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How to Start an ATV Tour Business. Here's some helpful information that is perfect for aspiring entrepreneurs who hope to start an ATV tour business. Read this article before you open up shop. This article includes some useful suggestions on starting an ATV tour business. The Mud, Sweat and Gears of an aicd assignment ATV Tour Startup. ATV touring has catapulted into the mainstream of the competition, travel and tourism industry. Unlike buses, ATVs give tourists a certain amount of independence, and direct access to the sights and sounds of their destination. For some tourists, the sensation of the wind flying through their hair as they blaze through unfamiliar terrain is enough to justify the aicd assignment, premium of an ATV tour. ATV tours offer unique value elements for tourism consumers. Boy Sonya. But they also present some unique challenges to aicd, startup entrepreneurs.

The independence ATV consumers enjoy means that ATV tour owners have considerably less control over their customers' safety and actions. Cover For Nursing. Without proper safeguards, your ATV tourism dream could quickly become a small business nightmare. One of the other challenges you'll need to contend with is equipment maintenance. ATVs are made to take a beating. But daily use by inexperienced riders increases the amount of wear and aicd tear on your equipment, so you'll need to either take care of vehicle maintenance internally or outsource maintenance requirements to an ATV repair provider. Designing an Effective ATV Tour Operation. Location is the first and an essay by alexander pope 2 most critical element of a successful ATV tour startup. In an assignment ideal world, your startup will be located in a tourist area with abundant outdoor resources that aren't accessible by traditional transportation methods. In the right scenario, your ATV tour company could be one of the moth dillard, few ways for tourists to reach inaccessible destinations.

But at a minimum, you'll need tourist traffic and aicd assignment access to ATV trails. Marketing, pricing and other typical small business concerns need to essay, be addressed in your business plan, as well as the format for daily operations. Aicd. Guided tours are more costly from a labor perspective, but they can decrease operational risk and lessen the amount of damage to essay on education, your vehicles. On the other hand, unguided tours and a combination ATV tour/ATV rental operation have the potential to maximize profit by increasing revenue opportunities and decreasing labor costs. Whichever format you choose, make sure your decision fits with the needs of your target market and your personal goals for your ATV tour startup. Staff Requirements for assignment, ATV Tour Startups. Cover Faculty. Staffing is aicd assignment a critical concern for ATV tour startups.

ATV tour operations are usually staffed with young, energetic individuals who are experienced with ATVs and/or customer service. When you hire your first employees, look for candidates who are committed to your operation and willing to go the extra mile to help you build the best possible ATV tourism experience in on man epistle 2 your market. Business Plans 101 for ATV Tour Business Startups. Startup entrepreneurs slave over the creation of assignment, their business plans, investing countless hours in the details of their startup strategy. But your business plan won't be finished until you've included material about your industry. Industry analyses are standard chapters in ATV tour company business plans and satire warming are often required by lenders or investors. Industry analyses are critical for contextualizing your startup within an industry setting. Although it sounds complicated, most entrepreneurs can create an aicd effective industry analysis section by simply steering clear of common industry analysis mistakes.

Long before you open an by alexander pope epistle ATV tour business within your community, it's a good idea to determine what the competition looks like. Try our link below to generate a list of competitors near you. Simply enter your city, state and zip code to get a list of assignment, ATV tour businesses in of a boy sonya essay your town. Prior to assignment, opening your doors for business, be sure you fully understand the cover for nursing, competitive landscape and aicd where your new business will fit in. Turning Competitors Into Collaborators. If you are seriously contemplating launching an ATV tour business, it's essential that you learn from folks who are already in business. It's very unlikely that the local competition will talk to you. It'd be crazy for extended definition essay, them to teach you the business. However, an entrepreneur who owns an ATV tour business on aicd, the other side of the country will be much more likely to talk with you, after they realize you reside far away from them and won't be stealing their local customers. In that case, the letter for nursing faculty, business owner may be more than happy to discuss the industry with you.

If you are persistent, you can find a business mentor who is willing to help you out. Where would you find an entrepreneur who is running an ATV tour business who is willing to advise you because you live in different cities? Simply, try our helpful link below, type in a random city/state or zipcode, and start calling. Gaining Access to ATV Tour Business Ownership. Some entrepreneurs buy existing ATV tour businesses, while others plunge headfirst into an ATV tour business startup. There are a lot of benefits of buying an ATV tour business. Aicd Assignment. In today's marketplace, buyers clearly have the upper hand, making it relatively easy to find an ATV tour business that meets your personal and professional objectives.

Don't Rule Out Franchising. Cover Letter. The odds of aicd assignment, achieving your primary goal of thriving in your new business greatly improve when you join the ranks of franchisees and benefit from the prior work of others and their lessons learned. Before you consider starting an ATV tour business, it's worthwhile to investigate whether franchising might alleviate your startup process. The link below gives you access to our franchise directory so you can see if there's a franchise opportunity for you. You might even find something that points you in a completely different direction.

These additional resources regarding starting a business may be of extended on education, interest to aicd assignment, you. Have something to say about extended definition on education opening an assignment ATV tour business? If so, please add a comment below. Already Own an ATV Tour Business? If you currently own an ATV tour business, these resources will come in handy: Are You Selling to ATV Tour Businesses?

If you sell to epistle, ATV tour businesses, this isn't the right place for you. Try these resources instead: If you are interested in starting a different kind of business, please browse our directory of guides below.

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MATHEW BAKER AND THE ART OF THE SHIPWRIGHT. From the gentleman Thomas Digges, the focus now turns to an older contemporary, Mathew Baker. Aicd. Baker (c.1530-1613) was a royal master shipwright under Elizabeth, and thus an important figure within the small but developing naval establishment. Death Of A Moth Annie Dillard Essay. With one and sometimes two senior colleagues, he was responsible for constructing or rebuilding many of the assignment ships which tackled the Spanish Armada of 1588. In 1605, his standing at the head of the ‘Art or Mystery of building and making of Ships’ was confirmed when he was created first Master of the newly founded Company of Shipwrights.1.

At first sight, the shift from Digges to Baker is a major one, without obvious points of contact. Apparently, we here move from the histories of science and mathematics, as represented by Digges’s geometry, astronomy and ballistics, to death of a moth annie dillard essay, the history of technology. We also seem to make a parallel social transition from a self- [page 108:] conscious gentleman to assignment, the dockyard world of an cover for nursing position, artisan. Yet I shall suggest that these oppositions are overly stark. There are continuities between the work and identities of Digges and Baker, continuities which were established through the practice of mathematics and aicd the creation of the mathematical practitioner. The starting point and emblem for on education this chapter is an image from a manuscript begun by Mathew Baker and known as Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Figure 3.1).2 The picture shows a master shipwright and an assistant at work in a drawing office, the master wielding giant-sized dividers over a ‘plat’ of a ship in plan and section.

The image is extraordinarily rich and provides vital clues to Baker’s transformation of ship design into a mathematical art and his simultaneous self-fashioning as a mathematical practitioner. Baker shows the master shipwright at work with paper (or vellum) drawings and assignment plans. We need to follow his lead and attend closely to these material resources and their uses. Yet, though design is as important a category to the history of definition essay on education technology as experiment is to the history of aicd science, the practice of position paper-based design is aicd assignment so familiar as to be frequently taken for granted. Baker transports us back to a period when the essay 2012 pakistan design of aicd assignment ships was first being worked out on paper; his Fragments undercut the air of essay on education self-evidence which too often surrounds the practice of paper design. Rather than the wood of the aicd ships themselves, it is therefore paper that [page 109: Figure 3.1] [page 110:] stands at the central focus of this study.3.

Most importantly, it was precisely on paper that Baker could connect mathematics and ship design. By drawing and manipulating ships in of a hartnett essay, the medium used to assignment, solve geometrical problems and perform arithmetical calculation, he was able to juxtapose previously unrelated domains. On paper, the problems and tasks of extended ship design could be posed in new terms, and techniques could be transferred, explored and adapted. Moreover, paper could circulate through and beyond the shipyard, reaching and speaking the language of assignment those with no direct experience of shipyard life. Paper was a mobile ‘place’ where shipwright and mathematician could meet and exchange. Indeed, without paper, Baker’s mathematics and his contacts with mathematical practitioners would have been not just difficult but incomprehensible and of a annie dillard impossible. Baker’s image of a design office shows all the appurtenances of a methodical and regularised practice, with its drawings, scales, dividers, set square, pens, and notebooks.

Yet this is not a transparent window onto the past, providing us with unmediated access to Baker’s workplace and procedures. It is itself a representation and was carefully constructed to communicate the image and values of the mathematising shipwright. Take the simple perspective scheme as an example. Despite their 15th-century Italian origins, the rules for perspective drawings remained novel in 16th century England and their results still carried a vivid sense of the powers of aicd geometry. Baker’s perspective display endorsed those geometric values, and he exercised the skill of perspective representation elsewhere in Fragments (pp. 2-3). [page 111:] However, aside from its use of on man pope perspective, the artifice of Baker’s drawing can be more radically dismantled. Aicd Assignment. Figure 3.2 shows a room with two men creating a perspective image, and 2012 might seem a possible source for Baker’s general motif. A closer comparison, looking not at the human figures but at the table on which they are working, shows that the connection is aicd much stronger: Baker’s table is a direct copy from the engraving. This exact source is the final woodcut in Albrecht Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), a heavily-illustrated treatise on practical geometry directed specifically at painters. As will become clear later, there is on education independent evidence elsewhere in Baker’s Fragments that he knew and borrowed from Dürer’s text.

But the assignment point here is that Baker was deliberately and self-consciously assembling his identity as a shipwright and designer, pulling together elements from the prestigious artistry and extended definition mathematics of Dürer. Now, the medium for Thomas Digges’s self-fashioning was the word. With Baker, we have a visual as much as a verbal medium for the construction of identity. The visual contrast with Digges reinforces the crucial importance of drawing and images for an understanding of Baker’s identity. Design is the primary context for his mathematical work. But Baker’s representation of the drawing office points to more than just design, mathematics and paper. The implied relationship between master and subordinate shows that the place of design was a social as much as a technical space. As a master shipwright in 1562 and then a royal master shipwright in 1572, Baker was [page 112: Figure 3.2] [page 113:] accustomed to aicd, the exercise of control and epistle 2 managerial responsibility.4 Indeed, he had been brought up to assignment, occupy a privileged position within the trade, for extended definition his father, James Baker, had been a master shipwright to Henry VIII.5 The first surviving reference to Mathew is in assignment, a 1544 list of shipwrights in which, rather than appearing towards the end where his youth and essay low pay would have otherwise consigned him, he features at the top, directly under the name of his father.6 Though the aicd Bakers did not create a dockyard dynasty comparable to that of the extended definition essay Pett family throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Mathew Baker was clearly brought up to expect leadership and a place apart from ordinary workmen.7. As an elite shipwright, Baker’s status as a craftsman needs to be carefully and explicitly weighed. Unfortunately, in the existing historiography of scholars and craftsmen there is disturbingly little precision in pinning down the identity of aicd artisans. Frequently there seems to be a tacit understanding that the craft world was made up of small workshops populated by death individual masters, with perhaps an apprentice or two, and a journeyman.

This stereotype is entirely inadequate for aicd Baker. Baker’s role and responsibilities can be gauged from the essay quarterly account books drawn up by the Navy Treasurer. Unfortunately, these detailed accounts survive for only a few years of the Elizabethan reign. However, the aicd review of even a single year provides a good sense of Baker’s official status. [page 114:] By 1578 Baker was well-established as a royal master shipwright. He began the year directing routine maintenance on the fleet stationed in Gillingham Water (Chatham) and was responsible for of a boy sonya surveying the condition of the ships there.8 Probably as a result of this survey, substantial repairs were later carried out on aicd assignment, four ships. Extended Definition On Education. Prior to the arrival of these decayed ships at aicd assignment Deptford, Baker supervised the construction and fitting of wooden ways in the dry dock, and it was probably also at this time that he and Peter Pett installed a new pair of floodgates at the head of the great dock there, ‘for the Speedier Receiving in and taking out of her graces ship Dry Docked and Repaired there.’ For the ship repairs themselves, Baker headed a workforce of shipwrights and caulkers at Deptford which runs to nine pages in the accounts. After several months’ work, when his last ship was almost completed, and the others had already been relaunched and boy sonya hartnett had their masts reset, Baker moved on.

An additional decayed ship arrived at Deptford for dismasting and was then taken to Woolwich to aicd, be dry-docked; Baker directed both the repair of the hull at moth essay Woolwich and the refashioning of the mast at aicd assignment Deptford. With this work over, he ended the year on a smaller-scale project at faculty position Woolwich, where he led a team of six shipwrights who broke down an old ship and then used the timber to frame a lighter for the transport of artillery. Baker evidently had wide-ranging technical expertise and the habit of management. Moreover, he was not restricted to aicd, the royal shipyards. When a new [page 115:] ship was to an essay on man by alexander pope 2, be built it was common practice for aicd assignment the master shipwrights to go into the woods and mark the trees whose shapes and sizes were most appropriate for the projected vessel.9 Nor was Baker exclusively concerned with the essay on education building and maintenance of assignment naval ships and dockyard structures. Beyond his official navy duties he also built for essay 2012 pakistan private customers ( Fragments , p. 22 refers to the Edward of a ‘Mr Willames’). Baker’s entrepreneurial activity extended in other directions too. In 1578 he was paid for assignment supplying materials to the navy and boy sonya he also provided victuals and lodgings for shipwrights prested into royal service at both Woolwich and Deptford. From this schematic and extremely compressed review of his responsibilities, Baker’s relatively high status is clear. Although the division of labour among the few permanent and many temporary naval workers was strongly developed, the masters had to display competence in diverse fields, and they were rewarded with position and aicd assignment pay at the top of the cover letter for nursing dockyard hierarchy.

They cannot be thought of aicd assignment as ‘rude mechanicals’, humble artisans in a severely circumscribed sphere of activity.10 Rather, they were versatile figures who, with increasing seniority, were expected to manage resources and workers as well as direct the definition essay on education construction and repair of ships. Though of assignment a lower social status than an esquire such as Thomas Digges, Mathew Baker was thus of some standing. Master by name and rank, he was marked out from junior colleagues and occupied a level comparable with (if not identical to) [page 116:] that of a gentleman. Baker confounds the traditional category of the craftsman or artisan: he was working as a manager and essay 2012 pakistan technical leader, exercising responsibility in a strategic industry. Nor was shipping a static technology. All aspects of the aicd industry were undergoing rapid development throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Of A Boy Sonya. Commercially, there were the early voyages of discovery and the subsequent development of long-distance trade. Organisationally, there was the establishment of the first permanent, ocean-going navies.

Technically, there were challenges such as the adoption of Mediterranean carvel construction techniques in Northern Europe and the development of 3- and aicd assignment 4-masted full-rigged ships. And militarily, there was the introduction of heavy artillery firing from lower decks. Essay. The elevated role of the master shipwright needs to be understood in terms of these economic, administrative, technological and assignment military changes.11. With its division of labour and hartnett stratification of management and aicd control, the naval dockyard was already on its way to becoming a - if not the of a boy sonya - major industrial site of the early modern world. Baker was at assignment the heart of this capital-intensive industry.

Moreover, his expertise was sufficient to give him wider credibility beyond the realm of the shipyard: Baker’s service at Dover in moth annie essay, the 1570s and ’80s precisely confirms his perceived position as a trusted agent for a range of complex tasks. Baker thus has an exemplary significance not just for aicd assignment shipbuilding and ship design but for larger questions in the history of technology and design. Traditionally, the study of technological design in the Renaissance has been devoted to annie, civil and assignment military architecture and the design of machines, with shipbuilding kept separate in the [page 117:] distinct domain of maritime history.12 Yet, in many respects, the rapid development of ships and maritime institutions posed larger design challenges than in those other mechanical and architectural technologies. Cover For Nursing Position. The Venetian Vettor Fausto commented in aicd, 1530 that. if knowledge of the architecture of buildings on land is so thoroughly difficult, what should I say about that of the sea, where everything is drawn out not by straight lines (which is an almost easy method) but by curves and variations repeatedly made to global warming, them?13. Baker’s Fragments provide some of the most valuable archival evidence for these complex procedures of aicd ship design. Essay. Moreover, they not only signal the extension of design into paper practice, but witness the new identity of the aicd elite mechanician as mathematical practitioner. Mathew Baker’s manuscript was christened Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry when it was acquired and preserved by Samuel Pepys. Pepys’s choice of satire essays global warming title was deliberate and appropriate.

Fragments is not a coherent volume; its pages display an enormous variety of format and style. Some parts are finely executed, perhaps for a planned presentation volume, while other sections are no more than notebook pages. There are coloured draughts of ships with their full decoration; [page 118:] historical and mythological sketches; a map; plans, elevations and sections of aicd ships; and practical mathematical devices for scaling and generating proportions. Interspersed amongst this profusion of different representations are various jottings, calculations and explanations - even a poem. The diversity of material in Fragments complicates the question of its dating. Though the volume illustrates and records details of ships built by Baker between the early 1570s and the mid-1580s, it is possible that the essay surviving text and images were drawn up in aicd, later years. Nor is there any guarantee that all the material was created at the same time. There is thus no secure way of linking Fragments to of a moth annie, a particular stage of Baker’s long career.

Unfortunately, aside from administrative records, which do not speak with Baker’s own voice, there are no other substantial sources for aicd assignment his design practice. Thus, in contrast to the case of Thomas Digges, it is not possible to reconstruct the development of satire essays Baker’s career and to assignment, investigate changes in his commitments, values and self-presentation. Essay. The technical and social innovations implicit in Fragments therefore need to be teased out through comparison with sources from elsewhere. Though Fragments is one of the aicd first and most important texts on shipbuilding, it is of a hartnett essay not the earliest to survive. From in and around the Venetian Arsenal, there exists a series of manuscripts which reach back as far as the early 15th century. These texts are cryptic in aicd, the extreme, using obscure local terminology to record the proportions of dillard essay vessels, and accompanying their recipe-style instructions with rough sketches.14 Contemporary with Baker are the first surviving texts from assignment [page 119:] the Iberian tradition (itself closely related to Italian practices). The most important texts were compiled by observers of shipbuilding rather than shipwrights and contrast markedly with the definition on education earlier Venetian documents. As educated outsiders, these Spanish and Portuguese authors brought the resources of literate culture to bear on their new subject. Drawing on classical precedents and literary forms, they produced discursive and systematic treatments of assignment shipbuilding accessible to an audience unfamiliar with dockyard culture.15. Baker’s Fragments is distinct from both the Venetian and Iberian documents: his volume is not only the work of a practising shipwright but it incorporates innovative uses of paper such as his production of detailed and finely finished scale drawings. Indeed, the other European sources are, paradoxically, often more indicative of the design practice that preceded paper techniques.

So how were ships designed without paper? By the 16th century an apparatus of simple though powerful rules and techniques had been developed for large vessels. Ship design was memorised in proportional rules, and its complex [page 120:] curves generated and recorded by full-size wooden moulds or templates. Technically advanced shipwrights employed a sophisticated constructive geometry which used wood rather than paper and took place not in a design office but out in the shipyard itself.16. In the later 16th century, English naval vessels, like earlier Mediterranean and essays Iberian ships, were carvel or skeleton-built; that is, the aicd keel was laid down, the stem and sternposts erected, and moth annie then the assignment frames or ribs set up along the length of the keel, before the letter faculty position planking was applied.

The shape of skeleton-built frames thus determined the form of the hull.17. However, carvel was (and is) a broad category, encompassing numerous solutions to the problem of moulding the timbers.18 In the simplest form, one or two identical master frames were placed midships and flexible battens or ribbands run [page 121:] round them from stem to sternpost. The shapes of all the other frames were then taken from the assignment ribbands. The only frame actually to be specified in advance was the faculty position master frame, for the ribbands were adjusted during framing to give a fair form. More advanced techniques for large vessels reduced the reliance on ribbands, by pre-specifying the frames in the central section of the hull and reserving the use of aicd ribbands to the ends of the ship, where the curves become sharper.

The sophisticated techniques for deriving these pre-determined frames show the Renaissance shipwrights’ constructive geometry at work. The shipwrights’ first step was to determine the form of the midship frame, since it was from satire essays global warming this frame that the aicd others in the central section of a ship were shaped. Proportional rules of thumb defined its dimensions and arcs, and its shape was recorded in the form of full-size templates (or moulds). Several templates were needed because the large frames were assembled from several pieces of timber, each of which was cut out and of a hartnett essay shaped by aicd following the appropriate template pattern. The shipwrights used the same templates for all the other pre-determined central frames.

To generate the smoothly varying shape of the hull, the trick was to manipulate and reconfigure the relative orientations of these templates. Starting from the on man by alexander pope epistle form of the midship frame, the templates were slightly adjusted for each of the other frames in the central section of the hull, in order to create the rising and narrowing of the ship’s lines towards bow and stern. These slight changes were controlled not by paper drawings or calculations but by aicd full-scale graduations marked directly on the templates themselves, or on boards. The case of narrowing provides a convenient example of this full-scale [page 122:] constructive geometry. Though mentioned in Venetian sources, the extended on education narrowing procedure was most clearly spelled out in the 16th century by one of the educated observers of the shipwright’s art, the Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.19. The shipwright used a proportional rule of thumb to calculate by how much the ship’s side should narrow between the midship frame and the tail-frame, the last frame fore or aft in the hull’s central section. The question of narrowing then resolved into the problem of subdividing this dimension so as to smoothly pull in the frames between midship and tail-frame. Assignment. The narrowing dimension was first taken as a radius and used to produce a semicircle. On each quadrant the shipwright stepped out with dividers the same number of equal arcs as there were narrowing frames. Joining up the matching points gave a series of chords (Figure 3.3). The intersections of chord and radius produced a graduated scale that would then be used to definition essay, smoothly narrow the hull (Figure 3.4).

Each mark on the scale indicated the incremental amount by which successive frames were to be pulled in to narrow the hull: initially a small amount, but gradually more and more (Figure 3.5). Oliveira’s account shows how the shipwright solved the problem of narrowing given only the overall narrowing dimension and the number of frames. Assignment. However, while he usefully indicates the steps in the procedure, it needs to be emphasised that Oliveira’s text and drawings are in one sense fundamentally misleading. Their appearance in manuscript form intrudes paper into a procedure depending on wood. In practice, the narrowing was worked out full-scale with string [page 123: Figure 3.3] [page 124: Figure 3.4] [page 125: Figure 3.5] [page 126:] and board rather than as a miniaturised representation on paper.20. In the essays global warming pre-paper world of the assignment shipyard, design was thus not the essay writing competition 2012 pakistan same as construction, for assignment frames were specified in of a moth annie, advance by constructive geometry. But design and construction were not, and could not be, sharply distinguished. Aicd. With its full-scale wooden templates and writing tools, design shared the assignment same material medium as construction.

It also shared the same workplace, since both were performed out in the shipyard. Moreover, all the an essay by alexander pope epistle evidence suggests that apprentices learnt the craft by observing and aicd assignment copying these operations in the workplace. Instruction was delivered informally, as directions and advice to be followed on the job.21 Oral and material culture were seamlessly joined. From the moth dillard wooden world of the shipyard, we can now return to Mathew Baker’s image of shipwrights in a drawing office (Figure 3.1; above, p. 109). Aicd. I began by displaying some of the elements from which the image was artfully assembled. But now the wooden work of the essay shipyards demonstrates the extent to which the very practice of design on paper itself had to be constructed. Aicd Assignment. Far from being a natural or inevitable activity, the radical character of paper work should now be evident. Not only global does it not represent the aicd assignment only way to on man by alexander epistle, design a ship, but it contrasts markedly with the templates and graduated boards of pre-plan practice. With Baker, we are now [page 127:] removed from the busy world of the wooden shipyard: design is aicd assignment portrayed as inhabiting a space quite different from the work of actual construction. Moreover, not just the satire global location, but the very medium of design has been transformed.

The master works with dividers on the plan and section of aicd a ship, translating the complex geometry of narrowing into miniaturised form through the technique of scaled drawing. Baker’s image shows us design inhabiting a distinctive new space, with new materials and implements, and the suggestion of new social relationships. If it is clear that ships could be built without plans and drawings, how did ‘plats’ become successful?22 Baker’s Fragments provide unrivalled access to this crucial question. Paper became a key feature of Baker’s practice because he made it serve a whole series of extended essay on education related functions. Baker’s manuscript pages became a site on which technique, control, teaching, administration and the navy could be juxtaposed and combined. Fragments shows how Baker not only served his own interests through the use of aicd assignment graphic design and paper work, but enrolled the interests of others. By examining the didactic possibilities of Fragments and the integration of paper practice into the hierarchy of navy administration, I will indicate how ‘plats’ could help to redefine relationships and of a boy sonya hartnett essay recruit allies.

But first I investigate the aicd assignment more personal and private benefits which Baker derived from design on paper. Paper could provide a medium of record and reference. Baker vigorously exploited this capacity. On his pages are juxtaposed geographically and temporally diverse creations, from Noah’s ark and the first fleets of the ancient world (pp. 1-3), [page 128:] to contemporary ships whose details he knew at first hand. Close to home, Baker included evidence of of a moth essay his own father’s ships.23 But he also ranged much more widely.

Amongst the contemporary materials, Baker drew the midship mould of a Greek merchant ship (p. 12); his knowledge of its form probably dates back to a Mediterranean voyage of 1551.24. Baker also documented Venetian midship mould procedures, providing unique evidence of historical changes in their techniques (p. 11). The likely source for Baker’s awareness of assignment Venetian practice is extended definition essay on education pointedly suggested by the navy quarterly accounts, where Baker’s name appears directly above that of a certain Augustino Levello.25 Levello was a Venetian shipwright who had originally been brought over to build galleys for Henry VIII but who then remained in English service for over 40 years.26 Baker learnt and adapted not just Venetian graphic techniques, but even adopted their terminology.27 In Fragments , Baker was able to compare diverse designs and techniques which would never previously have been juxtaposed. Paper also provided a medium in which experimentation was relatively [page 129:] cheap. As well as recording the midship moulds of others’ ships, Fragments also shows Baker at aicd assignment work on new possibilities of letter for nursing faculty his own. The rationale for his focus on these midship main frames is very explicit: ‘forasmuch as the goodness of every ship doth consist in the perfectness of the midship mould it is assignment requisite [that] the same be perfectly made’ (p. 34). Typically, Baker’s midship moulds were drawn over proportional grids and made up of essay touching arcs of circles. Aicd Assignment. But they did not conform to only one pattern: the grid was changed, as were the number of centres and the way in which they were found.

Baker used the pages of Fragments as a medium in which to test new measures and ratios, varying parameters in order to assess their influence on the form of the hull. His most systematic exploitation of the extended essay possibilities opened up by design on paper appears in aicd assignment, two numbered sequences of midship moulds. On Man Epistle 2. With no text explaining the variations, he drew a total of 16 moulds, each differing a little from the others (pp. 36-9, 42-3, 46-7). Even when he came closest to prescribing a canonical form for aicd midship moulds his trials did not stop; despite giving explicit and seemingly definitive instructions for the draught of a midship mould on of a dillard essay, one page, the accompanying drawing actually departed slightly from aicd assignment them. When drawing the upper futtock (topmost section of the mould) he carefully scribed the lines laid down in 2, his text, but he did not ink them in. Instead, he scribed an alternative orientation and then finally settled for aicd assignment a third choice (pp.

34-5; see Figure 3.6). Baker was seeking to achieve a new level of control over more than just the extended definition essay form of the midship mould. Aicd. Whereas the most sophisticated template techniques worked with only the essay central section of the hull, Baker aspired to more: his rising and narrowing lines cover the whole length of the ship (p. 21, see Figure 3.7). Aicd Assignment. Baker was [page 130: Figure 3.6] [page 131: Figure 3.7] [page 132:] attempting the complete specification of the form of the hull on paper. But Fragments did not have an audience of only one.

It was not a purely personal document. Moth Dillard. Despite the assignment master shipwrights’ reputation for guarding the secrets of their craft, there are indications that Fragments was written for others too, and that the design practices that it reveals were embedded in wider relationships.28. One segment of the additional audience for Baker’s texts and extended definition on education draughts was the group of his pupils and apprentices. Fragments represents a new departure in the teaching considered appropriate to a shipwright. Aicd. The didactic dimension of definition Fragments is suggested by Baker’s language: ‘in this division observe all the rules before taught’ (p.

40); ‘Now that I have showed how to aicd, know the tonnage of a ship . Of A Boy Sonya. ’ (p. 154). Moreover, we know that he had apprentices. Even in aicd, his eighties, when he prepared his will, Baker still had two ‘servants’ to essay, whom he bequeathed various ‘books and instruments of the art of shipping and moulds belonging to the same.’29 In 1626, Phineas Pett certified that one John May had been ‘bred as an apprentice and servant’ to Baker.30. The same Phineas Pett, himself a master shipwright to James I and Charles I, provides vital evidence of the character of Baker’s teaching. Despite much enmity between the two men in subsequent years, Pett was to recall in his autobiography that in the winter of 1595/6, in the evenings, commonly I spent my time to good purposes, as [page 133:] in cyphering, drawing and practising to assignment, attain the knowledge of my profession, and I then found Mr Baker sometime forward to give me instructions, from whose help I must acknowledge I received my greatest lights.31. Pett’s testimony is of exceptional interest.

Firstly, it specifies the area in which he supposed knowledge of his profession to lie: ‘cyphering, drawing and 2012 pakistan practising’. Cyphering - calculation using Arabic numerals - and drawing are central features of Fragments : Pett’s perception of the shipwright’s art mirrors the character of Baker’s paper work. In addition, primary responsibility for fostering this perception is ascribed to Baker, who was evidently encouraging and open with his knowledge, even though Pett was never his apprentice; in an (admittedly flattering) letter to Baker of 1603, Pett remarked that ‘although I served no years in aicd assignment, your service, yet I must ever acknowledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it came only from you’.32. Pett’s casual comment that Baker’s instruction was given in the evenings also suggests a deeper point. Shipwrights traditionally learnt their trade by the observation and imitation of a master out in the shipyard. The art was passed on during the hours of the satire warming working day and the process did not demand literacy or formal numeracy. But Baker was sponsoring an alternative approach to teaching, carried out aicd, when work was over.

Facility in calculation and draughting techniques was developed and literacy probably assumed. Baker was promoting a form of essays warming training separate from the assignment exercise of the craft at the workplace. So not only design, but craft teaching too, was removed from the wooden world of the shipyard and transferred to a new space like that of [page 134:] Baker’s drawing office (Figure 3.1).33. The implications of this shift in the place of design and teaching are best exemplified not by the evidence of satire essays global warming a shipwright but by Sir Robert Dudley (1574-1649), the illegitimate son of the Earl of Leicester. Dudley spent much of his life in Italy, where he published his lavish magnum opus Dell’Arcano del Mare (1646-7), a multi-volume work which expounds and illustrates shipbuilding amongst many other nautical and navigational subjects. But Dudley’s shipbuilding interests originated before he fled England in 1605, for he was referred to in 1607 as Baker’s pupil (‘scolare’).34 That Dudley should have had a shipwright as a ‘master’ is aicd remarkable for, though illegitimate, he had been brought up in the ranks of the nobility. The relationship between master and pupil was surely only definition on education conceivable because Baker had rendered both teaching and aicd design as paper practices, separated from the shipyard where common workmen exercised their trade. Robert Dudley was not the only shipyard outsider to benefit from the work embodied in Fragments . In addition to its didactic context, Baker’s work also had an administrative significance, for design on paper was integrated into the navy’s decision-making process. Global. An important audience for finely finished draughts such as [page 135:] those in Fragments was the Navy Board and, beyond it, the Privy Council. Indeed, shipwrights’ plats on occasion went to the highest authority in the land. In a letter of 1588, addressed to the three royal masters (Peter Pett, Richard Chapman and Baker), the principal officers of the navy requested that.

the Plats of the Ships, Galleasses and Crompsters that were lately determined to be built should be set out fair in aicd, Plats and brought to definition essay on education, my Lord Admiral that her Majesty may see them.35. Navy expenditure was a major drain on assignment, the national coffers. Essays Global. Yet those ultimately responsible for the military security and solvency of the realm were unlikely to have either experience or understanding of the dockyards and assignment their products. Baker later recalled how Lord Treasurer Burghley had opened his house to the meetings of faculty master shipwrights and Lords of the assignment Council at which plats were displayed and resolved upon.36 By bringing proposed ships into the administrative chambers of satire global state, plats made complex issues of performance and aicd assignment price directly visible to the Lords of the Council as well as the Navy Officers. As a tangible focus for the hard bargaining and negotiation which preceded the approval of new naval construction, the miniature representations of scaled drawings extended the financial and definition technical control available to both the naval and civil authorities.

At the aicd same time as he used plans to serve the interests of essays global his superiors, Baker was also promoting his own interests as an indispensable servant of the crown. Nor was this a game of merely nominal status; the stakes were high. Aicd. Especially during the 1570s and 1580s there was almost continuous administrative upheaval and in-fighting, with a corresponding uncertainty over of a moth annie dillard essay, the exact distribution of naval [page 136:] responsibility and power. There were serious disputes and constantly shifting alliances between the aicd assignment different players. Insecurity and distrust were rife: ‘before, the essay competition master shipwrights did direct, but now they are to be directed; and being but hirelings were glad to please their master’.37 Paper design helped to aicd, bolster the extended essay on education role of the master shipwrights in this unstable environment, and to fend off threats to their position and aicd assignment prestige. Yet as Baker and his senior colleagues became accustomed to conference with the Privy Council, they became correspondingly detached from the temporary workforce of ordinary shipwrights. There were probably therefore losers as well as winners in global warming, the shift towards paper practice. Large dockyards such as the aicd assignment Venetian Arsenal already possessed a hierarchy of expertise and authority, but Baker’s new skills consolidated the on man by alexander pope epistle existing division of labour and aicd assignment elevated the master further above the ranks of his humbler colleagues.38 The master was now a more remote figure who could direct work from a distance; Baker is, for example, reported to have ‘moulded’ a ship, which was then framed by of a a close colleague.39 [page 137:] Baker inserted his paper design work within the vertical hierarchy of aicd assignment apprentices, masters and governing authorities who practised and regulated naval shipbuilding. In doing so he was shaping a new place for design: a new physical location, a new position within the technical practices of the craft, a new set of materials, and a new social and 2012 administrative setting.

But paper practice also created novel links outside the aicd assignment naval establishment. In Fragments , Baker’s most important new investment was in the contemporary world of practical mathematics. By Alexander Pope 2. I therefore now turn to his horizontal integration of ship design with the aicd mathematical arts. We have seen that Mathew Baker’s Fragments was a multi-purpose document. It was used as a repository for constructed ships, experimental designs and international comparisons; it consolidated technical control in the hands of the master shipwright; it embodied new materials for the teaching of the craft; and it included finely finished draughts suitable both for presentation and as a formal record of contractual accountability. However, Fragments also had another use, as a site for calculation. Many pages record the arithmetical determination of such quantities as tonnages and the areas of specific midship moulds. But Baker’s most characteristic mathematics was graphical rather than arithmetical. There is a 20 page section of the manuscript which is especially striking, for it uses thick pasteboard rather than ordinary paper as a medium for proportional scales and graphical devices (p.

57ff.). Among these various ‘paper instruments’ were scales based on graduated series of concentric semicircles [page 138:] (Figure 3.8), as well as others depending on the principle of similar triangles (Figure 3.9). Of A Boy Sonya Hartnett Essay. Both types embodied rules of proportions for dimensions such as moulded breadths or the lengths of masts and yards; a number still have index threads attached, while some show signs of extensive usage. Amongst its other benefits for assignment Baker, Fragments was thus also intended as a mathematical compendium. But Baker’s paper scales and essays warming instruments were more than just working tools. These devices were vital to his self-conception: mathematics was a primary resource in Baker’s reconstruction of his identity as a master shipwright. Aicd. For, rather than the skill of manual craftsmanship with wood, Baker adopted a rhetoric of arithmetic and geometry. He rejected the work of moth annie older masters and aicd assignment charged that they had proceeded by mere rule of thumb.

Lacking mathematical knowledge, they had been unable to provide a rationale for their technical decisions. Before plots and demonstration were used the master workmen in those days had certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art, for that they wanted the use of Arithmetic and Geometry for the searching out of those things that otherwise is boy sonya hartnett impossible to be found (p. 28). Even contemporaries who did use plans were open to criticism. Although at this day there be many that use plots yet the best understandeth not the true making thereof, neither the truth of any circular line therein contained (p. 16).

For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were the ‘two supporting sciences’ (p. 33). Mathematics acted as the primary point of reference in bolstering his self-conscious disdain for traditional methods. However, Baker construed arithmetic and geometry in highly specific ways. They were not the aicd assignment sciences of abstract number and magnitude; rather, they were characterised in concrete, even manual, terms. [page 139: Figure 3.8] [page 140: Figure 3.9] [page 141:] Arithmetic and its calculations were pre-eminently to be done ‘with the cover letter for nursing position pen’.

Baker’s pen-reckoning implicitly rejected the arithmetic of aicd many contemporaries. Calculating ‘with the pen’ (or cyphering) meant using Arabic numerals. The alternative practice was to work ‘with the counters’, requiring a counting board and casting counters, and normally recording the sums in Roman numerals.40 Baker’s preference for cyphering over casting did not stem from unfamiliarity with the latter method. The shipyard clerks with whom he was in regular contact evidently reckoned with board and counters: the Navy accounts use Roman numerals to detail many payments to hartnett essay, stationers for ‘casting compters’.41 But Baker learnt his arithmetic from assignment books rather than the administrative practices of the shipyard. When he extracted roots and worked with the symbols of algebra he was drawing on texts such as Robert Recorde’s Whetstone of Witte (1557), which went well beyond the elementary calculations required for accounting.42. If the essay writing competition 2012 pakistan arithmetic of Fragments was done ‘with the pen’, the archetypical operation of geometry was the use of dividers and assignment straight edge to cover for nursing faculty, produce midship moulds, plans and elevations. For Baker, each of these drawings was a ‘geometrical demonstration’ (pp. 34, 73).

However, such ‘demonstrations’ were a ‘showing forth’; the term carried no connotation of aicd proof. Baker’s conception of demonstration as graphic display rather than rigorous proof contrasts with more learned treatments of [page 142:] geometry.43 Yet his drawings were not casual sketches. Definition On Education. Part of the apparatus of the ‘geometrical demonstration’ was the linear scale, which related the aicd assignment miniature ship on paper to an essay by alexander pope epistle, the intended full size in wood. Working by the scale rendered Baker’s plats as exact depictions.44. Despite his graphical emphasis, Baker was not unaware of the Euclidean tradition. Indeed he twice makes explicit reference to Euclid’s Elements , both times to aicd, the Pythagorean theorem (I, 47). Extended Definition Essay On Education. He first uses ‘the 47 proposition’ to find the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle in the grid of assignment a midship mould (p. 34).

On the second occasion he cites not the theorem itself but a corollary added by death moth annie dillard essay the French mathematician and poet Jacques Peletier: ‘the first 47 proposition added by pelitarus’.45 Yet, characteristically, this latter invocation of Euclidean authority sanctioned a purely graphical procedure using dividers and measured magnitudes. Assignment. Moreover, as well as adapting Euclidean material, Baker also translated several standard problems of practical geometry into the form of paper instruments. Extended Essay. Textbook chestnuts such as the relations between squares and circles or cubes and aicd assignment spheres were converted into graphical format (pp. 66-7), while Baker also discussed the volumes of death of a moth annie dillard cylinders and prisms (p. 32). For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were characterised by aicd assignment the operations of pen, dividers, scale and extended definition on education straight edge. Arithmetic and geometry complemented each [page 143:] other but were independent; together they served as the aicd ‘two supporting pillars of every art’ (p. 34). Extended Essay. Hence, in resolving a question one could work with or without number (p.

40). The geometrical answer to a problem could be checked against the arithmetical: after answering by the scale Baker would try by the pen, reaching a figure ‘agreeing with the geometrical demonstration’ (p. 73). The pen and the demonstration had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Proportional scales embodying the principle of similar triangles (such as that in aicd, Figure 3.9) could be used with only a few proportions whereas arithmetic met the same problem with a ‘rule [which] is both certain and general’ (p. 65). There were thus restrictions on satire essays, proportional scales and their range of application.

But they were often more appropriate to Baker’s design practice than the pen: although this scale doth not give so precise the fraction as the pen doth, yet it doth give the true proportion of the lines which in the drawing of plats is aicd better than to have it given in number (p. 68). Moreover, the achievement of precision in cyphering could require calculations which Baker was happy to avoid. The rules he devised for essay writing tonnage frequently called for the extraction of cube roots. Rather than carry out the complete calculation, Baker preferred to indicate that it was indeed possible, but that an easier approximation was permissible.

At the aicd end of a series of calculations peppered with arithmetical errors, he remarked that. although these [roots] are not extracted so near as they might be yet is it within one tenth. Definition Essay. My desire is rather to show the rule reason to do the same than the preciseness thereof . To those that hath been brought up in assignment, the trade of a Carpenter that hath the knowledge of extracting of roots this may suffice (p. 153). There cannot have been many shipwrights ‘brought up in the trade of a carpenter’ who were able to extract square and cubic roots. Through the rhetoric of arithmetic and [page 144:] geometry as well as the adoption of specific mathematical techniques, Baker was prescribing a new identity for the shipwright. Combining experience of the extended craft with imported mathematical knowledge and values, the shipwright was now to aicd assignment, be identified as a mathematical mechanician.

Baker’s own route to this new identity came not only via familiarity with mathematical texts but through personal contacts. The material in Fragments suggests successful collaboration within the naval and extended definition on education mathematical community, as well as at least one instance of creative discord. Examining these instances highlights Baker’s personal as well as intellectual integration with the small group of contemporary mathematical practitioners. Baker’s measuring scales provide a first, indirect, hint of his affiliations. Linear scales are a repeated feature of Fragments , but Baker occasionally used a transversal scale for greater accuracy. These square scales, with diagonal lines running across horizontals, were graduated into divisions corresponding to one inch (Figure 3.10). Just as ordinary linear scales had been only recently introduced into English map and chart making, so transversals were considered a novelty in aicd assignment, astronomical instrumentation.

Thomas Digges recommended their use in 1573 for his astronomical cross staff, attributing this improved method of graduation to the navigator and instrument maker Richard Chancellor (d. 1556), ‘peritissimus ingeniosissimus Artifex Mathematicus’.46 It therefore seems scarcely coincidental that when Baker voyaged to the Mediterranean in an essay by alexander pope, 1551, Richard Chancellor was also [page 145: Figure 3.10] [page 146:] among the crew.47. On the same page as one of Baker’s diagonal scales is a condensed ship draught which gives further clues to his mathematical associates. This abbreviated plat shows the aicd stem, stern and midship mould of a small ship labelled the ‘Judeth - Borowgh’ (p. 6, see Figure 3.10). In 1573, the navigators Stephen and satire essays William Borough received a government bounty for the building of the Judith ; evidently it was commissioned from assignment Baker.48 William Borough later became a permanent officer of the navy and was an ally of Baker both in the internal politics of extended navy administration as well as during other projects such as Dover harbour.49 The evidence of the Judith indicates that, prior to their navy collaboration in the 1580s, William Borough was already an admirer of Baker’s skill. One small remnant of aicd contact between Borough and Baker is hartnett essay their use of the same form of aicd decorated linear scale, by Baker in his ship draughts, by Borough in his sea charts.50 But they shared more substantial interests. Aside from his concerns with mathematical navigation and global magnetism, Borough also dealt with questions of shipbuilding. In particular, he compiled a memorandum which not only laid down proportions for various types of merchant and naval ship but also offered a method for [page 147:] tackling the thorny question of tonnage determination.51 Less surprisingly, Baker also treated the qualities required in different classes of ship (eg p. Aicd. 40). Moreover, Fragments records his efforts to grapple with tonnage in a way which matches the death of a moth essay arithmetical techniques propounded by Borough (pp.

65, 153-4). Beyond these overlapping professional interests, Baker and Borough espoused the same mathematical agenda. Baker’s emphasis on the primary role of arithmetic and assignment geometry is also found in Borough’s Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (1581). In the preface to that text Borough portrayed arithmetic and geometry as ‘the grounds of all Science and certain arts’, and he paused to commend those mechanical practitioners who. by the studious practice and exercise in these arts have attained to rare and singular knowledge: In Architecture, Vitruvius the Roman: In painting that famous German Albertus Durerus: And in definition essay on education, building of Ships, Mathew Baker our countryman.52. To be bracketed in such elevated company was high praise indeed. Aicd. The clear implication is that Baker and Borough worked closely together, exchanging ideas and sharing techniques. Baker was in contact with Chancellor (d. Satire Essays Global. 1556) during his early career.

Borough (d. Aicd. 1598) was a principal ally of Baker’s maturity. But even Baker’s latter years witnessed fruitful contact with a new generation of mathematicians. Extended Definition On Education. Most remarkable is the evidence of assignment his connection with Thomas Harriot, probably the most expert English practitioner of the mathematical sciences in the early 17th century. [page 148:] Amongst Harriot’s copious manuscript remains there is a short but significant series of papers on the design of ships.53 His contributions relied on mastery of relatively advanced mathematics.

He raided the essay writing pakistan repertoire of conic sections for aicd assignment ellipses to represent the arcs of frames and boy sonya employed cubic and quartic curves to aicd, capture the subtle risings and narrowings of of a boy sonya hartnett a ship’s lines. In mustering such mathematical resources, Harriot was working at the limits of late 16th and early 17th century English mathematics. Yet he was not working in isolation. Alongside his exposition of assignment a new hyperbolic technique to letter for nursing, generate mast dimensions for ships built in proportion, Harriot jotted down a note for his own reference: ‘Invented this February 28 1608 and gave it to E Marlow for Mr Baker the assignment shipwright’. While providing Baker with new material, the transfer of results was not in one direction only. In return, Harriot learnt of the master shipwright’s rules for tonnage and narrowing. The prerequisite for this cooperation between mathematician and shipwright was the creation of design as a paper activity. Only after ships were available for study as miniaturised portable representations could the armoury of advanced mathematics be brought to of a boy sonya essay, bear on the work of the shipwright. Harriot’s 1608 memorandum nicely suggests the role of paper in his exchanges with Baker.

While Harriot and Baker had presumably met, personal contact was not essential to their continued relationship: communication was possible at a distance and it was expected that new results could successfully be sent on through an assignment, intermediary. But Baker’s alignment with figures such as Chancellor, Borough and Harriot [page 149:] did not put him in accord with all such contemporaries. Fragments records Baker’s vocal disagreement with at least one English mathematical practitioner. The arguments and criticisms are as richly suggestive of Baker’s mathematical values as his more positive collaborations. On the on man epistle 2 first of his pasteboard pages of proportional scales, Baker composed a poem of doggerel verse (p. 57). Aicd Assignment. The final lines targeted a certain ‘patching bourne’, who ‘hath patched together the works of other men, and now to essay, sale he paints it out with his unlearned pen’. The ‘bourne’ in question was the aicd author William Bourne (c.1535-1582) who, among his various mathematical and practical texts of the 1570s and 80s, had published some material on shipbuilding in his Treasure for Travellers (1578).54.

Baker’s implied accusation of by alexander epistle 2 plagiarism may have been aggravated by personal friction. There was certainly ample opportunity for contact: in 1574 Bourne appeared on the navy payroll when he was installed as master gunner at Upnor, a castle built to protect the aicd fleet at anchor in Gillingham Water.55 Whatever the now unrecoverable details of their day-to-day interaction, Baker’s distrust extended beyond personal animosity. He rejected the mathematical procedures that Bourne offered the shipwright and took issue with the very image of the art that Bourne’s writings seemed to imply. In the global warming Treasure for Travellers , Bourne sought to show how ships could be [page 150:] built in aicd, proportion.56 The aim of this process, which was rapidly becoming a standard contemporary topic, was to replicate the satire global qualities of assignment a successful ship.57 Given one ship of burthen b1, the task was to build another of burthen b2 = kb1. In summary form, Bourne’s rule for each dimension d2 of the second ship was.

where d2 corresponds to dimension d1 of the first ship. Hence, if a ship of 100 tons has a breadth of 20ft, a ship of 125 tons built in proportion should have a breadth of. But Bourne knew that ‘the most part of men cannot extract the death moth essay cubic root, for that kind of Arithmetic is very hard, and not easy to be learned’.58 So he gave a series of assignment approximations for standard proportions. Letter Faculty. For example, in building a second ship one quarter larger than a first, every relevant dimension of the first should be measured, divided into aicd assignment 4 equal parts and the corresponding dimension of the second ship found as 4? parts. Amounting to the same process was Bourne’s alternative recommendation that, for every 12 inches of the first ship, the second ship’s corresponding dimension should be 13 inches. Similar, ‘reasonable exact enough’ [page 151:] approximations were given for extended definition on education ships up to 8 times larger than a given ship.59. Baker offered a graphical counterblast to Bourne’s arithmetical working with the pen.

Like Bourne, Baker provided approximations for building ships in proportion. But he did so through the aicd medium of proportional scales. On one of his pasteboard pages, Baker drew up a scale to ‘show the an essay by alexander pope epistle proportion that one ship doth bear to another’ (p. 65; see Figure 3.11). This used an index to read off dimensions from 5 vertical columns spaced in accordance with the cube root of common proportional factors. Assignment. In this scale, Baker’s range of proportions was more modest than Bourne’s; it was equipped to deliver corresponding dimensions for ships up to twice the burthen of a given ship.

However, Baker did not eschew scales which operated over a broader range. On another pasteboard page he drew a scale of the extended essay on education same type but which was intended to cover ships differing in proportion by a factor of 10: ‘These are cubic scales of proportions serving from 10 tons to a 100 from a 100 to a 1000.’ Baker’s enthusiasm is evident from a later note, added in a different ink: ‘marvellous is the use of this scale serving to great purpose. Infinite are the questions that may be answered by assignment this scale’ (p. 77). Similar advantages could be obtained from semicircular scales; commenting on letter faculty position, one intended for the proportions of ropes and squares, Baker noted that. this scale is aicd assignment not like the brabble that Bourne makes about in the proportion of ropes, the which is tedious and yet not general and serveth but to a few numbers by him limited (p. 76). As well as replacing Bourne’s arithmetical approximations by various proportional scales, Baker quite explicitly tackled Bourne’s more exact and general method of an essay pope epistle 2 finding dimensions in proportion. Bourne required that the shipwright raise every [page 152: Figure 3.11] [page 153:] relevant dimension to the third power, multiply each cube by the proportional factor and then extract the cube root of the product. Baker protested that to do so ‘would make me weary for I must make more than a thousand and a thousand multiplications as many extractions’ (p.

26). Such an amount of cyphering did not make an appealing prospect - especially when Baker’s ‘geometrical demonstrations’ offered an arithmetically more economical route. Baker’s scaled plats of ships in plan, section and elevation portrayed the assignment major elements of the hull. Of A Hartnett. Hence, to design a ship proportional to assignment, one already set down in death moth annie essay, plat, ‘it is aicd sufficient to alter the scale only and no more’ (p. 21). With a new scale marked on the plat the dimensions could be measured off without calculation. The rescaling itself involved only one multiplication and one extraction and so ‘to him that hath the extracting of roots the matter is very easy to moth, be done with the pen’ (p. 26). Yet even without the knowledge of cube roots the process could still be accomplished. For the benefit of the ‘mechanical workman’ lacking arithmetic, Baker applied ‘a certain rule that I found demonstrated in Albartus Dureri in his book of Geometry’ (p. 26).

Baker had made use of Dürer when constructing his image of shipwrights at work in aicd, a drawing office and he had been placed on an equal par with Dürer by William Borough. But here, Baker was going beyond the realm of visual and textual rhetoric to borrow in detail from Dürer’s geometric techniques. Baker’s source was Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), one of whose topics was the classical problem of how, given one cube, to construct another of twice the letter position volume. Aicd Assignment. Dürer presented a generalised solution to the problem of definition essay on education [page 154:] doubling the cube, providing a means of constructing cubes in any desired proportion. In other words, given the side of one cube, Dürer found the assignment side of on education another cube either twice as large or whose volume was in any other proportion. Although it cannot be carried out in proper Euclidean fashion, with straight edge and compasses alone, the construction is exact.60. Baker adapted Dürer’s method to his own end of rescaling the draught of a ship. Rather than using the sides of aicd cubes, he worked with ship dimensions. Starting with, for instance, a line representing the depth of an of a essay, already drawn ship, Baker arrived at a second line representing the depth of the corresponding proportional ship. The length of the second line gave the number of parts into which the first ship’s line was to be divided.

After redivision, the first line served as a scale from which any depicted dimension of the second ship could be read off (see Figure 3.12). For Baker, Dürer’s geometric technique provided a graphic resource with which to combat Bourne’s wearisome multiplications and extractions. But it also exposed the larger inadequacies of Bourne’s treatment of shipbuilding. Bourne was charged with setting forth his Treasure for Travellers. to the discredit of workmen how having a little understanding in the extracting of a root would make the world believe that all the knowledge of ship making did consist only in the same (p. 26). Baker was able to show that not only did the aicd art of the shipwright consist of more than [page 155: Figure 3.12] [page 156:] the arithmetical extraction of roots, but that it could be conducted without the need for that ability. Since he himself was able to work ‘with the pen’, Baker was not restricted to the graphic method adapted from Dürer.

His principal point in adducing Dürer was thus to circumvent and rebut the illegitimate claims he discerned in Bourne’s pronouncements. Yet the disagreement with Bourne serves to underline rather than undermine Baker’s engagement with contemporary mathematical practice, for both were tackling the cover letter faculty position same questions of building ships in aicd assignment, proportion. Disagreement sprang not from their command of arithmetic but from Baker’s conception of geometry as the an essay pope necessary complement of aicd assignment arithmetical work. 2012 Pakistan. Both arithmetic and geometry were essential as the aicd ‘two supporting sciences’ of Baker’s paper work of plats and scales. Mathematics was thus a crucial point of reference in Baker’s reconstruction of ship design and the role of the master shipwright. Extended Definition On Education. As a rhetorical resource, he used it to differentiate himself from earlier shipwrights; geometry was identified with the preparation of draughts, while arithmetic was used to calculate lengths, areas and capacities. Instruments, the emblem of the contemporary mathematical practitioner, appeared as all-pervasive paper devices embodying proportions certified by aicd both reason and experience. Moreover, in placing his design work under the banner of mathematics, Baker drew on the expertise of mathematical practitioners to gather persuasive power and practical assistance from beyond the traditional confines of the shipwright’s craft. A final illustration of the extent to which the hartnett essay culture of mathematics was crucial to Baker’s self-understanding is assignment provided by his only major foray into the [page 157:] traditional full-scale work of the shipwright.

Baker had developed a new way of prescribing and varying the curves of narrowing and rising, not on paper but out in the shipyard, by means of cover letter faculty ropes and boards. His technique was an alternative to the determination of radii by either arithmetical cyphering or the use of compasses on a plat. It was announced as. a mechanical demonstration devised or first invented by Mathew Baker for the carpenter unlearned in arithmetic geometry, by which is found all circular divisions needful to the making of ship, galleon, galley or whatsoever (p.33; see Figure 3.13). Baker’s flexible and aicd assignment general-purpose device was similar to death of a moth annie dillard essay, some of the mechanically generated and varied curves proposed by Dürer.61 The specific advantage of Baker’s technique was that it allowed the workman to determine dimensions ‘without the drawing of any plot or any calculation of arithmetic’. Baker cast himself here in the role of the mathematician ministering to the needs of the merely ‘mechanical workman’.

In shaping this mathematical role for himself, he drew on the tradition of classical geometry to elevate his own achievements. When recording the invention of his new ‘mechanical demonstration’, Baker quarried the anecdotal lore of the Euclidean corpus as a source of materials for his own self-interpretation: If Pythagoras did so much joy for the finding out of the doubling of a square by the line diagonal that he offered to his unknown gods an ox in aicd, sacrifice, I say I have good cause to give our living and known god thanks for on man by alexander epistle this invention so necessary for my unlearned countrymen in assignment, the two supporting sciences (p. 33). Baker could have found the familiar story of Pythagoras’ celebration not only in classical sources such as Vitruvius but as part of the editorial embroidering of recent [page 158: Figure 3.13] [page 159:] editions of essay Euclid.62 With Pythagoras as a role model, Baker was differentiating himself from assignment his ordinary colleagues. Mathematics was mobilised not just to redefine Baker’s design practice but his very identity as a master shipwright. 4. MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. Mathew Baker’s paper design was directed towards the advance specification of the ship’s hull and his mathematical reconstruction of shipbuilding embedded new priorities and values within the practice of the art. In this transformation, the geometrical determination of shapes and the arithmetical calculation of by alexander epistle 2 dimensions emerged as principal tasks of the master shipwright. Aicd Assignment. Yet, if we inspect a surviving ship of the period, such as the English Mary Rose or the extended definition essay Swedish Vasa , the frames of the vessel are almost invisible.63 From the assignment outside, we see the skin of external planking, while inside there is additional planking as well as the strengthening structures of death dillard essay keelson, riders, knee timbers and internal wales. Ships were much more than just carefully defined shapes; they had to be strong enough to serve as sailing platforms for aicd men, stores and increasingly heavy guns.

Fragments contains almost nothing on the ship as a structural and functional artefact. Only occasionally does Baker show the timbers and columns which ensured the integrity of a vessel (for example, p. 19). [page 160:] Fragments is letter for nursing position thus a partial document. It represents not a systematic presentation of the craft of shipbuilding in wood but an assignment, exploration of the possibilities opened up by definition essay on education mathematics and design on paper. Through geometry and aicd assignment arithmetic, questions of shapes and proportions were separated out from the rest of the art. Extended Essay. The very particular direction of development which Fragments embodies is strikingly evident by aicd assignment contrast with sources from other traditions. One of the most articulate contemporary presentations of shipbuilding was that offered by of a boy sonya hartnett essay the Portuguese author João Baptista Lavanha in his incomplete Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval .64 During a career spanning many disciplines, Lavanha taught cosmography, geography, topography and mathematics, and was an author of aicd assignment nautical treatises and chronicles. He also held important state offices; he was, for example, appointed Engineer to the King of essay writing Portugal in assignment, 1587. Contact with contemporary shipbuilding was thus just one aspect of a larger cycle of learned, didactic and technical activities.

Lavanha’s identification of essay 2012 pakistan shipbuilding as naval architecture provided a classically sanctioned model for the treatment of the aicd assignment craft. The opening chapters of his Livro Primeiro draw directly on book I of Vitruvius’s De Architectura for a definition of essay architecture and its six parts or principles. But though he quoted, paraphrased and aicd elaborated on Vitruvius, Lavanha was not a slavish imitator. His stress on essay writing competition 2012 pakistan, design and the mathematical arts in the formation of the (naval) architect, and on the importance of models as a check on aicd assignment, building proposals, is closer to the [page 161:] recommendations of Alberti than Vitruvius.65 Moreover, Lavanha’s elevation of shipbuilding to the status of architecture compromised Vitruvius’ division of public building into defensive, religious and utilitarian departments ( De Architectura , I, iii). Taking a different tripartite distinction, Lavanha reworked architecture into the classes of military, civil and naval.

But while there were authors both ancient and modern in the first two categories, Lavanha could find neither Greek, Latin nor vernacular sources to fill the third. Boy Sonya Hartnett Essay. He was simultaneously creating the space and the justification for aicd his own work.66. By integrating shipbuilding with architecture, Lavanha committed himself to following the well-established practices and precedents of the parent art. As with Vitruvius and Alberti on architecture, Lavanha devoted sustained attention to the materials of shipbuilding. He discussed the different varieties of timber and essay competition 2012 their respective qualities and uses; he considered the appropriate seasons for cutting and assignment preserving timber; he reviewed the other materials such as iron, linen, tar, pitch and lead; and he even offered a brief disquisition on the destructive effects of the notorious teredo ship-worm.67. In England, by contrast, connections between architecture and shipbuilding [page 162:] were noted in passing, but not intensively developed. Under the title of ‘naupegie’, John Dee found a place for shipbuilding in his Mathematicall Praeface to the first English Euclid (1570). Dee subsumed naupegie (along with housing and fortification) as one of the three branches of by alexander pope epistle architecture, just as Lavanha was later to do.68 Thomas Digges later made the same identification with his unredeemed promise to aicd, publish a ‘brief Treatise of essay writing pakistan Architecture Nautical’.69. Though Dee’s discussion of architecture gave prominence to Vitruvius and particularly Alberti, there is no evidence that his references had any affect on Fragments . Baker presented nothing comparable to Lavanha’s treatment of the materials of shipbuilding. Indeed, aside from a short complaint about the quality of assignment wood brought to the shipyards by navy purveyors (p.

155), timber and its physical handling are remarkably absent from Baker’s volume. Cover For Nursing Faculty Position. The other materials of the aicd trade are not even mentioned. For Baker, shipbuilding was directly answerable to arithmetic and geometry; Fragments was therefore concerned principally with paper work. The content of Baker’s manuscript was determined by the agenda of mathematical practice rather than the textual conventions already established for architecture. Baker’s Fragments set the pattern for an English tradition of shipbuilding texts which dealt primarily with the essays arithmetic and geometry of hull form. While we know little about assignment, how Baker’s work was used within the naval dockyards themselves, it is death of a clear that shipbuilding became firmly established as one of the mathematical arts [page 163:] in England. One stage of that process is revealed by Fragments itself. Aicd. Although mostly by Baker, there are sections in another hand. These additions, which range from annie essay dialling and mathematical instruments to magnetism and shipbuilding, were supplied by John Wells, to aicd assignment, whom Baker bequeathed Fragments and other volumes.70 Wells was a navy storekeeper at Deptford, a mathematical practitioner who published on sundials, and satire essays global an associate of such London mathematical professors as Henry Briggs and Henry Gellibrand.71.

Amongst his other mathematical activities, Wells assisted Briggs in the construction of logarithmic tables in aicd assignment, the years after Napier’s first publication in 1614.72 Wells’ perception of the mathematical character of ship design and essay its place in the scheme of aicd mathematical arts is suggested by his assimilation of logarithms to shipping questions (e.g. p. 91). Logarithms had been seen principally as an aid for the long calculations required in astronomy. But Wells began to essay writing competition, apply them in his notes on ship design, since they enabled greater numerical accuracy but without added computational fatigue. For Wells, mathematics and naval technology were firmly bound together as mathematical practice by the early 17th century. Beyond Wells’ continuation of Fragments there are further manuscripts which show that shipbuilding was a subject of very active interest in the community of early 17th century mathematical practitioners. Thomas Harriot’s shipbuilding papers have already been noted and aicd assignment their level of sophistication was matched by several other [page 164:] surviving texts.73. Baker’s work thus embodied a programme which was pursued by his mathematical colleagues and successors. Materials and structures were given less prominence than the mathematics of hull design.

Logarithms and higher order curves supplemented the resources which Baker had himself been able to muster, and on man epistle these increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques were presented in more systematic treatises. The development of the paper geometry and aicd arithmetic of on education Fragments rapidly made English shipbuilding the most mathematically advanced of any country in Europe. The creation of ship design as a mathematical art offered benefits both to Baker and also to the mathematical practitioners who tackled shipbuilding questions. Baker’s success in adopting explicitly mathematical techniques reflected back on the practitioners and aicd assignment supported their claims to utility and status. They benefited from the an essay on man pope epistle 2 apparent efficacy of mathematical practice in this strategically significant industry. But, as an elite mechanician, Baker also stood to gain. His status as a mathematical mechanician placed him above the ranks of aicd assignment ordinary shipwrights and essays global labourers, and beyond the past practices of the trade. Baker’s reputation transcended the local realm of the shipyards and was transferred out into aicd the wider world of essay print culture. William Borough had praised Baker in 1581 as a worthy peer of Vitruvius and Dürer, while the navigator John Davis pressed further accolades on Baker in his [page 165:] Seaman’s Secrets of 1595. Davis mentioned ‘the mechanical practices drawn from the Arts of Mathematick, [in which] our Country doth yield men of aicd assignment principal excellency’:

As M. Emery Molyneux for the exquisite making of Globes bodies, and M. Satire Essays Global. Nicholas Hilliard for aicd the singularity of portraiture have the praise of Europe, [so] M. Baker for his skill and surpassing grounded knowledge for the building of ships advantageable to extended definition essay, all purpose, hath not in any nation his equal.74. Davis very likely knew Baker, and Borough certainly did. But once his name was in the public domain Baker became a point of reference for assignment commentators who had probably never met him. Gabriel Harvey’s often-quoted passage in Pierces Supererogation (1593), which asks ‘what profound Mathematician, like Digges, Harriot, or Dee esteemeth not the pregnant Mechanician?’, bracketed Baker with such other ‘expert artisans’ as. Humphrey Cole, a Mathematical Mechanician, . John Shute an Architect, Robert Norman a Navigator, William Bourne a Gunner [and] John Hester a Chemist.75. What did this miscellaneous group have in common? John Hester’s presence punctures any attempt to extended essay on education, link them through an adherence to the programme of the aicd mathematical arts. Indeed, nothing in the character of their work as mechanicians marks them out as a united group. Rather, they were linked together by their appearance in print: all of these six mechanicians had either published books themselves or been referred to in the texts of others. Harvey was using these mechanicians to attack narrowly academic scholarship.

Paradoxically, he did so through the bookish practice of collecting and collating printed references. Cut loose from the paper work of essay competition 2012 pakistan mathematical design by the approving references of friends, Baker’s fame was available for circulation in the public paper worlds of others. 1. W.G. Perrin, The Autobiography of Phineas Pett , Navy Records Society, 51 (London, 1918), p. 178. 2. Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, PL 2820, p. 8. The manuscript title came from Samuel Pepys; henceforth I cite the assignment volume simply as Fragments . My in-text references to the volume are to page numbers.

For a discussion of Fragments , R.A. Barker, ‘Fragments from the hartnett essay Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 32 (1986), 161-78. 3. On the general significance of paper as a medium, see Bruno Latour, ‘Visualization and cognition: thinking with eyes and hands’, Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present , 6 (1986), 1-40. Many of my subsequent specific comments on the uses of paper develop points in Latour’s suggestive account. 4. Aicd. For Baker’s 1562 mastership: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. (hereafter Bodl. Rawl.) A 200, f. 17r-v (cf. f. 10r where Baker is not described as master). For his appointment as a royal master in 1572: Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth , V (1569-72), p. 466 (no. 3303).

5. Perrin (footnote 1), pp. xx-xxi. 6. Hartnett. BL Add. MS. 7968, ff. 43r, 52r. 7. For the Pett family, see Perrin (footnote 1). 8. Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 203.

As these and the following details can be found under the ordinary and extraordinary accounts for Woolwich, Deptford and Gillingham I give no specific references below. The same archive holds quarterly accounts for four other years: Bodl. Assignment. Rawl. A 200 (1562 and 1563); A 201 (1570); and A 202 (1574). 9. Essay 2012 Pakistan. A.P. McGowan, The Jacobean Commissions of Enquiry of 1608 and 1618 , Navy Records Society, 116 (London, 1971), pp.

71 and 231 for Baker’s depositions to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry. Note too the evidence given by Edward Stevens (ibid. Aicd Assignment. pp. 51 and 53). Baker went on a trip of this kind in 1562, taking two shipwrights to work on ‘the hewing and squaring of ix great Elms at Beddingtun for death of a moth dillard keels for her highness’s Ships’ (Bodl. Rawl. Assignment. MS. A 200, f. 19r). 10. For a comparison with the Venetian example, P. Burke, Tradition and Innovation in essays, Renaissance Italy (London, 1974), p. 291, where an assignment, attempt is made to rank various Italian occupations by income. Extended Essay On Education. Out of a total of aicd 26 occupations, the Venetian master shipwright comes seventh equal.

11. For a review of these late medieval and Renaissance developments, Richard W. Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy 600-1600 (London, 1980). 12. For example, the almost total absence of shipping in influential accounts such as those of E.S. Ferguson is very striking: ‘The mind’s eye: nonverbal thought in extended definition, technology’, Science , 197 (1977), 827-836; ‘La fondation des machines modernes: des dessins’, Culture et Technique , 14 (1985), 183-208; and Engineering and the Mind’s Eye (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). 13. Fausto to Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Epistolae Clarorum Virorum (Venice, 1556), f. 93v. On Fausto, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934), pp.

64-71 and P.L. Rose and S. Drake, ‘The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in Renaissance Culture’, Studies in the Renaissance , 18 (1971), 65-104, pp. 77-8. 14. On these manuscripts, R.C. Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture about 1445’, Mariner’s Mirror , 11 (1925), 135-63, idem, ‘Jal’s Mémoire no. 5 and the manuscript Fabbrica di galere ’, Mariner’s Mirror , 31 (1945), 160-7, Frederic Chapin Lane, ‘Venetian naval architecture about 1550’, Mariner’s Mirror , 20 (1934), 24-49, and G.B Dosio (ed.), Ragioni Antique Spettanti all’Arte del Mare et Fabriche de Vasselli (Venice, 1987). 15. The fullest accounts appear in the works of Fernando Oliveira and João Baptista Lavanha. Aicd Assignment. For Oliveira, see his O Livro da Fábrica das Naus , introduction, facsimile, transcription and English translation (Lisbon, 1991), F.C. Domingues, ‘Observation and an essay on man by alexander epistle knowledge in Portuguese ship construction of the 16th century: the treatises of Fernando Oliveira’ (unpublished translation by R.A.

Barker of a paper given at the Fourth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and assignment Hydrography, 1983), and three papers by Eric Rieth in Neptunia : ‘Les écrits de Fernando Oliveira: un témoinage sur la construction navale de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 165 (1987), 18-25; ‘Un système de conception des carènes de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 166 (1987), 16-31; ‘Remarques sur une série d’illustrations de l’ Ars Nautica (1570) de Fernando Oliveira’, 169 (1988), 36-43. Of A Hartnett Essay. Lavanha’s work was first published in J. Assignment. da G.P. Barata, ‘O Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval de João Baptista Lavanha’, Ethnos , 4 (1965), 221-98; on faculty, Lavanha, see below, section 4. Aicd. Amongst other learned Iberian authors, also note Diego de Garcia Palacio, whose primarily navigational Instrucion Nauthica para Navegar (Mexico, 1587) presented some information on cover for nursing position, shipbuilding; see V.D. Tate, ‘The Instrucion Nauthica of 1587’, American Neptune , 1 (1941), 191-5. There are also Iberian texts by shipwrights, for example, Manuel Fernandes’s manuscript Livro de Traças de Carpintaria (1616; facsimile Lisbon, 1990). 16.

I borrow the term ‘constructive geometry’ from Lon Shelby’s work on the design procedures of medieval masons. See in particular ‘Mediaeval masons’ templates’, Journal of the Society of assignment Architectural Historians , 30 (1971), 140-154, ‘The geometrical knowledge of mediaeval master masons’, Speculum , 47 (1972), 395-421, and of a hartnett essay Gothic Design Techniques. Aicd Assignment. The Fifteenth Century Design Booklets of Mathes Roriczer and Hanns Schmuttermayer (Carbondale, Southern Illinois, 1977). For overviews of dockyard design techniques: R.A. Barker, ‘Many may peruse us: ribbands, moulds and models in of a hartnett essay, the dockyards’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 34 (1988) and Sergio Bellabarba, ‘The ancient methods of aicd designing hulls’, Mariner’s Mirror , 79 (1993), 274-92. 17. Carvel was a relatively recent introduction in England. The earlier north European tradition which it displaced was clinker construction, in which ships were built shell- rather than skeleton-first. After the erection of the keel, stem and sternpost, the hull of a clinker is built up as a shell of overlapping planks fastened to each other. Strengthening transverse frames are added afterwards.

However, the distinction between carvel and clinker is not historically absolute: there were various hybrid techniques. On carvel, clinker and hybrid construction, see O. Definition Essay On Education. Hasslöf, ‘Carvel construction technique: nature and origin’, Folk-Liv , 21/22 (1957/8), 49-60 and ‘Main principles in the technology of shipbuilding’, in Hasslöf et al. (eds), Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and Fishermen , trans. M. Knight and H. Young (Copenhagen, 1972), 27-72. 18. Aicd Assignment. For classifications of moth annie different varieties of carvel-building, see two papers by aicd J.P. Sarsfield, ‘Survival of pre-sixteenth century Mediterranean lofting techniques in Bahia, Brasil’, in O.L. Filgueiras (ed.), Local Boats , British Archaeological Reports International Series, 438, part 1 (Oxford, 1988) and ‘Master frame and ribbands: a Brazilian case study with an overview of this widespread traditional carvel design and writing competition 2012 building system’, in Carvel Construction Techniques , Oxbow Monograph, 12 (1991).

19. Oliveira (footnote 15), pp. 177-83 (facsimile, pp. 91-106). For Venetian sources, see Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture’ (footnote 14), pp. 153-4 and assignment F.C. Lane (footnote 14), pp. 29-31.

The Italian use of the technique was not restricted to writing pakistan, only Venetian shipwrights; Neapolitan usage is recorded in Bartolomeo Crescentio, Nautica Mediterranea (Rome, 1607), on which see the aicd note in Mariner’s Mirror , 69 (1983), 305-6 and the corrections in 70 (1984), 87-8. 20. The procedure still survives in the modern world, most remarkably in contemporary Brazilian boatyards: Sarsfield, ‘Survival. ’ (footnote 18). Kostas Damianidis has documented related techniques for 19th and 20th century Greece, see ‘The survival of moulding boatbuilding in an old boatyard in the Aegean’ (unpublished) and ‘The diachronic road of dialogue of Mediterranean shipbuilding: some methods for controlling the form of a vessel’, in Cultural and Commercial Exchanges between the Orient and the Greek World (Athens, 1991), 97-108. The historical validity of using such modern ethnographic work to shed light on Renaissance practices is currently being richly borne out by work at Parks Canada, Ottawa under Robert Grenier.

Working with scale models of the surviving timbers of of a boy sonya essay a wrecked 16th century Basque whaler, Brad Loewen is reconstructing the aicd assignment hull of the vessel using the techniques of adjustable templates. 21. Unger (footnote 11), pp. 241-2. 22. Definition Essay. Note that plans were apparently still unknown in the French royal yards of the mid-17th century: J. Boudriot, ‘Evolution de la conception des vaisseaux royaux’ and E. Rieth, ‘Quelques remarques sur la conception des bâtiments de mer du moyen-age au début du XVIIIème siècle’, both in Résumés des Communications des 3èmes Journées D’Archéologie Navale; 6-8 décembre, 1985 (Musée de la Marine, Paris, 1985). 23. Fragments , p.13 shows a midship mould identified as that of the Hart , Greyhound , Bull and aicd Tiger . A list of ships in the navy of an essay on man epistle 2 Edward VI in Pepys Library, PL 1266, pp. 145-152 has some annotations to indicate the shipwrights responsible for their construction. The Hart , Bull and Tiger are all identified as by James Baker (pp.

147-8). 24. Assignment. For the voyage, R. On Man By Alexander Pope Epistle. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations , 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903-5), V, pp. 71-6. Aicd. Baker identifies the Greek merchantman as a ‘screatse’. It may be related to or even identical with the of a Turkish ‘skryasas’ mentioned in the Hakluyt account, p. 73. Baker observed other procedures on this voyage; for example, he refers in Fragments to Sicilian and ‘Candian’ practices (p. 40).

Presumably it was also at this time that he acquired the information or interest behind his map of the Peloponnese (p. 4). 25. For the juxtaposition of Baker and Levello: Bodl. Rawl. MS. Aicd Assignment. A 201, ff. 65v, 68v, 71r-v and 74v. 26. T. Glasgow jr, ‘The maturing of naval administration, 1556-1564’, Mariner’s Mirror , 56 (1970), 3-26, p. 10.

For Levello’s duties: Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. 9v. 27. Cover For Nursing. Fragments , pp. 16, 23. Assignment. Baker’s spelling of Venetian terms strongly suggests that he had them from a spoken rather than a written source. The two most striking instances are on essays, p. 16, where he refers to the rising of the frames as ‘lastely’ (Venetian: la stella) and to one of the frame adjustments as ‘linaramo del sesto’ (Venetian: legno in ramo [del sesto]). 28. Assignment. For a typical learned witness of writing craft secrecy, see G. Fournier, Hydrographie (Paris, 1643), p. 16: ‘among 400 or 500 ship carpenters one will scarcely find three or four who know the lines and proportions, because the masters are so protective ( jaloux ) of their knowledge and skill’.

29. PRO Prob 10/305, and also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122, f. 140v). 30. PRO SP16/21/65. 31. Perrin (footnote 1), p. 7. 32. Perrin (footnote 1), p. lv. 33. I do not claim that Baker believed drawing and calculation to aicd, constitute the whole knowledge of his profession, only that he treated them as a distinct department. When criticising Phineas Pett in 1608, Baker clearly wished the master shipwright to be well experienced in assessing such matters as the quality of timber: McGowan (footnote 9), pp.

231-2. For comments on the differences between learning by observation/imitation and extended via a literate/verbal intermediary, see A.E. Christensen jr, ‘Boatbuilding tools and the process of learning’, in Hasslöf et al. (footnote 17), 235-59. 34. J.T.

Leader, Life of Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of aicd Northumberland (Florence, 1895), pp. 56 and 188. Boy Sonya Hartnett. Independent evidence of the connection between Dudley and Baker is provided by a brass semicircular instrument in the Museo di Storia della Scienze, Florence. Associated with one of the large Dudley astrolabes (II, 47) in the collection, the semicircle carries a triangular scale of proportions of exactly the same type as appears in aicd, Fragments . Hartnett Essay. The English origins of the instrument are emphasised by an extremely faint inscription: ‘A Tabel of Proportion Geometricall for Shipping’. Dudley published on such proportional devices in Dell’Arcano del Mare (Florence, 1646-7), book IV, ch. 5.

35. Pepys Library, PL 2878, p. 493 (a 17th century copy). For the aicd assignment agreement which preceded this request, see PRO SP12/218/31-3. 36. Testimony to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry: McGowan (footnote 9), p. 234, cf. ibid., pp. 236-7.

37. Report of c.1587, printed in John Knox Laughton (ed.), State Papers relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada , Navy Records Society (London, 1895), I, p. 39. More generally, see Simon Adams, ‘New light on the Reformation of John Hawkins: the Ellesmere naval survey of January 1584’, English Historical Review , 105 (1990), 96-111 and an essay by alexander pope epistle 2 David Loades, The Tudor Navy: an Administrative, Political and Military History (Aldershot, 1992), pp. 184-5. 38. For the general trend towards social stratification in shipbuilding, Unger (footnote 11), p. 274 and, for the Venetian case (with principally 17th century evidence), Robert C. Davis, Shipbuilders of the aicd assignment Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in the Preindustrial City (Baltimore, 1991), pp.

180-1. For the Venetian Arsenal and its social structure in the 15th and of a boy sonya hartnett 16th centuries, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the assignment Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934) and essay 2012 pakistan Maurice Aymard, ‘L’Arsenal de Venise: science, expérience et technique dans la construction navale au XVIe siècle’, in Cultura, Scienze e Tecniche nella Venezia del Cinquecento. Assignment. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studio Giovan Battista Benedetti e il Suo Tempo (Venice, 1987), 407-18. 39. E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), The Troublesome Voyage of of a moth Captain Edward Fenton 1582-3 , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 113 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 154. Assignment. Note that this separation of responsibility does not necessarily depend on or imply the use of plats, though it is essay suggestive. 40.

The contrast is aicd assignment clearly marked by the title of the competition 2012 pakistan first published arithmetical text in aicd, English, the anonymous An Introduction for to Lerne to essay, Recken with the Pen or with the Counters (St. Albans, 1537). 41. See, for example, the payments frequently listed under ‘Deptford Ordinary’ in the navy accounts cited in footnote 8. For arithmetic ‘with the counters’, F.P. Barnard, The Casting-Counter and the Casting Board (Oxford, 1916; reprinted 1981). 42. Baker readily incorporated symbols into his work. He used for square, for (square) root (or more fully ), for cube and or for cube root. These symbols can be found in Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of Witte (London, 1557), sigs S1v and Ll3r-v. 43.

However, Baker’s usage was not idiosyncratic. ‘Demonstration’ was used in assignment, the same sense by mathematical practitioners such as Thomas Hood, The Making and Use of the Geometricall Instrument, called a Sector (London, 1598), f. Warming. 9r-v. 44. Baker provided his own template for constructing linear scales. He drew up a device with 60 equidistant parallel lines to divide any suitable line into a given number of aicd assignment equal parts (p. 55). This method is described, for example, in John Blagrave, The Mathematical Jewel (London, 1585), pp. 4-5. 45.

Fragments , p. Essay Writing Competition. 73. Peletier made four additions to the Pythagorean theorem, all of which were available not only in his In Euclidis Elementa geometrica demonstrationum libri sex (1557) but also in Billingsley’s English translation of Euclid (1570), f. 58v. 46. Alae seu Scalae Mathematicae (London, 1573), sig. K3r. For Digges, Chancellor and the earlier history of transversals, see above, chapter 2, section 2. 47. Hakluyt (footnote 24), V, p. 76. 48. PRO HCA25/1, part 2. The document is assignment one of an unpaginated bundle.

Note that the Judith ’s official burden was 110 tons (confirmed by PRO SP12/107/68), whereas Borough later described it as of 75 tons (SP12/129/11). Boy Sonya Hartnett. The discrepancy is explained by the differing systems of tonnage calculation: deadweight (tons and tonnage) for assignment royal ships, carrying capacity of goods (tonnage) for merchantmen. For tonnage, see William Salisbury, ‘Early tonnage measurement in England’, Mariner’s Mirror , 52 (1966), 41-51, though its account of Baker is pope epistle not entirely adequate. 49. In 1585 Borough was supporting Baker and praising him as more skilful than his elder colleague Peter Pett: BL Lansdowne MS 43/33. For Borough, see below, chapter 4; for Dover, see chapter 5. 50. Baker: Fragments , pp. 24, 29, 126; Borough: Hatfield House, CPM, I, 69 (North Atlantic chart for Frobisher), National Maritime Museum, N51-4/G.215:1/5 MS (passage from England to the Gulf of aicd Finland).

51. Letter Faculty Position. PRO SP12/243/110. See also SP12/152/19, an unsigned naval document in Borough’s hand, which presents the same tonnage methods (f. 49r). (This ostensibly administrative paper also has a remarkable addendum to its prescriptions for ropes and rigging, in aicd, which Euclid is quoted on the proportions of circles and competition a geometrical diagram provided to show the calculation of the area of a circle; f. 51r.) 52. W. Borough, Discours of the aicd Variation of the Cumpas (London, 1581), sig. *3v. 53. The following remarks are based on Jon V. Pepper, ‘Harriot’s manuscript on shipbuilding and rigging (ca. 1608-1610)’, in Derek Howse (ed.), Five Hundred Years of Nautical Science, 1400-1900 , Proceedings of the Third International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography (Greenwich, 1981), 204-216 and John W. Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography (Oxford, 1983), pp.

97-103. 54. On Bourne, see the death of a essay introduction to E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), A Regiment for the Sea and other Writings on Navigation by William Bourne , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 121 (Cambridge, 1963). 55. For Bourne’s appointment, Bodl. Rawl. MS A 202, f. 40r. 56. Aicd. W. Bourne, A Booke called the Treasure for Travellers (London, 1578), III, f. Death Moth Annie. 14r. 57.

Not only was there much contemporary comment by outsiders on building ships in proportion, but the topic was also of concern to those responsible for commissioning vessels. Note, for aicd assignment example, that the largest ship agreed on essay writing competition 2012, in 1588 (footnote 35) was to be moulded like the earlier Revenge , but 200 tons heavier. 58. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 15v. 59. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 16v. 60. Baker’s reference to ‘Albartus Dureri’ suggests that he had access to the Latin translation rather than the original German text. For Dürer’s presentation of the cube problem, see Albertus Durerus . exacte Quatuor his suarum Institutionum Geometricarum libris, lineas, superficies solida corpora tractavit (Paris, 1532), pp. 158-61 or the English translation in Albrecht Dürer, The Painter’s Manual , trans. W.L.

Strauss (New York, 1977), pp. 346-353. The ultimate source for assignment Dürer’s method was Pappus’s Mathematical Collection , relayed through Eutocius’s commentary on Archimedes’s De Sphaera et Cylindro . Dürer did not give a proof of the result. For Pappus’s proof, see P. Ver Eecke (ed. and trans.), Pappus. La Collection Mathématique , 2 vols (Paris, 1933), I, pp.

47-50 or T. Of A Boy Sonya. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics , 2 vols (Oxford, 1921), I, pp. Assignment. 266-8. 61. Compare Dürer’s various spirals, and particularly the curve to be used for towers: Dürer, trans Strauss (footnote 60), pp. 47-51, 85-7, 239-40 and 453-5. 62.

Note in particular the appearance of the tale in the English Euclid of letter for nursing 1570, f. 58r. Baker was not the only mathematical mechanician to compare himself with Pythagoras. Robert Norman made use of the same trope when describing his delight at the discovery of the phenomenon of magnetic dip: Newe Attractive (London, 1581), sig. A2v. Assignment. Indeed, Norman also used the ‘Eureka!’ story of the naked Archimedes to express his own joy.

63. Margaret Rule, The Mary Rose (London, 1982); Björn Landström, The Royal Warship Vasa , trans. Jeremy Franks (Stockholm, 1988). 64. Lavanha’s text, dated by Barata to the first quarter of the 17th century, appears in Barata (footnote 15), pp. 264-294.

A facsimile edition, with new transcription and English translation by R.A. Barker, is by alexander pope epistle forthcoming. My thanks to Richard Barker for sight of this translation prior to aicd assignment, publication. On Lavanha, A. Cortesão, Cartografia e Cartógrafos Portugueses dos Séculos XV e XVI , 2 vols (Lisbon, 1935), II, pp. 294-361. 65. Of A Annie Dillard Essay. In De Re Aedificatoria , IX, x, Alberti deliberately departed from Vitruvius’s broader prescriptions for the education of the architect. For Lavanha’s references to Alberti in the Livro Primeiro , Barata (footnote 15), pp.

265 and 267. 66. Alberti had, however, mentioned ships in the context of architecture. In De Re Aedificatoria , V, xii, he noted two ways in aicd, which ‘the art of building may contribute to the safety and victory of generals of fleets and their forces: the first consists in the right construction and rigging of the vessels . ’. Alberti went on to name the major parts of a vessel and gave a few proportions before referring the reader to essay, a fuller exposition of such matters in his now lost treatise on ships; J. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance (Chicago, 1969), p. 204. 67. Livro Primeiro , chh. 5-7. An earlier Iberian discursive treatment of shipbuilding also covered the aicd assignment same range of material topics: Oliveira (footnote 15), chh.

2-4. In the prologue to this text of c.1580, Oliveira, like Lavanha, compared the construction of ships with that of buildings. Epistle. Significantly, Oliveira was familiar with sources such as Vitruvius. 68. Sig. d4v. Dee’s interest in assignment, naval architecture is revealed by a manuscript volume in his library: ‘Naupegia Itali cuiusdam, cum figuris. papyro 4o’. Essay Writing Competition 2012 Pakistan. Unfortunately, this evidently anonymous manuscript has not been identified; Julian Roberts and aicd assignment Andrew G. Watson (eds), John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London, 1990). 69. Stratioticos (London, 1579), sig. a4r. 70. PRO Prob 10/305, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122).

71. E.G.R. Extended Definition. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England (Cambridge, 1954), p. 199. 72. Aicd. John Wells to Henry Briggs, 9 January 1621 in S.J. Rigaud, Correspondence of essays Scientific Men of the Seventeenth Century , 2 vols (Oxford, 1841), I, pp. 5-6 and cf. Fragments , pp.

99-100 for earlier references. 73. In particular, the ‘Scott MS’ (Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Scott MS 798), as well as a related text now printed as Richard Barker, ‘A manuscript on shipbuilding, circa 1600, copied by Newton’, Mariner’s Mirror , 80 (1994), 16-29. Aicd Assignment. Also note the anonymous treatise on shipbuilding attributed to global warming, John Wells and published by W. Salisbury in Society for aicd assignment Nautical Research, Occasional Publications , 6 (London, 1958). 74. A.H. Markham (ed.), The Voyages and on education Works of aicd assignment John Davis the definition Navigator , Hakluyt Society, 59 (London, 1880), pp. Aicd Assignment. 234-6. 75. A.B.

Grosart (ed.), The Works of Gabriel Harvey , 3 vols (London, 1884-5), II, pp. 289-90. All images by permission of the Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford, except where explicitly noted otherwise.

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Psychology’s 10 Greatest Case Studies – Digested. These ten characters have all had a huge influence on psychology and their stories continue to intrigue each new generation of students. What’s particularly fascinating is that many of their stories continue to aicd evolve – new evidence comes to light, or new technologies are brought to bear, changing how the cases are interpreted and understood. What many of these 10 also have in common is essays, that they speak to some of the aicd, perennial debates in psychology, about of a annie essay personality and aicd assignment, identity, nature and nurture, and the links between mind and body. One day in 1848 in Central Vermont, Phineas Gage was tamping explosives into letter for nursing faculty position, the ground to assignment prepare the writing competition 2012 pakistan, way for a new railway line when he had a terrible accident.

The detonation went off prematurely, and his tamping iron shot into his face, through his brain, and out the top of aicd assignment, his head. Remarkably Gage survived, although his friends and family reportedly felt he was changed so profoundly (becoming listless and competition 2012 pakistan, aggressive) that “he was no longer Gage.” There the story used to rest – a classic example of frontal brain damage affecting personality. However, recent years have seen a drastic reevaluation of Gage’s story in light of new evidence. Aicd? It’s now believed that he underwent significant rehabilitation and in fact began work as a horse carriage driver in Chile. A simulation of pope epistle 2, his injuries suggested much of aicd assignment, his right frontal cortex was likely spared, and photographic evidence has been unearthed showing a post-accident dapper Gage. Not that you’ll find this revised account in satire essays global warming, many psychology textbooks: a recent analysis showed that few of them have kept up to date with the new evidence. Henry Gustav Molaison (known for years as H.M. in aicd assignment, the literature to protect his privacy), who died in 2008, developed severe amnesia at age 27 after undergoing brain surgery as a form of treatment for the epilepsy he’d suffered since childhood. He was subsequently the focus of study by over 100 psychologists and cover letter for nursing faculty position, neuroscientists and he’s been mentioned in over 12,000 journal articles! Molaison’s surgery involved the removal of assignment, large parts of the hippocampus on both sides of his brain and by alexander pope epistle 2, the result was that he was almost entirely unable to aicd assignment store any new information in long-term memory (there were some exceptions – for of a boy sonya, example, after 1963 he was aware that a US president had been assassinated in Dallas). The extremity of Molaison’s deficits was a surprise to experts of the day because many of them believed that memory was distributed throughout the cerebral cortex. Today, Molaison’s legacy lives on: his brain was carefully sliced and aicd, preserved and turned into on man epistle, a 3D digital atlas and his life story is reportedly due to be turned into a feature film based on the book researcher Suzanne Corkin wrote about assignment him: Permanent Present Tense, The Man With No Memory and What He Taught The World . the Musee Dupuytren museum in Paris.

The fact that, in most people, language function is served predominantly by the left frontal cortex has today almost become common knowledge, at death essay, least among psych students. However, back in the early nineteenth century, the consensus view was that language function (like memory, see entry for assignment, H.M.) was distributed through the satire essays warming, brain. An eighteenth century patient who helped change that was Victor Leborgne, a Frenchman who was nicknamed “Tan” because that was the only sound he could utter (besides the aicd, expletive phrase “sacre nom de Dieu”). In 1861, aged 51, Leborgne was referred to the renowned neurologist Paul Broca, but died soon after. Broca examined Leborgne’s brain and noticed a lesion in his left frontal lobe – a segment of tissue now known as Broca’s area.

Given Leborgne’s impaired speech but intact comprehension, Broca concluded that this area of the brain was responsible for speech production and he set about persuading his peers of this fact – now recognised as a key moment in of a dillard essay, psychology’s history. For decades little was known about Leborgne, besides his important contribution to science. Aicd Assignment? However, in a paper published in epistle 2, 2013, Cezary Domanski at Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Poland uncovered new biographical details, including the aicd, possibility that Leborgne muttered the word “Tan” because his birthplace of Moret, home to boy sonya hartnett several tanneries. Wild Boy of Aveyron. The “Wild boy of Aveyron” – named Victor by aicd assignment the physician Jean-Marc Itard – was found emerging from satire essays global warming Aveyron forest in South West France in 1800, aged 11 or 12, where’s it’s thought he had been living in the wild for several years. Assignment? For psychologists and philosophers, Victor became a kind of “natural experiment” into the question of nature and extended essay on education, nurture. How would he be affected by the lack of human input early in his life? Those who hoped Victor would support the aicd assignment, notion of the death of a moth annie dillard, “noble savage” uncorrupted by modern civilisation were largely disappointed: the boy was dirty and dishevelled, defecated where he stood and apparently motivated largely by hunger. Victor acquired celebrity status after he was transported to Paris and Itard began a mission to teach and socialise the “feral child”. This programme met with mixed success: Victor never learned to speak fluently, but he dressed, learned civil toilet habits, could write a few letters and acquired some very basic language comprehension. Autism expert Uta Frith believes Victor may have been abandoned because he was autistic, but she acknowledges we will never know the truth of his background.

Victor’s story inspired the 2004 novel The Wild Boy and was dramatised in the 1970 French film The Wild Child. Nicknamed ‘Kim-puter’ by assignment his friends, Peek who died in 2010 aged 58, was the inspiration for Dustin Hoffman’s autistic savant character in the multi-Oscar-winning film Rain Man . Before that movie, which was released in 1988, few people had heard of autism, so Peek via the film can be credited with helping to raise the profile of the condition. Arguably though, the by alexander pope epistle 2, film also helped spread the popular misconception that giftedness is aicd assignment, a hallmark of autism (in one notable scene, Hoffman’s character deduces in satire, an instant the precise number of cocktail sticks – 246 – that a waitress drops on the floor). Peek himself was actually a non-autistic savant, born with brain abnormalities including a malformed cerebellum and an absent corpus callosum (the massive bundle of assignment, tissue that usually connects the two hemispheres). Moth Annie Dillard Essay? His savant skills were astonishing and aicd assignment, included calendar calculation, as well as an encyclopaedic knowledge of on man, history, literature, classical music, US zip codes and aicd assignment, travel routes. It was estimated that he read more than 12,000 books in his life time, all of them committed to flawless memory. Although outgoing and sociable, Peek had coordination problems and struggled with abstract or conceptual thinking. “Anna O.” is the pseudonym for moth dillard, Bertha Pappenheim, a pioneering German Jewish feminist and aicd assignment, social worker who died in essay on education, 1936 aged 77. As Anna O. she is known as one of the first ever patients to assignment undergo psychoanalysis and her case inspired much of extended essay on education, Freud’s thinking on mental illness.

Pappenheim first came to aicd the attention of another psychoanalyst, Joseph Breuer, in 1880 when he was called to of a her house in Vienna where she was lying in bed, almost entirely paralysed. Her other symptoms include hallucinations, personality changes and aicd, rambling speech, but doctors could find no physical cause. For 18 months, Breuer visited her almost daily and talked to her about her thoughts and feelings, including her grief for her father, and the more she talked, the for nursing faculty, more her symptoms seemed to fade – this was apparently one of the first ever instances of assignment, psychoanalysis or “the talking cure”, although the satire essays warming, degree of aicd assignment, Breuer’s success has been disputed and some historians allege that Pappenheim did have an of a moth annie, organic illness, such as epilepsy. Although Freud never met Pappenheim, he wrote about her case, including the notion that she had a hysterical pregnancy, although this too is disputed. The latter part of aicd assignment, Pappenheim’s life in Germany post 1888 is as remarkable as her time as Anna O. She became a prolific writer and social pioneer, including authoring stories, plays, and death of a dillard essay, translating seminal texts, and she founded social clubs for Jewish women, worked in orphanages and founded the German Federation of Jewish Women. A Dangerous Method is a feature film about another influential patient of psychoanalysis, Sabina Spielrein, who subsequently became a psychoanalyst herself.

Sadly, it is aicd, not really Kitty Genovese the person who has become one of writing pakistan, psychology’s classic case studies, but rather the terrible fate that befell her. In 1964 in assignment, New York, Genovese was returning home from warming her job as a bar maid when she was attacked and assignment, eventually murdered by Winston Mosely. What made this tragedy so influential to psychology was that it inspired research into what became known as the Bystander Phenomenon – the now well-established finding that our sense of individual responsibility is diluted by the presence of of a boy sonya, other people. According to aicd folklore, 38 people watched Genovese’s demise yet not one of them did anything to an essay on man by alexander pope 2 help, apparently a terrible real life instance of the Bystander Effect. However, the aicd assignment, story doesn’t end there because historians have since established the reality was much more complicated – at least two people did try to summon help, and actually there was only one witness the writing, second and fatal attack. While the main principle of the Bystander Effect has stood the test of aicd assignment, time, modern psychology’s understanding of the way it works has become a lot more nuanced.

For example, there’s evidence that in some situations people are more likely to act when they’re part of a larger group, such as when they and essay writing competition pakistan, the other group members all belong to the same social category (such as all being women) as the victim. “Little Albert” was the nickname that the aicd, pioneering behaviourist psychologist John Watson gave to an 11-month-old baby, in whom, with his colleague and cover letter, future wife Rosalind Rayner, he deliberately attempted to instill certain fears through a process of conditioning. The research, which was of dubious scientific quality, was conducted in aicd, 1920 and has become notorious for being so unethical (such a procedure would never be given approval in modern university settings). Essay On Education? Interest in aicd assignment, Little Albert has reignited in recent years as an academic quarrel has erupted over his true identity. A group led by essays warming Hall Beck at Appalachian University announced in 2011 that they thought Little Albert was actually Douglas Merritte, the son of a wet nurse at John Hopkins University where Watson and assignment, Rayner were based. According to this sad account, Little Albert was neurologically impaired, compounding the unethical nature of the Watson/Rayner research, and he died aged six of hydrocephalus (fluid on the brain).

However, this account was challenged by a different group of scholars led by Russell Powell at MacEwan University in 2014. They established that Little Albert was more likely William A Barger (recorded in his medical file as Albert Barger), the son of a different wet nurse. Earlier this year, textbook writer Richard Griggs weighed up all the evidence and essays warming, concluded that the Barger story is the more credible, which would mean that Little Albert in fact died 2007 aged 87. Chris Costner Sizemore is one of the most famous patients to be given the controversial diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, known today as dissociative identity disorder. Sizemore’s alter egos apparently included Eve White, Eve Black, Jane and many others. By some accounts, Sizemore expressed these personalities as a coping mechanism in the face of aicd, traumas she experienced in childhood, including seeing her mother badly injured and satire essays global, a man sawn in half at a lumber mill. In recent years, Sizemore has described how her alter egos have been combined into one united personality for many decades, but she still sees different aspects of her past as belonging to her different personalities. For example, she has stated that her husband was married to assignment Eve White (not her), and that Eve White is the mother of her first daughter. Her story was turned into letter for nursing, a movie in 1957 called The Three Faces of Eve (based on aicd, a book of the same name written by of a her psychiatrists). Aicd? Joanne Woodward won the best actress Oscar for portraying Sizemore and her various personalities in this film.

Sizemore published her autobiography in 1977 called I’m Eve . Of A? In 2009, she appeared on the BBC’s Hard Talk interview show. One of the most famous patients in psychology, Reimer lost his penis in a botched circumcision operation when he was just 8 months old. His parents were subsequently advised by psychologist John Money to raise Reimer as a girl, “Brenda”, and for assignment, him to undergo further surgery and hormone treatment to assist his gender reassignment. Money initially described the experiment (no one had tried anything like this before) as a huge success that appeared to support his belief in the important role of socialisation, rather than innate factors, in children’s gender identity. Extended Definition Essay? In fact, the reassignment was seriously problematic and Reimer’s boyishness was never far beneath the surface. Assignment? When he was aged 14, Reimer was told the truth about his past and set about satire essays global reversing the gender reassignment process to become male again. He later campaigned against other children with genital injuries being gender reassigned in the way that he had been. His story was turned into the book As Nature Made Him, The Boy Who Was Raised As A Girl by John Colapinto, and he is the subject of two BBC Horizon documentaries. Aicd Assignment? Tragically, Reimer took his own life in 2004, aged just 38. — main sources and further reading — Our free fortnightly email will keep you up-to-date with all the extended definition essay, psychology research we digest: Sign up! Does it matter whether or not pain medication is branded?

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in aicd assignment, a series of writing competition pakistan posts on aicd lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. For Nursing Faculty Position! Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on aicd capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in writing 2012 pakistan, Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in assignment, government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. Writing Competition 2012! She is aicd assignment a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). Of A Annie! As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in aicd, an effort to assist my candidates with the an essay by alexander epistle, substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Aicd Assignment! Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.

Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. Of A Hartnett Essay! You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Aicd! Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. Death Moth Annie Essay! 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of assignment showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page.

3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of essays warming your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Aicd! Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to satire warming, 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to assignment, have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of essays opening. 4. Assignment! Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the an essay on man pope 2, main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from assignment, your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the global, any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the aicd assignment, underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by hartnett essay a large U.S. Assignment! manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts.

Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is boy sonya hartnett essay up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the aicd assignment, proper dates. Warming! Change the aicd, verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in extended definition essay on education, the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. Assignment! 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for of a boy sonya hartnett, two or three lines that show you are a human being and aicd assignment not just a robot.

Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in essay competition pakistan, common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for aicd assignment, a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and of a not just passive participant in these organizations. Assignment! Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first?

This is essay writing competition 2012 a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to assignment, a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at letter faculty Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of aicd a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in satire warming, front of aicd you and squint.

Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. Essay! And another friend.

And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie.

It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of assignment you in essay competition 2012 pakistan, the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing.

Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on assignment the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about extended essay on education, your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Assignment! Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of annie dillard paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world. Managed by aicd former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys.

Click ::here:: to find out more about us. An Essay On Man By Alexander! Sign up for aicd, our newsletter. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. An Essay On Man By Alexander Pope 2! Lawyers Aren#8217;t Necessarily Good Managers#8230; So Why Do We Let Them Manage Firms? What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? Was UVA Law Alum Johnathan Perkins Pressured By The FBI Into Recanting His Account Of Racial Profiling? How Consultants Recommend Cutting Legal Bills.

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Acid rain assignment - Alison

civic virtue essay We are pleased to aicd assignment, publish Illinois Issues ' first Paul Simon Essay. Extended Essay? And we are grateful for the generous support of the Joyce Foundation, which made possible this first contribution by political philosopher Jean Bethke Elshtain of the University of aicd Chicago Divinity School. Our goal in commissioning these annual essays will be to competition, find new ways to frame policy questions. One of the magazine's founders, Simon had a deep interest in the moral and aicd, ethical dimensions of cover letter faculty position a wide range of issues. Though the magazine's mission has always been to publish in-depth analyses of aicd assignment policy questions, we have never consistently approached policy from an ethical or moral perspective.

But these essays will be distinct in that they will take clear positions about the state's collective responsibilities. And this theme will be the thread that ties the project together over essay the years. We created the Paul Simon Essay in our 30th anniversary year to aicd, honor one of the magazine's founders. We plan to commission another high-quality essay every year in his name. Writing? And this is where you can help. We invite you to make a financial commitment to the future of Illinois Issues and to the kind of reporting and writing that informs and challenges politicians and citizens alike. For your convenience, we have provided a link to the University Foundation. Please remember to tell them you want your gift to go into the Paul Simon Essay Fund. by making a gift here to the. PAUL SIMON ESSAY FUND. University of Illinois Foundation.

Billy Morrow Jackson. He's one of the leading landscape artists of the Midwest. And though he is aicd a noted realist painter, we were drawn to the subtle idealism in two of his cityscapes, which are published with permission in competition pakistan, this essay. Aicd? Both manage to capture the social and political interconnections of community. Jackson's works have been displayed in the National Museum of American Art and in the Library of Congress in cover for nursing, Washington, D.C., as well as in assignment, many other museums across America. He was on the art faculty at the University of Illinois for many years and continues to live and work in Champaign. PAUL SIMON ESSAY. Moral imperatives grounded in religion call us to come to know a good in common we cannot know alone. Civil society is on the tips of many tongues these days. This shouldn't surprise us not in the American democracy. Extended Definition Essay On Education? American civic life was not lopsidedly state-centered, as in Europe, but more dispersed, more open to citizens within the purview of their particular communities.

When we speak of civil society, we call to mind that world of associational enthusiasm that so enchanted Alexis de Tocqueville when he toured the fledgling republic during the Jacksonian era. Tocqueville observed something new under the political sun a world of civic engagement that was neither officially governmental, nor specifically economic. Civil society, then, is neither work life nor structures of governance but, rather, the aicd, many-sided world of churches, voluntary organizations of every sort, community networks, far-flung national efforts with local affiliates, and on and on. Moral norms and notions are interlaced with civil society; indeed, people propel themselves into community and organizational life because there are things they care about, values they endorse, goods they embrace. Without morality, there would be no civil society as we have come to understand it. Nearly a decade ago, I chaired a Council on Civil Society that produced a report titled A Call to Civil Society that was released to satire, the nation at large. Our council was composed of a bipartisan group of distinguished citizens from many walks of aicd assignment life: law, politics, the professoriate, community organizing, mothers' organizations, the clergy, business and labor. The premise that underwrote and framed all our thinking was a profound yet simple one: American civic life is a moral imperative. Some critics took strong exception to our findings and on education, our claim. No, they declared, in so many words, civil life is about economic interest or power, about who gets what, when and aicd assignment, how. Some even suggested that we had knowingly steered the discussion away from structural constraints to the ground of personal morality because we had not wanted to tackle the power and income disparities in American life.

But the ground of morality is where Americans have always engaged politics. Think of abolitionism, the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, dozens of essay on education peace and justice organizations. There is a long history to aicd assignment, all of this, for American civic life from hartnett essay, its inception was premised on aicd the complex intermingling of moral and civic imperatives. If you re-read the papers, pronouncements, declarations and letters of our founders, the hartnett, moral tone is inescapable. Even those, like Thomas Jefferson, who were not traditional Christians (though the vast majority were), spoke of nature and nature's God and about the divine providence involved in America's coming-to-be. They had no doubt that the assignment, American project was a moral as well as a civil experiment. With what many have called the satire warming, refounding of our nation during the Civil War, the tone of aicd America as a moral project grew ever more explicit and profound. In his great Second Inaugural , a masterpiece of brilliant prose and economy, Abraham Lincoln evokes God no fewer than 14 times this is an address that is extended only a few pages in length.

So the critics really didn't have a leg to stand on when they complained that we were somehow substituting morality for politics. Aicd? In America, you cannot separate the two. So powerful was this intermingling that Lincoln could refer to the nigh-mystic ties of brotherhood that linked us to our fellow citizens. In my book about the horrible events of essay writing 2012 pakistan 9/11 and assignment, our reaction to it, I wrote of the poignant and cover letter for nursing position, profound civic fellowship that we, as citizens, experienced in relation to all our fellow Americans as we identified with one another and, most especially, the bereaved families of the murdered innocent. To be sure, there are many foreign critics, as well as the domestic ones I have noted, that either cavil at the American connection of the moral and the political, or fail to understand it at all.

For example, there are foreign critics who see the hand of a crude would-be theocracy lurking just beneath the surface of the moral pronouncements of our political leaders, Democrats and Republicans. Critics do not appear to appreciate that, were one to yank the moral imperatives out of American civic life, historically and aicd, currently, there would be very little left. And critics often fail to death dillard, understand that one of the assignment, most cherished values of many who interject morality into political debate is the free exercise of religion. No one wants a theocracy. But citizens have always sought ways to on man by alexander 2, embody certain cherished norms in political life. Consider but a few of the aicd assignment, moral civic projects or civically moral projects of the American past. The quest for independence itself was construed in moral terms. This wasn't just a power grab by a few agitators on the eastern seaboard. No, in of a hartnett, the hearts and minds of those making the case for aicd assignment, revolution, a deep moral ethic, grounded in a providential understanding of history, lay in the American appeals for, and claims to, independence. The rights of American colonials as Englishmen were being abridged, to be sure. But more, much more, than that.

Our God-created and sustained liberties also were being violated by the English king. The colonists launched what, in the writings of political philosopher John Locke, an influential figure to our founders, was called the moth, appeal to Heaven. By this, Locke meant that, were political remedies unavailable to assignment, deal with egregious and continuing violations, a people could, in extremis, make their appeal to Heaven. That meant they articulated clearly their grievances before God and man; they demonstrated the moth dillard essay, ways in which a political and civic standing grounded in our very natures was under assault. Assignment? In political statements, the rebels declared their allegiance to certain universal laws of boy sonya hartnett nature, good for aicd, all time and all places.

And God was the author of these laws. In the death moth dillard, 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of convulsive social and political movements forged powerful links between religious faith, morality and desired political ends. I have already noted abolitionism, the temperance movement spearheaded by the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. None is aicd understandable outside an appreciation of the moral imperatives for civic engagement each entailed. Abolitionism and women's suffrage drew upon biblically derived norms to cover letter faculty, critique what amounted to aicd, systematic assaults on those norms. For Nursing Faculty? In cases of such conflict, we are obliged to obey the higher law rather than the flawed and unjust laws of man so went the argument. Assignment? Slavery denied the moral equality of all persons in the eyes of God, and the presumptions concerning decent or ill treatment that flowed from that equality. Separating women from the on man by alexander epistle, franchise, consigning them to aicd assignment, second-class citizenship based on essay writing competition 2012 gender alone, thus to a noncivic status in a full-fledged sense, raised deep moral questions of political morality. The third movement on assignment my list temperance is in a rather bad odor these days. We see it as an example of narrow moralism rather than acceptable morality. But to the vast armies of women who were soldiers in the temperance movement, excessive drink was directly responsible for the ruination of families and the catastrophes that flowed from that.

Whether one finds temperance arguments persuadable or prudent is, of of a hartnett course, a long-debated matter. But it would be patently absurd to aicd, refuse to see the robust link between morality and politics in this, and so many other broad-based movements for civic and social transformation. On the smaller scale, in thousands of communities nationwide, citizens, including the hundreds of thousands of warming women who could not yet vote but were engaged in aicd, a plethora of civic activities nonetheless, did the hard work of building and sustaining decent communities on the basis of deeply cherished moral imperatives most often derived from an essay by alexander 2, their faith. From the beginning and since, religious faith mutually engaged with and helped to constitute political life. The skeptic might grant this much but then go on to argue that that was then, this is now. They would then go on to describe now as a period when there is aicd no workable civic consensus on nearly all politically and writing competition 2012, morally fraught matters; when we are a vastly different and religiously pluralistic nation where once we were more uniform; when the necessary civic projects can be undertaken most effectively in aicd, the absence of religious or moral influence. They see religion as encouraging obstreperousness and essay competition 2012, dogmatism, as a way to try to shove things down people's throats. Since morality in America most often derives from religion, it follows, to assignment, these skeptics, that we are better off without either as far as the civic world is concerned. Other critics might not go that far but would say that they aren't against cover letter, morality they just think it belongs in aicd, private life and should not be a central part of civic life, for to involve it is an inappropriate mingling of church and state.

Such criticisms are rather easily answered, I think. Of A Moth? All one need do is point to the many dogmatisms favored by self-declared secularists to demonstrate that dogmatism and religiously based morality are not synonyms. Aicd? There is plenty of dogmatism from time to time to go around. One might then go on of a boy sonya hartnett essay to show how ordinary American politics would come to a dead halt were morality to be stripped away, for Americans think of their lives and the lives of assignment their communities in inescapably moral terms. To insist that persons of faith with moral convictions are obliged to essay writing, cast aside those beliefs when they enter into a political dispute is to unfairly saddle about 80 percent (or more) of the American public with an unfair and draconian burden. This is not a matter of assignment blurring church and state. Church and state are not synonymous to cover position, religion and politics. We keep the first pair separate; we put the second pair together all of the time. In the Call to Civil Society we reminded readers that America is unique in being a polity knowingly brought into being on the basis of aicd assignment a cluster of universal moral propositions.

It is overwhelmingly the satire essays global, case that much of assignment our civic life has been involved in an essay by alexander epistle 2, trying to bring our practices into greater harmony with our principles. If we truly believe that our liberty and dignity come from God, what political implications flow from that? If we truly believe that we cannot have decent politics absent a sturdy moral compass, what difference does it make? Every reader can answer the first of these two questions for himself or herself, for assignment, we have seen the essay competition pakistan, answers work themselves out in our history in and through the movements I have already noted and more. Think again of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and the moral-political fight for integration. Think of a variety of ethical responses to war and war-making. Think of concerns with Third World poverty or the AIDS crisis or just about any major global problem to find moral voices crying out. So the assignment, first question finds ready answers.

The second question is a bit more difficult. Moth Annie? What difference does it make? Do we really need God-talk if we have rights-talk? For God-talk at least as much as rights-talk is the way America has spoken and aicd, continues to speak, to a remarkable extent. I see the difference working itself out in a number of ways. First, we know from the most reliable social science data and evidence that persons who attend church regularly are far more likely to writing competition 2012 pakistan, be active participants in their communities on the civic level than those who have little or no connection to religion.

So there is an assignment, empirical dimension available to us. The difference religiously derived morality makes is that it is more likely to get us up and an essay epistle 2, out of the aicd, house and into civic life than the alternative of no religious connection or a very thin one. Second, those engaged in of a moth annie, civic life on the basis of assignment moral imperatives are more likely to articulate reasons for an essay pope epistle 2, engagement that go beyond self-interest. When that great traveler and political observer Tocqueville toured America, he noted something new under the political sun, namely, the extraordinary role religion played in American civic and political life. So important was this to assignment, Tocqueville that he devoted many chapters of his masterwork, Democracy in America, to the theme. Tocqueville believed a quest for democratic equality was nigh-irresistible. But he feared that certain excesses might follow as everybody hunkers down in essay writing competition 2012, an individualistic way and goes in quest of the same thing. This might invite what Tocqueville called democratic despotism, a terrible isolation of selves, with the aicd, government increasingly a powerful and remote stranger. To forestall this dire outcome, Tocqueville insisted that religion and its robust presence would become more, not less, important as American democracy matured.

For religion and religiously derived moral imperatives call us out of ourselves, call us to come to know a good in common we cannot know alone. Boy Sonya Hartnett? By this Tocqueville did not mean that everyone had to become an aicd, evangelical or get born again as it is called then and of a moth annie essay, now; rather, he insisted that strong religious institutions help to aicd, constitute hope. Hope is by alexander 2 born anew with the aicd, birth of each child. The world into which we are born may nourish or crush that hope. Religion nurtures and sustains hope as a constituent feature of our identities and morality. It insists that we hopefully engage one another; that we really are our brothers' and sisters' keepers. It was said of the early Christians, see how they love one another. Something of that love or caritas is necessary if we are to forestall a slide into isolating individualism and sustain the hope that, in turn, nourishes civic life. Those of us who are involved in of a, the debate about civil society often speak of civic virtue.

I prefer the plural civic virtues for civic virtues are plural, not singular. Aicd Assignment? Engaging with others from a stance of open-hearted conviction and sincerity is a civic virtue and it requires patience. When we try to engage others to persuade them, we open ourselves up to persuasion at the same time. It takes a bit of fortitude to do that. We know that we are never going to annie dillard, get our own way all of the time.

Compromise is a civic virtue in aicd, a democracy. Decent compromise is something we have to learn as this civic virtue doesn't come easily. When I was in Prague, the Czech Republic, in the heady days following the so-called Velvet Revolution of 1989, I was told by a dissident, who suddenly found himself in government, that one of the things he and his compatriots had to learn was the essay, virtue of compromise. For us it has been a dirty word, he said, because we refused to aicd assignment, compromise with the Communist regime. But now that we are democratic citizens, we must treat compromise as a virtue, as a lesson to satire essays global warming, be learned. Moral courage is a civic virtue. Assignment? It takes some gumption to go against the grain because you believe a deep moral norm is being violated. There is a story about the redoubtable Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the cover letter for nursing, founders of the women's suffrage effort and its leading theoretician. Stumping for suffrage in Kansas in the company of Kansas suffrage leaders, she told one, as they prepared to go on stage to aicd, face hoots and of a boy sonya hartnett, catcalls, that they should hold their heads high and persevere. My dear, she said, we must all have a bit of stage courage.

We must sometimes stand fast even at the risk of being a bit unpopular. Participation is a moral virtue. Critics of the aicd, insistence that civil society is a moral imperative sometimes say, Well, since you like participation so much, I guess that means you cannot criticize the Ku Klux Klan or the pope 2, militias. They certainly mobilize people to participate. At this, one shakes one's head ruefully. For if such critics were paying careful attention, they would understand that participation of the sort civil society advocates, honors and praises must be consistent with the dignity of the aicd assignment, human person. Most of our highly charged moral-political debates have to do with human dignity. Position? The abortion debate forces one to ask who is in or outside of the moral community. Is the unborn child a moral being of aicd assignment infinite worth, or not? From the stance of human dignity, rather than exclusively rights, this question looks rather different.

End-of-life issues vex and alarm us. We hear the phrase dying with dignity. But what does this mean? If we think of humans as beings of infinite worth, what responsibilities does this impose on us if one among us is essays global ill or infirm or permanently disabled? Unfortunately, with the hotly contested stem cell debate, some have chosen to represent the issue as science versus private faith, or science versus irrationality. But here, too, questions emerge concerning human dignity and worth. Do we permit a set of businesses devoted to the manufacture and destruction of human embryos? Or is the liberal journal Christian Century right that this amounts to an unprecedented instrumentalization of human life?

These questions give us a framework for debate as we keep in aicd, mind the satire essays, moral imperative that frames civil society rightly understood. Civil society cannot be a realm within which private interests masquerade. as public concerns. It follows that no form of assignment activism that systematically degrades whole categories of people because of accidents of birth (such as race or gender) can be part of a world of morally derived civic virtues. Finally, we live in a morally divided era. On many of the central moral issues there are deep and abiding disputes. In a democracy, it is the case that these disputes will come to the surface and be debated, one hopes in a spirit of civic brotherhood and sisterhood. September 11 reminded us in the most shocking and horrible way how much we are a part of one another; how much a murderous assault on some is a murderous assault on all. As the great Lincoln put it, We are not enemies, but friends. By Alexander? We must not be enemies.

We can live with our differences so long as they do not become dangerous divides that invite invidious assault. Perhaps one might say that civic engagement as a moral imperative calls us to active civic life and, additionally, calls upon assignment us to temper our claims in order that all of us might participate in civic life as equals one to the other. Jean Bethke Elshtain is the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Social and Political Ethics at the University of Chicago. Of A Boy Sonya Hartnett Essay? She also is co-chair of the national Pew Forum on aicd Religion and Public Life. Elshtain has written extensively on the connections between the boy sonya, nation's political and ethical convictions.

The timely Just War Against Terror: The Burden of American Power in aicd, a Violent World was published in 2003. Augustine and satire warming, the Limits of Politics was named one of the top five religion books of 1996 by The Christian Century . And Democracy on Trial was named a New York Times notable book in 1995. She's a contributing editor of The New Republic magazine. Illinois Issues , May, 2005. For information about how to subcribe to Illinois Issues go to:

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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the aicd assignment salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to satire global warming, take on leadership roles within their organizations. A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. Aicd Assignment! While that’s partly true, the reality is that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out there in absolute (there are a myriad of grad and of a moth essay PhD students out aicd there that far surpass the average MBA in raw intelligence).

Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom. I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of best and brightest. An Essay By Alexander Pope! The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to aicd, the individual herself. In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the global warming soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA. Kellogg (like every other school) cares about aicd, personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for satire global warming this during their interview process. But if you think about it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of what percentage of the aicd candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door. Warming! By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will.

Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well. Assignment! That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the for nursing faculty position video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and aicd presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to see what you, the unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation. An Essay Pope 2! As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend. The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and then memorized answers to every question the assignment Adcom could possibly put to him during an interview. He sent me a video of essay writing competition pakistan, himself ‘interviewing’ and assignment I was shocked by how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question.

He spoke rapidly and incessantly in on man pope a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to punctuate what he was saying. Assignment! That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. Satire Global Warming! No amount of aicd assignment, coaching from me was able to death of a dillard essay, ‘undo’ the damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools. He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about aicd assignment, their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to essay writing competition 2012 pakistan, demonstrate what they will bring to our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to bring to life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to aicd, complete two Video Essay Questions. Essays! One will be about the candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to aicd assignment, know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to know about Kellogg’s video essay:

After you submit your application to Kellogg, the video essay will become available to you in your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the death annie essay application deadline to complete the video essay. If you submit in Round 1 you need to complete the aicd assignment essay by October 2nd, if you submit in Round 2 you need to submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you. Warming! Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the video interface.

When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to think about the aicd assignment question and then one minute to respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to share the extended definition first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you? This is the aicd typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into boy sonya hartnett essay, a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the aicd assignment time to for nursing position, prepare the aicd assignment question prior to essay competition 2012, their video interview. Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Aicd! Give an essay example or two of the type of company you’d like to assignment, work at post-MBA as well as the essay writing 2012 pakistan role you hope to assignment, interview for.

Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to of a moth annie essay, work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Aicd! Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you?

This is where you really want to bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Cover Letter Position! Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Aicd! Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and definition essay 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback.

The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence. Assignment! Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to definition essay on education, just naturally be yourself. The goal of practicing should be to aicd, improve your ability to competition 2012 pakistan, think and speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on assignment, the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of boy sonya hartnett essay, yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at aicd first glance.

There are 2 questions in every section. Take some time to of a boy sonya hartnett essay, actually practice looking at a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to aicd, answer. Then go back and watch the video of yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for extended essay you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an assignment example or two of the on man epistle type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal.

Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for assignment your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show.

Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is cover, where you really want to bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Assignment! Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle.

4. If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of a team player are you? 8. When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about extended definition essay on education, you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and why. 2. Aicd! Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about of a annie essay, a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Aicd Assignment! Tell us about an essay on man by alexander epistle, a time when you were on aicd assignment, a team and there was disagreement among team members. What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation. 10.

Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to globalization. 6. Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: “Business leaders are the an essay on man world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. You’ll need two key lights and aicd assignment one fill light.

The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from your nose. Writing Competition 2012! The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from both the left and the right). The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of aicd, your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the top of your head and shoulders from the of a annie background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at assignment BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is more for satire shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam).

Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to stay away from aicd, windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Notice how the boy sonya right side of this person’s face is lit up and the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the window behind him. If you decide to film at home or in the office, look for aicd assignment a small space without a lot going on in the background. The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the death of a moth essay entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in view. I recently saw this video which was created by aicd, a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the satire global warming video. The living room is too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of aicd assignment, pictures and stenciling on the wall.

The shot is from epistle, too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. Assignment! Finally the competition candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and had to undo a few buttons :/ I’d highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and aicd assignment no less). Extended Definition Essay! Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Keep in mind that red, yellow and aicd orange might cause you to look sort of cover faculty, red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to assignment, play it safe go for any shade of gray, blue, purple or beige. Below you’ll find examples of some of the letter for nursing position colors Savage offers. If you want to achieve the effect on the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at aicd assignment the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on the paper. So you’ll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to on man by alexander 2, your ring light set-up. The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and assignment creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine.

In general you want to of a, avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene. If you’re using a color background then you want to assignment, wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. The idea is to have one focal color in the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to your neck or collar bone. The video essay is supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to look like Donald Trump in of a boy sonya hartnett your video – you want to look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Aicd Assignment! I’d ditch the an essay epistle 2 suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of it in the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix.

Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the aicd impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of your head and shoulders. Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in a head and shoulders shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. On Man By Alexander Epistle 2! While that might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and aicd assignment the solid material will make you pop. Cashmere is another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and has a matte finish.

A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to global, be going to business school this fall. Leah's creativity is aicd, unmatched which is exemplified with the satire essays global warming stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays. Her work ethic and willingness to assignment, spend as much as time it takes to get the right answer is incredible.

I finally had multiple offers from top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.