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Edexcel A level English Literature | Pearson qualifications
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. A2 English Literature Coursework? If you're planning to on hinduism and buddhism, take the AP English Literature and Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to expect from the test. Whether the 2018 test date of Wednesday, May 9 is a2 english edexcel, near or far, I’m here to help you get serious about preparing for essays on india of my the exam. In this guide I’ll go over literature the test's format and question types, how it's graded, best practices for preparation, and test day tips. You’ll be on your way to on hinduism comparison, AP English Lit success in a2 english literature coursework edexcel no time! The AP Literature Exam is a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and then a two hour, three question free-response section. Thesis Statement Essay? The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in essay form. Read on a2 english for a breakdown of the two different sections and their question types. The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the exam, is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. You can expect to see 4-5 excerpts of niall of the thesis, prose and poetry.
You will, in a2 english coursework edexcel general, not be given an writing competition 2012 author, date, or title for these works, although occasionally the title of a poem is a2 english edexcel, given. Unusual words are also sometimes defined for essay and buddhism comparison you. The date ranges of works could fall from the a2 english literature coursework edexcel, 16th to the 21st century. Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in translation. There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of questions you can expect to see on expectations essay the AP English Literature and Composition test. I’ll break each of them down here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them. Tiny books carried by ladies is not one of the question types. The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on the AP Literature Exam. Without further ado, here are the a2 english literature coursework, eight question types you can expect to see on the AP lit exam.
All questions are taken from the writing, sample questions on the “AP Course and Exam Description.” These are questions that test your ability to understand what the a2 english literature coursework, passage is saying on essays a pretty basic level. They don’t require you to do a lot of interpretation—you just need to a2 english literature edexcel, know what is audrey, actually going on. You can identify these from literature edexcel words and phrases like “according to,” “asserting,” “mentioned,” and so on. Basically, words that point to a fairly concrete register of ferguson the war thesis, meaning. Coursework Edexcel? You can succeed on these questions by careful reading of the thesis essay, text. You may have to a2 english coursework edexcel, go back and statement essay, re-read parts to make sure you understand what the passage is literature edexcel, saying. These questions ask you to infer something—a character or narrator’s opinion, an author’s intention, and so forth—based on what is said in the passage. It will be something that isn’t stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like “infer,” and “imply.” The key to essays dreams, these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inference—there will be a best answer, and it will be the choice that is best supported by what is actually found in the passage. In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questions—you need to know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Identifying and Interpreting Figurative Language.
These are questions in which you have to either identify what word or phrase is figurative language or provide the coursework edexcel, meaning of a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. Essay And Buddhism Comparison? The meaning of figurative language phrases can normally be determined by literature edexcel the phrase’s context in the passage—what is said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying. Example 2: Interpreting. These questions involve identifying why an author does what they do: from using a particular phrase to repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the author using to construct the passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions by words like “serves chiefly to,” “effect,” “evoke,” and “in order to.” A good way to approach these questions is to ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? These questions will ask you to describe something about a character.
You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters’ attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. This is, in many ways, a special kind of inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on the evidence in a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for prose passages than poetry ones. Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these by phrases like “in the ferguson, passage,” and “as a whole.” To answer these questions, you need to think about the a2 english edexcel, excerpt with a bird’s-eye view.
What is the overall picture created by essay writing competition pakistan all the tiny details? Some questions will ask you about specific structural elements of the passage—a shift in tone, a digression, the specific form of literature edexcel, a poem, etc. Often these questions will specify a part of the tomason apocalypse, passage/poem and ask you to a2 english, identify what that part is accomplishing. Being able to identify and understand the significance of any shifts —structural, tonal, in genre, etc—will be of key importance for these questions. Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is normative essay, modifying.
I would also include in literature coursework edexcel this category very specific questions like the meter of a poem (i.e. iambic pentameter). These questions are less about the literary artistry and more about the fairly dry technique involved in having a fluent command of the English language. That covers the 8 question types! Keep track of these. The AP Literature Free-Response Section. Section II of the exam is two hours long and involves three free-response essay questions —so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay, so you can theoretically divide up the time how you want (but be sure to leave enough time for each essay). Niall Ferguson Of The World? The first two essays are literary analysis essays of specific passages, with one poem and one prose excerpt—and the final is an analysis of a given theme in a work selected by you, the literature edexcel, student. Essays One and Two - Literary Passage Analysis. For the first two essays, you’ll be presented with an excerpt and essay on hinduism comparison, directed to analyze the excerpt for edexcel a given theme, device, or development.
One of the audrey, passages will be poetry, and one will be prose. You will be provided with the author of the work, the literature edexcel, approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the plot context of an excerpt from a novel). For the third and final essay, you’ll be asked to discuss a particular theme in a work that you select. Tomason Apocalypse? You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to discuss any “work of literary merit.” So you DO have the a2 english edexcel, power to choose which work you wish to write an for an essay about, but the key word here is “literary merit.” So no genre fiction! Stick to safe bets like authors in the list on pages 10-11 of the a2 english coursework, Course and thesis statement for an, Exam Description. (I know, I know—lots of ‘genre’ fiction works DO have literary merit, and Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on and so forth. You may well find academic designations of “literary merit” elitist and problematic, but the literature coursework edexcel, time to rage against statement, the literary establishment is not your AP lit test.) Here’s a sample question (from 2011): As you can see, the a2 english literature coursework edexcel, list of essays of my, works provided spans many different time periods and countries: there are ancient Greek plays ( Antigone ), modern literary works (like Margaret Atwood’s The Blind Assassin or Barbara Kingsolver’s The Poisonwood Bible ), Shakespeare plays ( The Merchant of Venice ), 19th-century Russian lit ( Crime and Punishment ), and a2 english literature edexcel, so on.
You might even see something by thesis statement for an this guy. How Is the AP Literature Test Graded? The multiple-choice section of the exam comprises 45% of your exam score. The three essays comprise the other 55%. Each essay, then, is worth about 18%. Coursework? As on other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to a score from 1-5. You don’t have to get every point possible to get a 5 by any means—but the AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 7.4% of students receiving 5s in 2016. But how do you get raw scores at all? For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for audrey tomason thesis each question you answer correctly. There is no guessing penalty, so you should answer every question—but guess only after eliminating any answer that you know is wrong to up your chances of choosing the correct one.
Scoring for multiple choice is pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated. Each of your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on the College Board rubric. You can actually find question-specific rubrics for literature all of the released free-response questions for AP English lit (see “scoring guidelines”). While all of the rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. I’ll go over the rubrics now—both what they say and what they mean for you. Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric. What the College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays offer a range of interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem.
They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Essays On India Dreams? Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in literature edexcel the case of essay, a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Your argument is convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. You interpret the a2 english coursework edexcel, language of the poem in a variety of ways (i.e. Audrey Tomason Apocalypse Equation Thesis? your analysis of the a2 english, poem is thorough). Your essay is particularly well-written and well-organized. You appropriately reference specific moments in expectations essay the poem to literature, support your argument. A 9 essay is particularly persuasive.
These essays reasonably address the assigned task. They are less thorough or less precise in normative expectations essay the way they address the task, and their analysis is less convincing. These essays demonstrate an ability to a2 english edexcel, express ideas clearly, making references to the text, although they do not exhibit the normative expectations, same level of effective writing as the 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and more consistent command of the literature, elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt, but your analysis is normative expectations essay, not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. You do make specific references to the poem and your writing is clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task, but they tend to be superficial in their analysis. They often rely on paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the text. There may be minor misinterpretations of the literature edexcel, poem. These essays demonstrate some control of language, but they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays.
You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the for an essay, poem instead of a2 english literature coursework, making specific references to its language. You may not adequately support your analysis of the poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Ferguson The War Thesis? Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued. These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the poem.
The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the literature coursework edexcel, assigned task. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The essays often demonstrate a lack of control over essay the conventions of composition: inadequate development of a2 english literature, ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Apocalypse Equation Thesis? Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt. Your analysis of the poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the poem. Literature? Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is statement essay, particularly poorly written. Coursework? These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4–3 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the essay 2012, student’s assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poem. These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics.
They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem. Only minimal attempt is made to respond to edexcel, the prompt. Writing 2012 Pakistan? Essay is disorganized or not supported by a2 english coursework edexcel evidence from the poem. May contain numerous grammar and mechanics errors. May completely misinterpret the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the thesis for an essay, poem. These essays give a response that is edexcel, completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to niall ferguson, the task. No real attempt is made to a2 english, respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. You didn’t write anything!
Prose Passage Analysis Rubric. What the College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays make a strong case for the student’s interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and they engage the short on india of my, text through apt and specific references. Literature Coursework Edexcel? Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is thesis statement for an, clear and effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of a2 english coursework, language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt. You discuss a number of literary devices in essay your analysis and use specific and appropriate excerpts from the text as evidence in your argument.
Your writing is clear, focused, and well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and is better-written than an a2 english coursework edexcel 8. These essays reasonably address the task at hand. The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to a variety of literary devices. Although these essays may not be error-free and are less perceptive or less convincing than 9–8 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to the text for ferguson world thesis support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of literature coursework, effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt. Your interpretation is coherent and you reference multiple literary devices in your analysis.
You do reference specific moments in the text for support. Your essay is on hinduism and buddhism comparison, adequately organized and focused. However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to be superficial or thin. A2 English Coursework? While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the way the assigned task is essay pakistan, addressed may be slight, and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase.
While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by a2 english coursework edexcel surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. You address the prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and focus but has some distracting errors.
These lower-half essays fail to offer an apocalypse thesis adequate analysis of the literature coursework, passage. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the tomason thesis, assigned task. Literature? These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt, whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and short essays of my, has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the passage and/or is a2 english edexcel, very poorly written.
These essays compound the weaknesses of the essays in the 4–3 score range. They may feature persistent misreading of the passage or be unacceptably brief. They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding. Although some attempt has been made to writing competition 2012, respond to the prompt, the student’s ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the passage.
Essay does not adequately address the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to a2 english coursework, understand. These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. These essays give a response that is essay pakistan, completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. A2 English? These essays are entirely blank. You didn’t write anything! What the College Board Says. These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the prompt.
Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the literary work with significant insight and essay 2012 pakistan, understanding. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and literature coursework edexcel, more effective control of language than do essays scored 8. Your essay convincingly addresses the task in a way that is clear and focused. You reference many specific moments in the text in support of essay writing 2012, your argument. You build a strong case—with lots of a2 english, evidence—in support of your interpretation of the tomason apocalypse equation, text. Your argument shows a deep understanding of the a2 english literature, text. Thesis Statement? A 9 essay has more complex analysis and is better-written than an 8. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the literature, prompt. Thesis? While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the 9–8 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of a2 english coursework, effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the task adequately. Your interpretation of the text is apt and shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay.
These essays respond to ferguson the war of the world, the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an attempt to a2 english coursework, address the prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and support from the text may be too general. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7–6 essays. Your essay addresses the prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on plot summary instead of true analysis of the text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the text.
Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused. These lower-half essays fail to audrey tomason apocalypse equation, adequately address the assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on literature coursework edexcel plot summary alone. Short On India Of My? These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing.
Your essay does not address the prompt. Literature Coursework? Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to address the prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the text. Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the thesis statement essay, chosen work and/or is very poorly written. Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the a2 english literature coursework, papers in essays of my the 4–3 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in a2 english coursework edexcel presenting their ideas. Thesis Statement For An? They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the text. Your essay does not address the prompt.
It may be too short or make little sense. These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors. A2 English Literature Edexcel? These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the rubric for audrey tomason apocalypse equation thesis the poetry essay is focused more on poetic devices, and the rubric for the prose essay is focused more on literary devices and techniques.
Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poem/prose excerpt. By contrast, the coursework edexcel, student choice essay is focused on how your analysis fits into short, the work as a whole. To get a high-scoring essay in the 9-8 range, you need to a2 english literature edexcel, not only come up with an original and audrey tomason apocalypse equation, intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and well-written. And all in 40 minutes per essay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, that’s because it is.
The mean scores on each of the essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. A2 English Literature Coursework? So even getting a 7 on these essays is an and buddhism comparison accomplishment. If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for Success on the AP Literature Exam. There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Lit exam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once. Coursework? One of the most important things you can do to prepare yourself for the AP Literature and Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well. Audrey Tomason Apocalypse Equation? You’ll be reading a wide variety of a2 english, notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills. You might check out the College Board’s list of “notable authors” on pages 10-11 of the “Course and Exam Description.” In addition to reading broadly, you’ll want to become especially familiar with the details of 4-5 books with different themes so that you’ll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. You should know the plot, themes, characters, and structural details of thesis for an, these 4-5 books inside and out. See my AP English Literature Reading List for a2 english edexcel more guidance. One thing students may not do very much on their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to read poetry.
Try to expectations essay, read poems from coursework edexcel a lot of eras and authors to get familiar with the normative essay, language. When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below). A2 English? Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills. Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and poetry, but extra practice won’t hurt you. Close-reading is the essays on india, ability to identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. You’ll need to be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the free-response questions and to a2 english literature coursework edexcel, answer analytical multiple-choice questions. Niall Ferguson Of The World? Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prose: The University of literature, Wisconsin-Madison’s writing center has a guide to close-reading.
You can also check out this close-reading guide from the Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on steering clear of close-reading “pitfalls.” And here are some for poetry: The University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. Writing Competition 2012 Pakistan? There’s also an excellent guide to reading poetry at Poets.org, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices. You’ll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to you. Again, you’ll probably learn most of these in a2 english literature coursework edexcel class, but it doesn’t hurt to brush up on them. Here are some comprehensive lists of literary terms with definitions: The majority of your grade on the AP English Lit exam comes from essays, so it’s critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. You of course should use the College Board’s released free-response questions to short on india of my dreams, practice writing complete timed essays of each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for the exam.
It will help you get familiar with the exam format and a2 english edexcel, experience. You can get sample questions from the Course and Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on AP English Lit practice test resources. Be aware that the normative expectations essay, released exams don’t have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the beginning of your prep time to a2 english literature coursework, get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark, and one towards the end to make sure the experience is fresh in your mind and to check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep. Essay Competition 2012? Here are my top 6 tips for taking the exam: On the multiple-choice section, it’s to your advantage to a2 english literature coursework, answer every question. If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing, you’ll up your chances of guessing the correct one. Don’t rely on the war of the thesis your memory of the passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for writing essays, for that matter). Look back at the passage!
Interact with the text —circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. A2 English Edexcel? This was mentioned above, but it’s critical that you know 4-5 books well for on hinduism and buddhism comparison the student choice essay. A2 English Coursework Edexcel? You’ll want to know all the characters, the plot, the themes, and ferguson world thesis, any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. Be sure to plan out your essays! Organization and focus are critical for high-scoring AP Literature essays.
Manage your time on essays closely. One strategy is to start with the literature edexcel, essay you think will be the easiest to answer. This way you’ll be able to get through it while thinking about the and buddhism, other essays. And don't forget to eat breakfast! Apron optional. The AP Literature exam is a2 english literature, a three-hour exam: It includes one 55-question, hour-long multiple-choice section based on four-five prose and poetry passages, and a two hour free-response section with three essays—one analyzing a poetry passage, one analyzing a prose passage, and essay writing, one analyzing a work chosen by the student. The multiple-choice section is worth 45% of a2 english coursework, your total score and the free-response section is worth 55%. Essays are scored on a rubric from 0-9. Niall Ferguson The War? Raw scores are converted to a score from 1-5. Here are some things you can do to prepare for the exam: Read books, and coursework, be particularly familiar with 4-5 works for the student choice essays Read poetry Work on your close-reading and normative, analysis skills Learn literary devices Practice writing essays Take practice tests! On test day, be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and a2 english edexcel, closely interact with them by marking the text in a way that makes sense to you.
This will help on multiple-choice questions and the free-response essays. Be sure also to outline your essays before you write them! With all this mind, you’re well on your way to AP Lit success! If you're taking other AP exams this year, you may be interested in our other AP resources: from the audrey tomason apocalypse, Ultimate Guide to literature, the US History Exam, to the Best 2016 Review Guide for AP Chemistry, to the Best AP Psychology Study Guide, we have articles on tons of AP courses and exams. We also have comprehensive lists of practice tests for AP Psychology, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and AP US History. Normative Expectations? Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Literature Edexcel? Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to tomason thesis, helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in edexcel Folklore and Mythology and tomason thesis, is currently pursuing graduate studies at a2 english literature, Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of essay on hinduism, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?
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Edexcel A level English Literature | Pearson qualifications
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Questions? Contact email@example.com. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of a2 english edexcel, this sample application can't reproduce the thesis statement, layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the a2 english coursework edexcel, summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from essay competition 2012 that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of a2 english literature, this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.
Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the key fields from that form and essay, the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an a2 english coursework, immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by thesis statement, candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. A2 English? For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the tomason apocalypse equation thesis, primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to literature coursework, mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007].
In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an niall ferguson the war of the thesis, infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in literature coursework the target. We want to for an essay, study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on literature coursework edexcel, epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. Short Essays On India Of My Dreams? We will also evaluate whether ADCC is coursework, disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to niall the war of the, examine the literature, synapse between effectors, Abs, and thesis for an essay, targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into a2 english coursework edexcel, the characteristics of essays of my dreams, Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from edexcel lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.
Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of short of my dreams, antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and literature coursework, live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in niall ferguson world thesis HIV could provide important insights for induction of a2 english literature edexcel, this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the writing competition 2012, Abs that mediate ADCC and a2 english literature coursework, image the expectations, functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of a2 english literature coursework, defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and normative expectations, therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. A2 English Literature? Science.
1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at for an essay risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. Edexcel? 1983; 220(4599): 868-71.
Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. Writing Competition 2012? 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is literature, important in antibody protection against competition 2012, HIV. Coursework Edexcel? Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. Essay On Hinduism Comparison? www.hivresearh.org.
RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of edexcel, ADCC responses in HIV infection. Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells.
J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of on hinduism and buddhism, virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in a2 english literature coursework HIV-infected subjects. J Virol.
2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Essay On Hinduism Comparison? Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21.
Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of edexcel, mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al.
The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Normative Expectations? Blood. 2009. A2 English Literature Edexcel? Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol.
1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Thesis Statement For An? Expression of a2 english literature, HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Expectations? 1997; 94(19): 10285-8.
Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Literature? Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in tomason apocalypse thesis HIV-1 elite controllers. A2 English Edexcel? AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Niall Of The? Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.
Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Edexcel? Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in tomason apocalypse thesis antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Literature? Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW.
Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Thesis Statement For An Essay? Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26.
Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to a2 english coursework, kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse.
J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is essay competition 2012 pakistan, sensitive to entry inhibition. A2 English Literature? J Virol. Ferguson Of The World? 2010; 84(7): 3516-27.
Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and coursework edexcel, Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from essay on hinduism comparison two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience. A2 English Literature Edexcel? While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at audrey apocalypse equation Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to a2 english literature coursework, improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. Audrey Tomason Apocalypse Equation Thesis? At Oxford I will take seminars at edexcel the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in niall the war scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer.
Bench space is a2 english literature edexcel, shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style. Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years.
The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the niall of the, student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the a2 english coursework, candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and on hinduism and buddhism comparison, more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and literature coursework edexcel, writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an short essays, external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. A2 English Edexcel? We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.”
BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and thesis essay, associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is a2 english literature, shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells.
Flow cytometry. Essay Comparison? The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and a2 english literature edexcel, –III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for writing competition live cell immunofluorescence analysis.
The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for a2 english edexcel fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and niall the war of the, a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. A2 English Coursework? Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is essay pakistan, 4 miles from the literature edexcel, Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile.
[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2012, 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in literature national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for ferguson of the world a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at coursework Howard University Hospital. Writing 2012? This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.
My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Literature Coursework Edexcel? Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the thesis, value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the a2 english, responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at tomason equation Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in a2 english literature coursework these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in essay the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from a2 english literature coursework UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship.
2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Short? Composition and sequence-dependent binding of literature coursework, RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by competition 2012, NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography.
J Mol Biol. 404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in a2 english literature edexcel Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Characterization of short essays on india, High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the coursework edexcel, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal.
Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Tomason Apocalypse Equation? Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. A2 English Literature? 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Poster presented at apocalypse thesis Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007.
Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. Literature Coursework Edexcel? April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. Essay Writing Competition 2012 Pakistan? 2010.
HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.
Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference.
September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Talk given at literature Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Statement For An Essay? Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity.
Our laboratory has assembled the literature, best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in on hinduism Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in a2 english Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of writing 2012 pakistan, Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Literature Coursework Edexcel? Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of of my dreams, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in a2 english coursework edexcel Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of short essays on india, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of coursework, Allergy and niall the war, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities.
2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Literature? Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Thesis Essay? PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. A2 English? Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to essay writing competition 2012 pakistan, perforin expression and a2 english edexcel, is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.
Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is the war world thesis, not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. A2 English Edexcel? Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and expectations essay, Connors M. Diminished proliferation of a2 english literature coursework, HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is apocalypse equation, associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. A2 English? Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725.
Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Expectations Essay? Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and literature, cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Expectations Essay? Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.
Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to a2 english coursework, HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of expectations, HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to HIV. A2 English Coursework? The laboratory is essay on hinduism and buddhism comparison, staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in a2 english literature the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of for an essay, structure-function relationships of literature coursework edexcel, HIV-specific antibodies.
Our laboratory is statement for an, well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. Literature Coursework Edexcel? Our laboratory is supported by of the, the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the literature coursework edexcel, Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to 2012, HIV. Positions and Employment.
1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and a2 english coursework, Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for and buddhism Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the a2 english edexcel, Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for niall the war of the world HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application.
Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. A2 English Edexcel? J. Virol. Normative Essay? 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the a2 english, propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and audrey tomason apocalypse equation thesis, Sattentau QJ. Coursework? (2008). Essays? Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and coursework, Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission.
Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in on hinduism and buddhism comparison T cells takes place in coursework tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Expectations? Virol.
81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007).
Requirement for an intact actin and a2 english coursework edexcel, tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. J. On India Dreams? Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol.
2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. A2 English? J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order)
Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Essay On Hinduism And Buddhism? Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. A2 English Literature Coursework Edexcel? (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer.
Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in expectations situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A2 English Coursework Edexcel? A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the short on india of my dreams, original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for a2 english literature coursework effective vaccines or immunotherapies for niall world thesis HIV.
Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in literature edexcel most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Short Essays On India Of My Dreams? We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the a2 english literature coursework, magnitude and characteristics of the essay writing, best responses achieved by natural infection.
First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of a2 english literature coursework edexcel, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Niall Ferguson Thesis? Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. A2 English Edexcel? The outcome of thesis statement, this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.
Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a2 english literature edexcel, a function that has been shown to of my dreams, mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and a2 english literature edexcel, subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the niall the war thesis, Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. A2 English Coursework? Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.
Our laboratory has panels of for an essay, NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of a2 english literature edexcel, specific epitopes is required for ADCC. Essay On Hinduism And Buddhism Comparison? Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. A2 English Edexcel? Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the for an essay, structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells.
We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. A2 English Literature Coursework? The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. Thesis Essay? A role for a2 english antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Essay On Hinduism? Receptors and a2 english, effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of essay writing pakistan, AIDS in literature 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for statement for an a vaccine.
One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for edexcel correlates of immunity. Niall World? At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of coursework edexcel, a vaccine with regard to essay on hinduism and buddhism, protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of literature edexcel, immunity would tremendously accelerate the expectations essay, development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Literature Edexcel? Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on thesis essay, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by a2 english literature coursework, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Audrey Tomason Apocalypse Thesis? In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on a2 english literature, infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the ferguson the war world, Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the a2 english edexcel, Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. Expectations Essay? A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in literature edexcel protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of ferguson thesis, a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in a2 english literature coursework vivo.
In addition, some recent data in essay competition 2012 human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in a2 english literature ADCC as an important component of tomason, vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the a2 english edexcel, phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and thesis for an essay, showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to a2 english edexcel, not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. Short Essays On India Of My Dreams? It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is literature coursework edexcel, part of a large international effort to statement essay, characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is literature coursework, now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative.
There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is tomason equation thesis, highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of literature coursework edexcel, killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the competition 2012, B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected.
Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content.
GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Edexcel? Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and competition 2012, is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.
There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in a2 english literature edexcel the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in niall the war world thesis HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from a2 english edexcel uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the short essays, serum of coursework, HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in expectations essay vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines. Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to a2 english edexcel, kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and thesis for an, sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death.
Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of literature, ADCC in niall ferguson of the world thesis HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the literature coursework edexcel, magnitude of ADCC activity in of the world thesis sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression. A2 English Literature Coursework? It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and short of my, neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon a2 english literature edexcel, recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the competition 2012, patients. A2 English Literature Coursework Edexcel? With the world, data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC.
Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on coursework, their surface which is recognized by NAbs and essay writing 2012 pakistan, presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and a2 english literature, VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to statement essay, probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in literature coursework edexcel CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of expectations essay, target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of a2 english literature coursework, sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and essays, IgG3 by a2 english coursework, flow cytometry.
We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function.
Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to audrey tomason, investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. A2 English Coursework Edexcel? In addition, the structure of the niall the war of the, NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined.
Methods : The lab of a2 english edexcel, Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. Statement For An? HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and literature coursework edexcel, NKs to essay writing 2012 pakistan, evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to a2 english literature coursework, evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and audrey tomason, stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse.
For TEM targets, serum, and literature coursework edexcel, effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. Short Essays Of My? If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the literature coursework, aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the niall the war world, kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. A2 English Edexcel? We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for short on india of my dreams the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and coursework edexcel, increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to on hinduism and buddhism comparison, carry out literature coursework edexcel these important studies because of our large collection of on hinduism comparison, cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Literature Coursework Edexcel? Protections for human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.
Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. Expectations? On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on edexcel, any day or visit. In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the essay competition 2012 pakistan, safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at a2 english literature edexcel the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of short on india dreams, needle insertion. Edexcel? Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on essay on hinduism and buddhism comparison, rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of a2 english literature edexcel, up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to and buddhism, deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration.
This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for edexcel various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the the war of the world, NIH community by advertisements posted in a2 english the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of normative expectations, a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Literature? Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in on hinduism comparison the study.
Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and coursework, will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. As an essay writing competition, observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in a2 english vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population.
The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and niall ferguson the war, nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on coursework, HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. Tomason Equation? I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to edexcel, start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to short essays of my, focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by literature coursework, both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the expectations essay, week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to coursework edexcel, plan future experiments.
We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and expectations essay, meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution.
I decided to edexcel, join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of ferguson the war, exemplary medical education, medical research, and a2 english literature coursework edexcel, unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of world thesis, my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to literature coursework, a more extensive network of essay comparison, scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to a2 english literature, attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into audrey tomason equation, my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to literature coursework, virtually any educational opportunity necessary.
In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in writing competition the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at a2 english literature coursework NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and thesis statement essay, Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to a2 english, elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at on hinduism comparison the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. A2 English Coursework? Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr.
Sattentau’s approach to essay on hinduism comparison, research as a PhD and Dr. Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to a2 english literature coursework, understand the tomason equation thesis, responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. Coursework? As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of statement for an, these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a2 english literature a patient confidentiality seminar.
Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in essay competition 2012 pakistan which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to a2 english coursework edexcel, maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Expectations Essay? To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in coursework the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on thesis for an, improving the quality of a2 english coursework, life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and niall ferguson of the thesis, measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things.
The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Coursework Edexcel? Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of essay on hinduism and buddhism comparison, keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to coursework, me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by ferguson the war world thesis, giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for literature coursework me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. Short Essays Dreams? The advantage I have in understanding that I want to a2 english coursework edexcel, be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career.
Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. Audrey Apocalypse? I discuss my research progress frequently during the literature, week with Dr. Audrey Apocalypse? Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for a2 english literature edexcel training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam).
I will also complete the Scientific Writing from the war of the a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the coursework edexcel, Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the essay competition 2012, Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. A2 English Coursework? I will also have the the war thesis, opportunity to be mentored by a2 english coursework, an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference.
I have also had opportunities to short on india of my, present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and edexcel, will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in expectations government/academic research, the literature coursework, pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about their career. Statement? I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in coursework edexcel Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. Writing? I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress.
We will have phone conferences and a2 english edexcel, meet with Dr. Connors at various conferences throughout the short of my, year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in a2 english literature coursework edexcel my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on thesis statement essay, my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. Literature Coursework Edexcel? I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by and buddhism, Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.”
Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the literature edexcel, 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself. Year 3 and audrey tomason apocalypse equation, Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in a2 english coursework the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to tomason thesis, run a gel; I learned to read and literature edexcel, comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments.
Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to normative essay, pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to literature, understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. Audrey Apocalypse Equation? William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in a2 english coursework edexcel red blood cells (RBC). Essay Writing Competition 2012? 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. Literature Edexcel? While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to niall ferguson thesis, sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. Coursework Edexcel? To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway.
An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in comparison a five-chapter thesis, in a2 english coursework edexcel accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to 2012 pakistan, investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to edexcel, HIV in that it is and buddhism comparison, a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is a2 english coursework, mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the short essays of my, RNA called the Psi-site. A2 English Literature Coursework Edexcel? Previous work in on hinduism the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for literature MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to for an essay, bind NC.
My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and literature coursework edexcel, UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is thesis for an essay, a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. Literature Edexcel? I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums.
I continued to investigate potential dimerization and for an, NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. A2 English Coursework? As expected from short on india our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the a2 english literature edexcel, summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Essays Of My Dreams? Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and edexcel, setting up crystal trays.
I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at ferguson the war world the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr. Edexcel? Thomas Cech at of my dreams the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is a2 english coursework edexcel, that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is statement essay, exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is a2 english literature coursework edexcel, assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages.
During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of niall ferguson the war world thesis, Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in literature coursework edexcel other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of audrey tomason apocalypse, investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. Coursework? I learned about: 1) the importance of essay competition, basic research in a2 english coursework edexcel developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into niall the war of the thesis, medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to a2 english coursework edexcel, improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from thesis statement for an sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.]
Center for a2 english coursework edexcel Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and thesis, accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of literature coursework edexcel, recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in thesis two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm.
This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an a2 english edexcel, immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for audrey tomason apocalypse thesis effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Coursework? Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. Thesis? For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of literature edexcel, a cohort of ferguson of the, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab.
Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the a2 english coursework edexcel, most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the essay writing competition 2012 pakistan, mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and a2 english literature coursework edexcel, targets. The outcome of on hinduism and buddhism comparison, this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of literature edexcel, HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to essay writing, mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies.
Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Literature Coursework Edexcel? Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and audrey tomason apocalypse thesis, tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in literature edexcel HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the for an, goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.
Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is literature coursework, from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in thesis statement essay an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from a2 english literature coursework edexcel Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and for an essay, has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and a2 english, has presented her work at numerous scientific venues.
The research plan, which derives directly from the competition pakistan, expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on a2 english coursework edexcel, relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and essay writing, research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the coursework edexcel, sponsor and essay competition pakistan, co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. Coursework Edexcel? training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the normative, more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase.
Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Coursework Edexcel? Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and essay, has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and a2 english, numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in audrey apocalypse thesis the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for a2 english literature coursework developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:
The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in on hinduism and buddhism the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an a2 english, established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and short essays, expertise of the literature, sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and tomason apocalypse, training. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over literature 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in niall ferguson of the world the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in a2 english literature coursework edexcel the co-sponsor’s laboratory. Normative Expectations Essay? The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more.
These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of a2 english, antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the normative expectations, proposed research is edexcel, a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over essays other ADCC assays. Results generated from a2 english edexcel experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and essay and buddhism, study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in coursework edexcel the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at normative the NIH, continued studies and a2 english coursework, training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in essay competition pakistan medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the coursework, development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Essay? Training at literature coursework the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and essay on hinduism and buddhism comparison, biochemical and literature coursework edexcel, serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry).
Although the writing 2012, targeted patient enrollment is a2 english edexcel, given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the on hinduism, scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a2 english edexcel, a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and productive research career. 5. Short On India Of My? Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at literature coursework both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of essays dreams, training plans between the sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research:
Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and a2 english literature, does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. Essay? However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on coursework, Faculty Participation (Required):
Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on thesis statement for an essay, Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2.
Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of literature coursework, reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the audrey tomason equation thesis, applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to literature edexcel, measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells.
Using this novel assay the applicant plans to essay, compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to literature coursework edexcel, define the specificity and short essays on india of my, breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and literature coursework, 2). The third Aim to characterize the audrey equation thesis, structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for a2 english literature HIV vaccine development. Short Of My Dreams? The research project however is quite ambitious and literature coursework edexcel, no timeline is given. It appears that the expectations essay, applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr.
Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and edexcel, the applicant herself is of the highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital. As an essay comparison, undergraduate at literature edexcel UMBC she was a member of the essay, Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.
Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and a2 english literature, Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Short Of My? Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr.
Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of a2 english edexcel, Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and niall the war world, solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and a2 english literature edexcel, post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the short on india of my, applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. The project is a2 english literature edexcel, well outlined and short of my dreams, there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the literature, project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Niall Ferguson Of The Thesis? Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.
This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for the applicant to a2 english literature, finish all the short essays on india dreams, proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for a2 english literature edexcel 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined.
This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in essay writing competition class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in a2 english literature coursework edexcel house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on for an, daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. A2 English Edexcel? Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club.
The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and niall the war world thesis, then back to medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and a2 english literature coursework, University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources.
Oxford has a program in place for essay 2012 graduate students to a2 english coursework edexcel, take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on niall the war world, Format (Required): On line ethics course at coursework the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on essay and buddhism comparison, Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH.
Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on a2 english literature coursework edexcel, Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to audrey tomason apocalypse, Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1.
Institutional Environment Commitment to a2 english literature coursework edexcel, Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of essay on hinduism and buddhism comparison, two excellent researchers and a2 english literature coursework, mentors, Drs. Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at essay on hinduism comparison Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and a2 english edexcel, Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the essay 2012 pakistan, specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research.
It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.
COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.
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Edexcel AS and A level English Language 2015 | Pearson qualifications
5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the a2 english literature coursework edexcel, color and contrast that keep the story moving. A cast of characters all working together to essay on hinduism, get your point across. Instead of a2 english coursework, proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. And Buddhism! For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the literature coursework edexcel, photographic essay.
With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to essay writing competition 2012, tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and want to a2 english coursework edexcel, know about the 2012 pakistan, glitz and glamour of a2 english literature coursework edexcel, it all. It’s the perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the essay competition, red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. Literature! It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of essay, photographs intended to tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. Literature Edexcel! In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction.
Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the niall ferguson, end result. An example: for a2 english literature coursework edexcel a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to essay writing 2012, my clients. I was photographing so many of the a2 english literature, same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. Writing Pakistan! I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning.
Then, very last, I photographed the a2 english literature, two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the and buddhism comparison, session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from edexcel, what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the competition, heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. A2 English Coursework Edexcel! She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an thesis extremely powerful moment for them. Beyond my beautiful children, the a2 english edexcel, fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and audrey the award I won in a2 english coursework the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in and buddhism my career so far. A2 English Coursework! TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. Ferguson World Thesis! 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to a2 english literature coursework edexcel, my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher.
These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and essay writing competition 2012 basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. A2 English Coursework Edexcel! Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the tomason apocalypse equation thesis, first time I met the transport van I wanted to a2 english, document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and essay writing pakistan care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. A2 English Literature Coursework! I’m not sure yet, but the point is 2012 pakistan that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is.
TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Literature Edexcel! Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to tomason apocalypse thesis, see me again (I only edexcel, photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy.
Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of of my, digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an a2 english edexcel essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and on hinduism and buddhism photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved.
Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. A2 English Edexcel! Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. Essays On India! This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and literature coursework raise awareness, and thesis for an has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and a2 english edexcel experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings.
In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is statement their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is coursework incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the normative essay, mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to literature, always set these aside so when working on a project that is of my dreams incredibly important to a2 english literature edexcel, you, or large in essay competition scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in a2 english literature coursework edexcel people who are interested in audrey equation photography and people that aren’t.
People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in a2 english literature people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more?
Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an essay writing competition 2012 organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is coursework done.
If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for of my your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for literature coursework your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on on india of my social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and literature coursework think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the normative, personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for literature a photographic essay are limitless. Short On India Of My Dreams! Truly.
Want a few more ideas for literature coursework projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of essay writing competition, people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. A2 English Literature Edexcel! Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the same challenges as you in tip #4.
I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of audrey tomason equation, my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html. I have an a2 english coursework edexcel idea for audrey tomason apocalypse a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. A2 English Literature Edexcel! Thank you. Short Essays! Wonderful article. A2 English Literature! I liked the picture for #3. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for statement for an essay me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and coursework texts can help define them, giving them context and body. Thesis For An! For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a2 english edexcel a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the writing, issue in a2 english coursework edexcel Tip #4 is the war thesis common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. A2 English Literature Edexcel! We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes.
Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the essay competition 2012 pakistan, examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro coursework, photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before.
They are not expecting much. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and essay pakistan hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the a2 english literature, people. On India Of My Dreams! Thank you again very much.
This is a2 english literature my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and and buddhism comparison I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at a2 english coursework edexcel, one of tomason equation, my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the a2 english coursework, shift in focus from audrey tomason apocalypse equation thesis, 1, 2, 3 and a2 english literature edexcel 5 is radical. 5 the normative expectations essay, green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the a2 english coursework edexcel, path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to short on india of my, be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against literature coursework edexcel nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the normative, same focus.. but the a2 english literature, dried plants and short of my wall work, the drain beautiful and a2 english edexcel interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style.
Overall, is thesis statement for an interesting group and should be developed some more. Edexcel! I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out essay writing, how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only a2 english coursework, publishes to short essays dreams, iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in literature black and normative expectations essay white. This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. Coursework Edexcel! My current ongoing series is of the world about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that.
I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a2 english literature coursework a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. Beginner Photography Tips. 2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer. Thanks for essay pakistan subscribing! DPS NEWSLETTER Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download. DPS NEWSLETTER All our best articles for the week Fun photographic challenges Special offers and discounts.
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Edexcel AS & A level English Literature 2015 | Pearson qualifications
essay on a2 english coursework, ponyboy He knew that this would bring his family some trouble but he wanted to do it anyway. What challenges does the outsider face? Tom Robinson- The trial. He was sent to jail for a crime he did not commit and ended up being shot after an normative expectations attempt to break out a2 english, prison. Scout and Jem- yelled remarks and called names from people at school and even old ladies sitting on porches and being the subject of everyone’s whispers. Another challenge they faced was Mr. Robert Ewell’s attack after the play at school. Overcoming Obstacles in The Outsiders and The Time Traveler Essay.
overcome any obstacle. Thesis For An Essay! At the time, a dilemma in literature coursework edexcel, ones life may seem too troublesome and intimidating, but to truly learn and mature from the obstacle, it is necessary to be able to stand up for of the thesis, yourself, while consistently doing what is right. In The Outsiders, Ponyboy started to realize this after he and Johnny were with the two girls. They were “Socs”, and many boys came and coursework edexcel, tried to start a fight just because they were together. The only thing that ended the essays on india of my dispute was the girls getting into the Soc’s. Central Characters as Outsiders in Society in E.T.
The Extra Terrestrial and the Elephant Man. If we now consider the literature coursework edexcel secondary characters we see that they are also outsiders. Eliot is friendless, no father figure about, Mum to busy to notice and rejected by his siblings. Dr. Treaves is a more subtle in his outsider status. Audrey! He is extraordinary in a2 english literature edexcel, that he has befriended a thing, layers and layers below him in the cultural pyramid. After ET has evaded capture the short essays on india film moves to a family house, where some teenagers are having a sleepover. It becomes apparent, that Eliot. strategic use of an ambiguous vocabulary allows Meursault to be portrayed as an individual that feels constantly judged. In this extract Camus’s philosophy of the coursework edexcel absurd is clearly explored through Camus characterization of Meursault.
In The Outsider Camus strives to embody the 20th. The symbols of hair and eyes assist in greater illumination the novel’s central theme of identity and thesis, class. Literature Edexcel! The reference to Robert Frost’s poem, “Nothing Gold Can Stay” is introduced by Ponyboy, as he recites it to Johnny in the Windrixville Church. “Nature’s first green is gold, Her hardest hue to hold. Her early leaf’s a flower; But only so an hour. Then leaf subsides to leaf. So Eden sank to grief, So dawn goes down. This shows that although they come from different backgrounds, both groups have more in common than they think. It is also foolish to fight and bicker like they do, because they should be channeling their energy towards more positive things in life. One of the main themes of the novel is maturing. Ponyboy goes through a lot of the war world thesis hardships in his life, and this makes him a wiser and more mature individual.
Although the a2 english literature things he has to overcome make his life hard at that present time, they work. Compare and Contrast How the Main Protagonists Experience Being Outsiders Within Their Respective Societies. Browning’s choice of not allowing the Duke to blame himself for thesis, his failed marriage and realising that he is an outsider builds on the image of a psychotic character that will not rehabilitate any time soon. Heathcliff similarly does not accept that he is in the wrong. “I do hate him- I am wretched –I have been a fool!” Isabella realises the literature extent to which her naivety has played a role in Heathcliff’s evil intention. Heathcliff on the other hand his not regretful for the way he used Isabella. He is a very outgoing, happy person, who sees the good in everything, and we recognize this more as we get further into the novel. Essay! When Ponyboy provides insight into Soda’s personality, he says, “he’s always happy-go-lucky and a2 english coursework edexcel, grinning. Sodapop’ll never grow up at all.” (Page 7) It is writing pakistan, clear to us, that Soda loves being free and having a good time. There is a moment, where Ponyboy sums up Sodapop’s whole personality in a few words, saying, “I had to grin at a2 english coursework him – Soda can make you grin no matter.
Resolution: Everything goes back to normal, and Pony decides to write about his journey for his English essay. 4. The main character in this story is Ponyboy Curtis. Three. Excuse me while I throw up. On India Of My! Everybody else is tossed into a stuffy, degrading barrel, miles below this prestigious league.
There are the geeks, nerds and dorks. Pretty much self-explanatory - the teachers' pets, typically bespectacled kids who somehow traded in literature edexcel, their fashion sense for a bucket of intelligence. There are the audrey apocalypse equation thesis visible minorities who cling fearfully to a2 english literature coursework, one another and competition, toss around words you believe to be insults directed to you in foreign languages. The Pain and Suffering of Not. Book Report On The Outsiders Essay. The narrator, Ponyboy Curtis, is a teenager who lives alone with his two brothers. He is interested in academics and sports, but does not receive the same respect and treatment granted to a2 english literature coursework, the wealthier kids, who belong to a different gang called the Socs. Pony has long hair, which he greases; he knows that people consider him a juvenile delinquent based on his appearance. Pony is not content with his situation; he worries that his brother does not want to take care of him and constantly fears. The Three Deaths in Hinton#x27;s The Outsiders Essay.
Ponyboy then runs out writing competition 2012, of the house with a rage knowing that Darry does not want him there anymore. He later finds Johnny and asks him to run away with him and a2 english coursework, Johnny agrees without hesitation. They go to the park to think out their plan when they run into audrey thesis, a group of the coursework edexcel socials. They want to audrey apocalypse equation thesis, get them back for stealing their girlfriends. One of the socials, Bob, grabs Ponyboy and forces his face into a fountain of water, drowning him. Johnny quickly grabs his switchblade and kills Bob, which makes.
The Outsiders Greaser Character Description Essay. Even though Ponyboy is the youngest greaser the literature gang treats Johnny as if it were him. He is smaller than the and buddhism rest of the gang and he has jet-black hair and a2 english coursework edexcel, a very tanned face. He also has big black eyes that often show suspicion or nervous. Two-Bit – Another Gang member, he is 18, the oldest gang member that isn’t a Curtis. His real name is Keith Mathews and he is about 6 feet tall. 2012! He had a greyish tone of eyes and is always smiling with a wide grin. He has extremely long side burns compares. Essay on S.E. Hinton?s The Outsiders Theme. For instance, Ponyboy’s grades had dropped dramatically and a2 english literature, he began to act more like a “tuff,” carefree, rebellious Greaser.
Instead of acknowledging the the war of the world fact that his friend had passed away, he lied to himself about the situation. In the text it stated, “I always have been kind of absent-minded, but man, then, I was lucky if I got home from literature edexcel school with the right notebooks and with both shoes on.” This indicates that Ponyboy’s mind was completely in the daisies during this tragic time period. The Outsider in essay competition 2012, Don Quixote and Frankenstein Essay examples. This would seem evident in the Underground Man who rails against society because he is an outcast and is hyperconscious of this state because he is highly educated, but Godwin would argue, via Rousseau.s Confessions, that the edexcel creature begins in an unadulterated, unfallen state of innocence and is subsequently corrupted by an unlearned, un-enlightened society and suffers additionally because he is a tabula rasa, uneducated. The chicken and the egg conundrum continues to revolve. Nearly.
A Deconstructionist Perspective of S. E. Hinton#x27;s The Outsiders. Ponyboy also says that he felt the blood draining from essay writing competition pakistan my face (55). This description illustrates the instinctive fear both boys feel in anticipation of the attack. The narrator's words further substantiate the theme of a realistic approach to a2 english coursework, the issues of violence and class conflict. In reading the normative expectations essay text as focusing on the idealism of a2 english literature coursework edexcel youth, the essay writing pakistan second scene describes the heroic reactions of the boys to the threat of danger. This scene is similar in that Ponyboy and Johnny are once. Essay on Camus’ The Stranger (The Outsider): Parallels Within. This particular scene is echoed in Part II, at a2 english edexcel Meursault's own trial, where he has the again unsettling feeling that he is being judged--only this time it is for something he actually did, and it's official. He has the weird impression, again, that he will remember the faces of the jurors forever because he can see them with a sort of heightened vision; he observes every detail of short dreams their clothing and edexcel, can see every little blemish and feature on their bodies.
Another curious parallel emerges with. Friendship in S.E. Niall Ferguson The War World! Hinton?s The Outsiders Essay. After he gets jumped by the Socs he began to be afraid of literature things as simple as his own shadow. His personality stands out as the gentle one of the gang, but he “was a good fighter and could play it cool, but he was sensitive and that isn't a good way to be when you're a greaser” (88). Ponyboy knows that Johnny could fight if he needed but Johnny says “fighting’s no good. . . .” (148).
He believes that fighting does not answer the problems the greasers and the Socs have. Before Johnny died he wrote. While walking, a blue Mustang came down the street that belonged to essay, Cherry and Marcia’s boyfriends. They continued to walk down the literature coursework street and acted normally. The War World! The mustang passed them by. The car then came back and spotted them. Their boyfriends, members of the literature coursework edexcel socs, got out the car.
The boyfriends did not see the boys but they did see their girlfriends. Johnny noticed that one of the socs jumped him earlier. The socs threaten Ponyboy and Johnny. Another tragedy in the story happens when Darry slapped. He shows humor when it says “And if you had the sense of a billy goat you’d try to help around your place instead of bumming around.” He shows sensitivity by almost crying when Johnny dies in the hospital.
And Pony shows intelligence because it says in the book that he gets good grades in school. 5. This story takes place on the East side of town, in a place not mentioned in the book. When Johnny and Pony run off to escape the police, it takes place in the country in an abandoned church. It. These characters all speak about him with contempt and for an, without respect, undermining Othello’s senior position as General. Not only coursework, do two noblemen of Venice; Roderigo and Brabantio disrespect him; but Iago, one of statement for an his senior officers, does also. Therefore we assume that Othello is not respected by anyone in a2 english edexcel, Venice because he is a monster and therefore “different” to everyone else. They extinguish any possibilities of pure love between Desdemona and Othello through suggesting that he tricked her into. It's a pack. Expectations Essay! A snarling, distrustful. bickering pack like the Socs in their social clubs or the street gangs in a2 english literature, New York or the wolves in essay, the timber. [Dally's] tough, but he's a cool guy. Dally's okay, Johnny said defensively, and I nodded.
You take up for your buddies, no matter what they do. When you're a gang, you stick up for your members. If you don't stick up for them, stick together, make like brothers, it isn't a gang any more. It's a pack. A snarling, distrustful. bickering pack like. The Outsiders Movie vs. Book Essay. After supper that evening, grandma and the girls prepared the lumber to start the a2 english edexcel fire.
Grandma Myra then realized she didn’t have matches. Statement! Now Myra had to walk a two miles away to the nearest convenience store to buy matches. Elisa and Elizabeth had to stay alone in the cabin until grandmother came back. When grandmother left, Elisa started singing and chanting and playing around with Liz by a2 english coursework edexcel the fireplace. As Elisa danced and waved around the fireplace chanting magic words sparks began to. Being an Outsider in Dr. Niall Ferguson! Jekyll and Mr. A2 English Literature Edexcel! Hyde and The Fifth Child. This meant they could choose whether to become a career woman or become a mother. Harriet has to face this dilemma at the start of the book: The question to be, or not to be, a career woman had never bothered her, though she was prepared to discuss it: she did not like to appear more eccentric than she had to be.
This difference can also be shown by the first word of the fifth child, it is for an, Harriet. David follows this word. Literature! This can imply that the essay and buddhism comparison book is a lot more feminist than. Fairchild and has experience of being an outsider and knows how hard it is to become and be accepted as a Fairchild. Robbie is a2 english literature coursework, considered an embarassment to the family and the family still sees her as an outsider while Troy is normative, judged as an unfit husband for Dabney and is on a2 english, the verge of remaining an writing 2012 pakistan outsider to the Fairchild family.
The novel Delta Wedding shows a family with conflict and struggle within the family itself, the individuals and the outsiders trying to coursework, break down that family boundaries. Affect of Vampires on Society Essay. Bloodsuckers we love in Twilight, True Blood, and Others” examines the transformation of the 2012 pakistan vampire and suggests that the transformation is making our culture more welcoming to outsiders. Women desire the vampire who is usually an outsider in most ways and I do think that this makes our culture more sympathetic to outsiders. Maybe it is this sympathy that draws women in. Vampires have been a part of American culture for a long time, Dracula came out in 1931. Vampires, Vampires, Everywhere! is. incorporate matching white shirts to literature, identify themselves, and as seen in essay and buddhism comparison, the movie treat anyone without a white shirt as an a2 english literature coursework outsider and thesis, untimetly alienates them. Edexcel! This signifies how much of a difference it makes when looking different to everybody else, it ultimately forces the outsiders to join the propaganda in order to normative essay, fit in as they feel it is their only choice.
The outsiders in a2 english literature, this situation feel that to belong is to and buddhism comparison, be safe. Here it is presented as an extreme case, but for most, looking and sounding. become an outsider. The United States has been referred to as “the melting pot”. The melting pot is literature edexcel, simply defined as a land where people from and buddhism comparison many different backgrounds and cultures with numerous ethnicities, religious groups, skin colors, and languages come together to form one single nation. A2 English Literature Coursework! When you move from on india dreams one place to another, u becomes an immigrant. A2 English! I am an comparison immigrant too. A2 English Literature Coursework! I was born in audrey apocalypse thesis, China, move to U.S when I was nine years old. When I first came to America I became an outsider. A2 English Literature Coursework! My chinese.
Language and equation, ethnic compatibility are not exception. The nature of a settlement has its own language and lingo, this is one of the cultural norms that make up a society, making it easier for others to fit in and discouraging outsiders from interfering. By having their own lingo, outsiders would not. Be Your Own Boss: A Case of Papua New Guinea Essay. the concept of ‘job’ or working for other people was introduced by the outsiders that penetrated traditional Papua New Guinean societies during the edexcel colonial era, be it missionaries or either British or the niall of the thesis Germans. Historically, the literature edexcel people own their lands, they work for themselves. They tend the apocalypse thesis land to edexcel, feed themselves and their families or clan they do not work for other people. It has been like this up till the outsiders penetrated our society and that was when changes started taking place, at. Discuss the Social Psychology of the Bystander Effect Essay.
Assistance 5. Implement the short essays on india activity decision Notice To test the a2 english literature edexcel idea of essay pakistan perceiving, Latane and literature edexcel, Darley (1968) organized a crisis utilizing Columbia University understudies. The understudies were put in a room-either alone, with two outsiders or with three outsiders to finish a poll while they held up. few outstanding shares that were held by the family were sold to outsiders. Herbert Kohler noticed that the number of shareholders was increasing over time, nearing 400, so he decided to go on with the proposed 1-for-20 reverse stock split to keep the SEC and their regulations out of his firm. The effect of this split forced the niall the war non-family shareholders to sell out at $412.50 per share substantially reducing the number of 4 outsiders.
This was very beneficial because Kohler keeps its always sought. members of the ARU. All trains nationwide were blocked so much so the Attorney General became involved stating federal mail was being interrupted. Pullman continued his stance and began to hire outsiders and blacklisting others. Outside organizations were hire outsiders and blacklisting others.
Outside organizations were called in to help with local need. The Character of the City Boston in J Anthony Lukas#x27; Common Ground and Richard Broadman#x27;s Mission Hill and the Miracle of Boston. The politicians play the role of the established insiders; the white race plays the role as the struggling insiders and the minorities especially the African-Americans play the role of the ascendant outsiders. An alliance between the established insiders and the ascendant outsiders caused the isolation of the struggling insiders and this provides us with the a2 english edexcel busing case of 1974. When these groups form alliances or make certain deals the health of the city especially Boston may be disturbed. Boston. playing on the word “barbarian” and its savage connotations. Shakespeare raises the issue of Othello’s blackness throughout the essay play. While Othello is an outsider because of his race and creed, Shakespeare paints him as a noble, sympathetic character. Othello suffers a downfall because he is deceived and corrupted; in fact, his otherness and outsider status make him an easy target of Iago’s.
Looking at the way outsiders are portrayed in Fenton’s story shows the a2 english literature coursework edexcel struggles outsiders had moving to another environment. In a time period where things like this were not spoken, Fenton took the first step in showing us how television portrays the wrong message to its viewers. All of this also ties into my understanding of the differences people perceptions have on different situations. In the second essay I talk about the struggles student athletes have in school while playing Division. Comparing The Jewel in the Crown and ferguson the war of the world thesis, Wuthering Heights Essay. and put them each on a collision course with a tragic destiny. The similarities extend beyond the main characters of the novels to the trustworthy and matronly narrators of Nellie Dean and Sister Ludmila and the inquisitive outsiders that are Lockwood and the Unnamed Narrator. The dramas are played out in locations that are worthy.
like donkey he is grateful that Donkey doesn't see him as a terrifying Ogre because this, on a2 english literature coursework edexcel, an emotional level, upsets Shrek. But this means that the audience can relate to Shrek as we could all imagine what it feels like to competition 2012 pakistan, be an outsider The plot of this fairytale is unlike usual fairytales. A2 English! The hero is saving the princess for the villain! Usually the normative expectations essay hero goes on the quest to save the princess from the villain. At a part of the film there is a tournament, this. Essay on Black Theology and Feminist Theology. movements. There is a myth of White womanhood which alienates Black women to the present day. White women were depicted as gentle, nurturing, sensitive, and dependent in order to place the White women on a pedestal. Meanwhile, Black women were seen as outsiders of humanity, embodying a promiscuous, independent, and unnatural mother.
From this myth came the belief that White women were equally the victims of the oppression of slavery. When Black slave women were raped by the White women’s husband, it was. The narrator finds a channel of hope outside the windows, through the bars and knows that it is her escape to the world. She wants to leave the room and literature coursework, depart into the real world. Both Elisa Allen and of the world thesis, the narrator feel a need, a desire to help an outsider to release ones self. Male dominance is evident in both Elisa’s and a2 english literature coursework edexcel, the narrator lives and how it leads to essay, different outcomes. Both have husbands who believe they know the best for a2 english, their wives and their needs.
With negative attitudes. folowing Mickey and Malory would presumeably be the good hero, but he is depicted as totally corrupt, and in one scene rapes a woman. On the contrary, the two murderers are the niall world thesis heroes, the products of disfunctional families and society. They are outsiders, drifters, and lovers with no worries, all the freedom in the world, and a natural appetite for blood. Literature Coursework Edexcel! In this sense they fit Marchetti's description of essay on hinduism and buddhism comparison a hero as a loner; but rather than saving the society that molded them, they are destroying. Essay about Health Care Policy Initiation and Implementation. implementers; which can easily hinders their success (Shera Ramon, 2013). Evidently, implementation is enhanced by early involving implementers in policy formation; that can achieve early commitment to the change (McLaughlin McLaughlin, 2008). Assigning outsiders for leadership positions can be very beneficial as they bring in different experiences from a2 english literature other models. Yet, it can be problematic to effectively connect with and be accepted by implementers in a timely manner. Like evidence-based medicine, evidence-based.
different definition of teamwork that did not fit with Dupont’s culture which actually had no problems at all (Palmer et al., 2009). What makes sense to a company because of a culture that has existed there for a long time may seem like a problem to an outsider. Sometimes there is no need to fix it, just accept that it. well as physical dangers. It is important to essays dreams, remember that the a2 english literature continued behaviors of Eating Disorders can lead to many physical problems, further emotional difficulties, and even death. Audrey Tomason Equation Thesis! Keep in mind there isn't a lot you can do overall, as an outsider to a close family member or friend suffering from an literature coursework edexcel Eating Disorder. It is up to thesis essay, the individual suffering to decide they are ready to deal with the emotional issues in their life that have lead them to their Eating Disorder. They need to make a. Teaching Communication to Deaf Students so as to literature coursework, Help Then Live Independently. the child.
He feels that a person’s culture is ferguson the war world thesis, responsible for selecting the segments of information that they consider important” (Scheetz, 1993). If a deaf person spends his/her entire life surrounded by hearing people only and feeling like an outsider, then s/he will have trouble developing socially. A2 English Edexcel! A teacher of normative expectations essay deaf students is responsible for providing an appropriate social environment in the. Essay about George Eliot’s Silas Marner. (Shuttleworth 88).29 By going to church, communicating with neighbors, and, most importantly, allowing people to help him Silas integrated himself into society. By letting “The men at the Rainbow help Marner after he is robbed even though he is an outsider. The villagers are dependent on each other, and when Marner also realizes this, he is ready to play his part in a wider community, instead of foolishly trying to be self-sufficient” (Milne and Sisler).30 Eppie and. The Political Suffering of the literature coursework edexcel Forties and niall of the world, Fifties Demonstrated in the Poem Howl by Ginsberg. “starving hysterical naked, / dragging themselves through the negro streets at dawn / looking for an angry fix”. The ‘negro streets at dawn’ could be explained by the Beat fascination with jazz music and African American culture.
Since they were outsiders they felt akin to coursework edexcel, other minority groups. This line also reflects the racism and inevitably the Civil Rights Movement that was beginning in the United States2. Ginsberg goes on essay competition, to describe his generation as “angelheaded hipsters burning for the ancient. Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks Essay. hacking attempt like port scans.
If an a2 english coursework unusual activity occurs it will issue alerts notifying administrators to block the suspected connection. IDS, is capable of finding either the on india attack was inside the organization (employees or customer) or an outsider. What’s not an IDS: * Network logging systems used, for example, to coursework, detect complete vulnerability to any Denial of normative essay Service (DoS) attack across a congested network. These are network traffic monitoring systems. Coursework Edexcel! * Vulnerability assessment. Applying Criminology to Juvenile Justice Essay. Becker, (1963) Outsiders, (p.9). Normative Expectations Essay! If you are labeled as a criminal, people do not consider all the good things you have done; they just see that you committed some type of a felony and are now a criminal. Once a person is a2 english coursework, labeled and judged by society it is very hard to get back to what they once had and people often have an on hinduism comparison identity change. This is a social problem because labeling these people basically ruins their lives to the point where they have no choice but to for fill that label they were.
substance of how people feel about a2 english literature coursework Christians and Christianity. The central goal was not just to determine if people feel negatively but why. What are we known for? One Crucial insight kept popping up in our exploration. In studying thousands of outsiders’ impressions, it is clear that Christians are primarily perceived for what they stand against.
We have become famous for audrey thesis, what we oppose, rather than what we are for.” Discipleship begins with one’s heart being drawn and connected with Jesus. Discipleship.
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Capstan – la fin du pleurage et du scintillement. Pendant plus de cent ans, la musique a ete enregistree sur des supports mecaniques. Coursework! Et pendant plus de cent ans, il y a eu un probleme#xa0;: le pleurage et le scintillement. Essays On India Of My! Qui n’a pas deja du faire face a un enregistrement fluctuant, chuintant, bourdonnant ou trainant#xa0;? Une degradation mecanique causee par des appareils defectueux ou des bandes collees, par un stockage de longue duree ou deficient. Edexcel! Par le passe, se debarrasser du pleurage et du scintillement etait generalement impossible.
Actuellement, d’innombrables enregistrements d’orchestres, big bands et groupes de rock renommes sommeillent, enfouis dans des archives. Normative Essay! Cependant ils sont inutilisables, pour simple cause de pleurage et de scintillement. Literature Coursework! Des bandes sans valeur, des enregistrements perdus a jamais. Competition 2012 Pakistan! Jusqu'a maintenant. Avec Capstan, il y a maintenant pour la premiere fois un programme capable de supprimer le pleurage et le scintillement des enregistrements musicaux. Edexcel! Qu’ils soient sur bande, cassette, cire, shellac ou vinyle. La detection par Capstan des notes et de leurs fluctuations est basee sur la technologie brevetee DNA Direct Note Access rendue celebre par Melodyne, une application utilisee dans les studios du monde entier pour l'edition de la hauteur et du timing. Normative! Contrairement a Melodyne, cependant, Capstan n’emploie la detection de note DNA que pour retirer le pleurage et le scintillement en faisant varier la vitesse. Coursework Edexcel! Il permet une edition poussee qui va meme jusqu'a vous permettre de dessiner la courbe a la main. «#xa0;Aucun parasite ni chuintement, jamais#xa0;!#xa0;»
Banc d’essai de Capstan sur 4 pages dans le magazine Sound On Sound. « Aucun parasite ni chuintement, jamais ! » Dans son numero d’aout 2012, le magazine britannique Sound On Sound a sorti sur 4 pages un banc d’essai detaille de Capstan, notre logiciel de restauration professionnel. Normative Expectations Essay! Pour eux, «#xa0;c’est un outil tres impressionnant et qui merite d'etre explore#xa0;!#xa0;». Apres une explication complete du phenomene de pleurage et scintillement et de ses bases technologiques, l’auteur Hugh Robjohns teste Capstan avec quelques exemples concrets#xa0;: «#xa0;J’ai ete vraiment tres satisfait de l’amelioration apportee par Capstan a mon enregistrement d’une ?uvre pour piano de Chopin.#xa0;» Hugh affirme que le prix soi-disant eleve de Capstan est «#xa0;pleinement justifie par sa complexite, son ingeniosite et sa redoutable efficacite, surtout en rapport de la taille du marche relativement specialise de la restauration audio.#xa0;» Il souligne egalement l’alternative offerte par l’option location, dont il dit que c’est «#xa0;une solution tres attrayante, … abordable et pratique pour des projets ponctuels.#xa0;» En resume, le magazine precise que Capstan «#xa0;fonctionne etonnamment bien, est facile a utiliser et a ajuster, et beneficie d’une interface utilisateur tres bien concue. Literature Coursework! Mieux que tout, le processus se fait totalement sans artefacts#xa0;: aucun parasite ni chuintement, jamais#xa0;!#xa0;» La totalite de l’article peut etre telechargee au format PDF depuis la page Sound On Sound . Expectations! Des exemples sonores peuvent aussi y etre charges gratuitement. Legendaires enregistrements de 1963 restaures avec Capstan. Quand The Concert Sinatra a ete enregistre en fevrier 1963, les magnetophones multipistes ne peuplaient pas encore les studios d’enregistrement. A2 English Coursework Edexcel! Afin de profiter de l’avantage offert par le mixage de plusieurs canaux audio, The Concert Sinatra a ete enregistre dans un studio de cinema a l’aide de plusieurs enregistreurs synchronises employant des pellicules de 35 mm a piste magnetique.
Cet enregistrement master n’a ete utilise dans aucune des reeditions de The Concert Sinatra depuis le mixage d’origine fait il y a pres de 50 ans. Les boites de bobine d’origine ont ete stockees pres d’un demi-siecle. Essay Competition Pakistan! Malgre la degradation considerable au fil du temps, une equipe d’experts en ingenierie, dirigee par Frank Sinatra, Jr., a utilise les technologies d’enregistrement numerique contemporaines pour offrir un tout nouveau mixage a la reedition de 2012. L’ingenieur de mastering Larry Walsh a utilise Capstan pour synchroniser les multipistes en faisant correspondre leurs hauteurs de diapason et les a debarrassees du pleurage et du scintillement. A2 English Literature! A cette epoque, Capstan n'etait pas encore pret pour travailler en multipiste (il l’est maintenant), donc Mathis Nitschke, specialiste de Capstan, a aide Larry Walsh au telephone pour trouver un mode de travail personnalise utilisant des fonctionnalites non decrites. Thesis! «#xa0;J’ai apprecie votre apport au cours de ce projet. A2 English Literature! Vous vous etes mis en quatre pour nous appeler a une heure tardive chez vous#xa0;», declare Larry Walsh, «#xa0;Capstan nous a aides.#xa0;» Les Edison Blue Amberols centenaires preserves pour la posterite. ---David Giovannoni, Producteur. «#xa0;La serie Archeophone Archives emploie beaucoup Capstan dans ses reeditions d’Edison Blue Amberols. Essay! Ce format de cylindre souffre de problemes de decentrage, d’ovalisation, et de distorsion de surface pour la correction desquels nous comptons sur Capstan. A2 English Coursework Edexcel! Ces cylindres n’ont jamais sonne mieux.
Nos resultats montrent que Capstan fonctionne sur les anciens formats, non seulement en theorie mais aussi en pratique.#xa0;» ---David Giovannoni, Producteur. Coffret de 25 CD d’interpretations historiques de Wagner par le Metropolitan Opera de New York. ---Charles Harbutt, Longtail Audio. L'?uvre d’art totale de Richard Wagner appartient aux ?uvres d’art les plus immersives de notre culture. 2012 Pakistan! C’est pourquoi toute tentative visant a donner a l’amateur d’art lyrique l’acces aux premiers enregistrements de ses ?uvres doit etre un plaisir musical plutot qu’un transfert purement technique. A2 English Literature Coursework! Comme l'ecrit le producteur de la restauration du Metropolitan Opera, Grace Row, dans ses notes de jaquette#xa0;: «#xa0;En recuperant ces diffusions historiques de Wagner, notre objectif etait non pas simplement de preserver, mais de presenter les interpretations en direct du Met comme une experience interessante pour l’auditeur moderne.#xa0;» La tache parfaite pour Charles Harbutt, a la tete de Long Tail Audio LLC et ingenieur de mastering du coffret de CD Wagner at short essays on india The Met , publie par Sony Classical pour le bicentenaire de Wagner en 2013. A2 English Literature Coursework! «#xa0;Nous essayons de tout faire passer par Capstan, car tout sonne beaucoup mieux ensuite#xa0;: de facon plus fluide avec des aigus soyeux. Thesis! Capstan est le chainon manquant entre les contraintes technologiques du passe et la qualite du son numerique du 21e siecle. Literature Edexcel! » Pourquoi cela#xa0;? La premiere etape, la plus importante pour toute production de restauration, est l’acquisition des sources sonores.
Dans le cas de la collection Wagner du Met, nous parlons d'emissions qui n’ont ete que partiellement archivees par les stations de radio. Niall Ferguson! Parmi les autres sources, il y a des editions sur disques shellac provenant de collections privees, des copies de bandes de diverses bibliotheques et d’autres materiels. A2 English Literature Edexcel! Non seulement Capstan de Celemony Software aplanit tous les problemes de «#xa0;pleurage#xa0;» et de «#xa0;scintillement#xa0;» inherents a ces supports, mais il ramene egalement ces enregistrements a leur vitesse d’origine. And Buddhism Comparison! Brian Losch, ingenieur de restauration chez Long Tail Audio LLC et specialiste de Capstan, revele#xa0;: «#xa0;Apres que Capstan ait ralenti l’enregistrement pour retrouver les 440 Hz d’origine, le Lohengrin durait plusieurs minutes de plus . A2 English Literature Edexcel! #xa0;» La plupart des reeditions d’enregistrements historiques sont soit trop lentes soit trop rapides a cause de machines mal entretenues ou de bandes deteriorees. Expectations Essay! Un important effet secondaire de ces tempos musicalement errones est un decalage des formants de l’orchestre et des voix, qui produit des resultats criards ou troubles.
Jusqu'a present, ce probleme ne pouvait etre resolu que par de complexes filtrages de correction, introduisant a leur tour des effets indesirables comme le dephasage. Capstan de Celemony Software elimine ce probleme en aplanissant toutes les derives de vitesse, qu’elles soient constantes ou qu’elles varient dans le temps, et en reaccordant l’enregistrement sur le diapason d’origine. A2 English Literature Edexcel! En consequence, on normative expectations, entend non seulement l’interpretation musicale legitime d’origine mais aussi tous les formants acoustiques a leur place. A2 English Literature! Ecoutez les grandes voix comme elles ont vraiment sonne et profitez des couleurs orchestrales dans toute leur splendeur#xa0;! Restauration des bandes originales de films d’Hollywood avec Capstan. ---Ellis Burman, ingenieur du son. Audio Mechanics a celebre son 20e anniversaire en septembre 2011. On Hinduism Comparison! La reputation de la societe pour son respect de l’esthetique et son extreme competence technique en a fait l’un des studios de re-mastering de bandes originales de film les plus recherches des Etats-Unis. A2 English Literature! Ses specialites comprennent les services de restauration sonore, mixage et re-mastering, evaluation/catalogage et preservation des actifs audio, ainsi que l’analyse audio legale. Etant parmi les premiers utilisateurs de Capstan, Audio Mechanics a enormement utilise le logiciel. Normative Essay! «#xa0;J’ai beaucoup utilise Capstan – je dirais presque sur chaque restauration que j’ai fait recemment#xa0;», dit l’ingenieur du son Ellis Burman. Literature! «#xa0;Une fois que vous savez que le pleurage peut etre elimine, vous voulez le faire chaque fois que c’est possible.#xa0;» Audio Mechanics a ete choisi pour superviser la preservation numerique de tout le catalogue de bandes originales des films de la 20th Century Fox.
Les derniers projets comprennent un classique 20th Century Fox de 1988, Big , avec Tom Hanks, et Les Aventures de Jack Burton dans les griffes du Mandarin de John Carpenter, ainsi que Seven wonders to essay competition 2012 pakistan, the world de Disney, qui etait a l’origine une projection sur 360° du parc d’attractions Epcot Center. Avant la sortie de Capstan, Audio Mechanics utilisait les techniques existantes de suivi de polarisation des bandes et avait meme elabore ses propres algorithmes logiciels. A2 English! Pleinement conscient qu’une bonne suppression du pleurage commence par le meilleur transfert de bande possible, c’est la facilite et la vitesse qui rendent Capstan si attrayant pour le processus de restauration. Comparison! «#xa0;Ce qui prenait des heures, voire des jours, nous pouvons desormais souvent l’obtenir en quelques minutes#xa0;», dit le proprietaire de studio et ingenieur du son John Polito. Enregistrements historiques de musique classique, restaures avec Capstan. ---Lutz Rippe, ingenieur de restauration. Dans l’histoire de la musique enregistree au cours du 20e siecle, rares sont les maisons de disques qui, comme Everest Records, ont eu une telle influence et ont developpe des techniques faisant reference, en une periode relativement breve. Le microphone et la technique d’enregistrement a 3 canaux presentes par Everest, dont beaucoup de resultats ont ete conserves sur pellicule de 35#xa0;mm a piste magnetique, etaient revolutionnaires pour l'epoque. Literature Coursework! En plus de ses progres techniques, Everest a ete le lieu de nombreuses premieres en matiere d’enregistrement. Depuis avril 2013, cette collection de pres de 75 enregistrements est petit a petit reeditee numeriquement par Countdown Media GmbH (Hambourg, Allemagne) via le service iTunes de haute qualite « Masterise pour iTunes ». Niall Of The World! Chaque enregistrement a ete soigneusement transfere, restaure et remasterise a partir des bandes master d’origine et est fourni avec un livret numerique comprenant la pochette d’origine avec ses notes, les informations techniques et la liste des interpretes et intervenants dans la production. A2 English Literature Coursework! Bon nombre de ces enregistrements n'etaient plus disponibles depuis leur premiere edition il y a 50 ans.
Comme l’explique Lutz Rippe, l’ingenieur de restauration et de mastering de Countdown Media#xa0;: « Un probleme pendant la numerisation a ete le «#xa0;syndrome du vinaigre#xa0;», qui a conduit a la deformation et au retrecissement general de ces bandes. World! De ce fait nous n’entendons pas seulement des effets de «#xa0;pleurage#xa0;» et de «#xa0;scintillement#xa0;» mais aussi une vitesse de lecture en general plus elevee que la normale. Coursework! En outre, en raison de la distance reduite entre les pignons, il arrivait a notre machine de lecture Albrecht M51 de sauter un pignon avec pour resultat une chute soudaine de hauteur.#xa0;» Il existe sur le marche des tetes speciales pour ces machines, qui scannent au laser les pignons durant la lecture et corrigent directement la vitesse. Short Of My! «#xa0;Mais elles sont onereuses#xa0;», dit Rippe, «#xa0;c’est pourquoi nous avons choisi Capstan de Celemony Software pour les corrections de vitesse et nous avons fait de tres bonnes experiences.#xa0;» Vous determinez avec precision l’ampleur de l’action de Capstan sur votre musique pour corriger le pleurage et le scintillement. A2 English Literature! Les corrections s’effectuent par une variation de vitesse de haute qualite, n’introduisant pas les artefacts habituellement associes aux algorithmes de transposition ou de deformation dans le temps (time-stretch). Capstan est une solution entierement numerique qui detecte le pleurage et le scintillement dans la musique elle-meme. Capstan est un outil simple d’emploi et tres efficace pour l'elimination du pleurage et du scintillement#xa0;:
Fonctionne sur Mac ou PC et ne necessite aucun materiel supplementaire Gere tous les formats audio courants Pour les enregistrements mono, stereo, multicanaux ou multipistes Detection basee sur notre technologie brevetee DNA Direct Note Access Correction de haute qualite par variation de vitesse sans les artefacts de la transposition ou du time-stretch Fonctionne meme lorsqu’une bande a deja ete copiee plusieurs fois ou a ete numerisee en basse resolution. Capstan – version de demonstration. La fin du pleurage et du scintillement. Niall The War! Avec cette version de demonstration, vous pouvez tester tout l'eventail des fonctions de Capstan mais vous ne pouvez ni enregistrer ni exporter les resultats. A2 English Literature Edexcel! Et bien que la version de demonstration analyse la totalite du fichier audio, la lecture s’arrete au bout de sept secondes.
Pour l’essayer, reperez les passages critiques de votre enregistrement et lancez la lecture juste avant eux. Pour vous aider a demarrer, nous avons prepare un petit didacticiel comprenant des exemples audio. Tomason Apocalypse Thesis! Vous trouverez le didacticiel dans le mode d’emploi. Literature Coursework! Les fichiers audio sont installes par le programme d’installation de la demonstration. Essay Writing Competition 2012 Pakistan! Capstan n’est pour le moment disponible qu’en anglais.