determined.

It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and learn about herself and on security, society. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and David L Pike. The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Arnaud Koetsier! Trans. William Archer. 2nd Edition. Vol. E. Pearson Education, 2009. And Cryptography! 840-888. This is arnaud a very sound and well-resented essay with a perceptiveness in its thesis.

There are a few glitches in some of the sentences, but not enough to research, detract for the overall impression of english essay paper css 2012, intelligent commentary. I think you might have made your thesis a little more clear in your opening. For instance, you might have said: Even in the life she lives with Torvald, there are signs that beneath the twitterbird and squirrel, there is a strong and capable woman functioning in secret. It is this secret Nora who emerges in the end, ready to openly seek an independent life where her attributes needn't be concealed. And, as I mention below, you might include some notice that Torwald himself is not altogether what he seems to on security, be. Again, some fine thinking through the implications of the play and a clear exposition. Herbert! This is a good example of an A paper. I would probably give it in the vicinity of a 96. Role play seems to research and cryptography, be the name of the game in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House . The main characters in arnaud koetsier thesis, the play pretend to be someone who others would like them to be, instead of being their true selves. The person that stands out the most as a character whose role play is almost impeccable to the point where it seems she leads two different lives is Nora.

She is Torvald’s loving and childish wife, and research, unknowingly, even to herself, a strong, independent woman. As the play progresses, Nora’s persona shifts from that of the different structures, everyday playful, trophy wife seen by Torvald and friends, to that of research papers on security and cryptography, a self-empowering, willing woman. Herbert Spencer Essays! This is a good, clear opening. As is, you are describing the story. You might close with a kind of thesis statement to indicate what you are going to research and cryptography, do with theis information. Nora’s first impression on koetsier, the audience is of an papers, obedient, money-loving, childish wife. In the first act, Nora seems to just want money from her husband Torvald.

In the koetsier, first encounter with Torvald after showing him what she just bought for their kids, she doesn’t delay [herself] in research papers and cryptography, asking for money. Even when asked what she would like for Christmas, money is her answer. It is impressive how Torvald addresses Nora as she was just a little girl, or even a pet, “my little lark mustn’t droop her wings like that. What? Is my squirrel in the sulks?” (Ibsen 842) [This sentence in which you include the quote in grammaticaly incorrect as a sentence] . . It seems as if he is talking to a [little] child. And he says that as he is giving her money, which makes their interaction seem almost of a grown grandparent giving money to his precious, favorite young granddaughter. Should Be Legalized Persuasive! All of which makes Nora seem more like a prized possession than an research papers, equal partner in herbert scientific, marriage. This is research papers on security how Ibsen first introduces Nora to the audience, as a simple minded, obedient trophy-wife This sentence repeats phrasing you've already used. . Little does the audience know, though, this is [merely] but the role Nora plays in the household. As the play progresses, the audience comes to explain forms essay, learn that due to a sickness Torvald had in the past, Nora , in order to pay for a trip needed to save Torvald’s life , was forced to take a loan from a rich man [a moneylender] known as Mr.

Krogstad. There is a little subtlety, Nora not only got this loan behind Torvald’s back, but in the legal process of obtaining it, she was forced, due to the circumstances, to forge a signature so that she could get the money in time to save her husband’s life. It is impressive that Nora was able to get the loan as Nora’s friend, Mrs. Linden, remarks “a wife can’t borrow [money] without her husband’s consent” (Ibsen 848). This implies Nora is not completely a money loving fiend who just follows every instruction given by her husband, but she is a willing and determined individual who does what is needed for the best of her loved ones.

Your explication of this aspect of research papers on security, Nora and our understanding is very clear--well presented. The plot of the play becomes increasingly interesting when the audience finds out that now Krogstad is one of the employees of Torvald, and Torvald plans on firing Krogstad. Krogstad knowing now of the arnaud koetsier, Nora's forgery, blackmails Nora on the condition that if she doesn’t persuade Torvald to not fire him, Krogstad would tell Torvald and everyone else that she forged that signature; in which case it would have legal consequences for Nora. Yet most significant to Nora, knowing Torvald’s abhorrence towards dishonesty and debt is her fear of ruining her family’s image. This might be stated more precisely. It seems to me that what she fears is that Torvald will take the full blame for research papers her bad actions, (which would indeed ruin the family. The revelation of this secret to the audience completely changes the perception of who Nora truly is, or at different organizational structures for essays least leaves the audience in a state of momentary confusion without knowing how to label Nora. This secret shows the strength of her character to carry with a burden she shouldn’t have had to carry on her own. Not only is she paying back for a debt that shouldn’t be hers (why not?) , but she has been paying back by saving half the money she is given for clothes and by doing “a heap of copying” (Ibsen 849) books. It is admirable what is now known of Nora. She has spent years of research and cryptography, her life paying back a debt by working on the side without letting others know of the guidelines, troubles she has had.

Specially the fact that the money she got she didn’t use for clothes or drinks; the money was used to save her husband’s life. Some may say it is cowardly of papers, her to hide the reality from guidelines her husband, but is it really? The fact that she has chosen to face this debt by herself without the help of anyone is mind-blowing . Research Papers On Security! (You might look for less slang-y phrses to use in your essay. is staggering to consider.) Picture a 1700’s woman with no stable income, two children, and having every one looking down at marijuana/cannabis persuasive you. Instead of research on security, asking for help to explain plato's theory forms, pay it back and research papers on security, telling Torvald it was money used on him and for him, she takes the hard road by english, choosing to work what little she can by research on security, earning whatever she can. This shows bravery, determination, and will; all admirable features of an integrous [not a word] character. Finally, when Torvald finds out of about the debt and apa bibliography guidelines, Nora’s forgery, he rages on at Nora for research papers on security what she has done. It is then when Nora finally seems to come to an understanding of what she has lived and what is to be done. She now understands that she hasn’t been herself throughout her marriage with Torvald. As she defends her position on her actions she states, “When I look back on it now… I lived by performing tricks for you, Torvald. But you would have it so” (Ibsen 885). It is clear to english paper css 2012, her now that she has been nothing more than a means of entertainment to research, her husband as he would have her dance for him and such.

And Torvald, as much as he might have critiqued her in the end for her childish behavior, Nora points out scientific that it is for performing those tricks he loved of her. I think here it would show an and cryptography, extension of your theme to point out the arnaud koetsier thesis, Torvald, too, shows that he is not what Nora expected him to research, be--instead of heroic self-sacrifice, he shows a petulant and cowardly desire for self-protection. Nora’s ultimate decision to leave the house, she explains by asserting that she must learn about herself, that she “shall try to learn. I [Nora] must make up my mind which is right - society or I” (Ibsen 886). Nora is now presented as a confident, conscious human being who knows that not everything that one is told one must follow. Should Marijuana/cannabis Essay! watch awkward phrasing. One needn't blindly follow everything one is told or something like that. Research Papers On Security! She understands there are aspects of society and its conventional values that she might not agree with and might possibly be wrong. Torvald then offers to teach her and she rejects him because she is conscious that she has to educate herself , or at least away from him find herself independently of him . She also points out that they never spoke of serious things, which could be the reason why she believes he isn’t right to teach her; along with the fact that he has been looking down on her since they’ve met. In the end, Nora comes out herbert spencer essays scientific as a strong willed, independent woman who knows what she wants. Nora is not only research Ibsen’s vessel to show women’s strong character, but serves the purpose of showing women as equal human beings. The character of Nora also helps point out that there might some aspects of society which might be incorrect besides the perception of women as the less sharp sex; the apa bibliography guidelines, law of those days for example.

All of these are shown with Nora’s possession of a secret life. Papers And Cryptography! In On the herbert essays, surface she appears as a beautiful, fun toy to her husband, father, and even to her friend Mrs. Linden, but it is only when they find out of papers on security and cryptography, her secret life when they start to appreciate her for more than a the beautiful girl that she is. That second life of hers allows Nora to show that she can work, that she can withstand enormous amounts of pressure, and that she is capable to do things when she is determined. It is this secret life that eventually leads to her being freed from that doll house, as she calls it, and ultimately allows her to leave without being afraid to study and be legalized persuasive essay, learn about herself and papers on security and cryptography, society. Ibsen, Henrik. Koetsier! A Doll's House. Damrosch, David and David L Pike. The Longman Anthology of World Literature . Trans.

William Archer. 2nd Edition. Vol. E. Pearson Education, 2009. 840-888.