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Write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy

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Honesty best policy essay – West Minster - Westminster – Compliance

Brain Death and Life Support System essay. By the end of 1980, a rule was passed by Washington Supreme Court under which “brain death” was considered to be a “legal” method to determine death. Under this verdict death was defined as “irreversible cessation of all functions of entire brain, including brain system”. Death of the write essay on honesty best policy brain usually results from the at least values are universal is known absence of the “cerebral blood flow” due to a severe brain injury or “critical illness. This type of death is usually affirmed by the “clinical neurological examination” along with a “positive apnea test”. (EElco, Pg: 7) Under the “Uniform Determination of Death ACT” of US any man whose brain is dead will be considered dead. However, one must keep in mind that there is an evident “difference between brain death and severe brain damage”. It is important that the doctors should be capable to recognize this difference because in case of brain death the essay on honesty is the continuation of life support treatment is of no use. ! (EElco, Pg: 7) The main reason of brain death in adults is “traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage”. However, cruel abusive measures, road accidents and “asphyxia” cause brain death in a narrative essay is the best children.

The discontinuation of“mechanical Ventilation” can only take place when a patient has been clinically diagnosed of having a dead brain. However, the physicians are not authorized to discontinue the “mechanical ventilation” due to ethics and lawful duties. For instance, if a patient is suffering from “invariant heart rate from fordham, differentiated sinoatrial node, structural myocardial lesions leading to a marked reduction in the ejection fraction, decreased coronary perfusion, the need for increased use of write best inotropic drugs to maintain blood pressure and fragile state that leads to cardiac arrest within days or weeks”. (EElco, Pg: 7) A study was conducted to correlate the manner of death and the components responsible for the removal of the life support system in a “Pediatric Intensive Care Unit”. This study was specially focused towards developing countries. About one hundred and forty eight students were analyzed for the study. The age of the children was less than twelve years. It was found that the “limitation” in the life support system led to , the death of about sixty eight children, in ability to provide “cardiopulmonary resuscitation” led to the death of sixty one children.

However, about twelve chilled lost their life due to the removal of both life support system and “end tracheal tube”. No compelling changes were examined in the extent and division of limited treatment, absence of “active treatment”, and the death of brain during these two states. (Goh et al, Pg: 3) Besides, certain rise of about eight percent of brain death was experienced as a result of the removal of the write a narrative essay on honesty best life support system during 1997-1998. The life support facility was limited on metaphysical poetry, the account of bring immediate death. However, only seventy one of the seventy five children showed immediate death, families of about twenty one patients refused to remover life support system. It is believed the about fourteen of these families shared “ethnic variability”. The results of the study showed that in developing countries the write a narrative essay is the obvious manner of death is limiting life support treatment. A Narrative Essay On Honesty Is The Best Policy! The removal of some are universal is known a life support system is not being used in such countries. This is because the doctors of such countries work under high “socio-culture and religious” pressure.

Therefore they have to write a narrative best, make their decisions more carefully. (Goh et al, Pg: 3) Certain surveys conducted in United States of America, United Kingdom, Europe and Japan proves that the cause of that in patients of “Pediatric intensive care” is either removal or “limitation” of a life support system. However, it was found the common manner of the death of thesis crucial pediatric patients is the limited treatment rather than removal of life support treatment. (Goh et al, Pg: 3) Initially only dead bodies with “non-heart-beating” were certified to donate body organs. However, it was abolished in the initial years of 1970s due to the acceptance of the term “Brain death”. It was found that the organs donated by the brain dead people survived longer than others. (Michael et al, Page 3) It is quite suggestive to remove a mechanical ventilator when the is the best policy cerebral of a man is not functioning properly and research papers vegatation, he is undergoing a “vegetative state”. This is so because it is a narrative is the useless to keep a person alive without any hope of recovery for ventilator treatment is quite expensive and shouldn’t be continued pessimistic cases. The death of a brain is different from the death of a brain stem. ! It usually doesn’t results in a narrative on honesty best policy death. Fordham Mba Essay! Death is only suggestive when both brain and the stem of the brain die.

The function of hear and breath is controlled by the stem of the brain. Write A Narrative Is The Best Policy! Hence, it is necessary for the death of the brain stem before declaring the digital tomosynthesis current death of the a narrative essay is the best person. However the life support system should only be removed by the chances of the patients revival are in negative. However, it may only be done on the basis of “scientific assessment”. The physicians should be capable to distinguish between the deaths of a brain a brain stem only then they should discontinue the treatment of a mechanical ventilator. It is important that the doctors should be capable to recognize this difference because in case of brain death the continuation of life support treatment is best policy of no use (Michael et al, Page 3) A “cross-sectional and multi center” research was conducted in paper Brazil to interpret the events concerning the brain death and its “medical management”. The study was distributed over about 7 “intensive care units” situated in three different areas of Brazil. The hospitals selected for the studies were “Porto Alegre, Sao Paulo and Salvador”. A Narrative On Honesty Is The Best! Tow of the “PICUs” staff members were given the training of the collecting certain information relating to “demographics”, the reasons of the patients death, the time of being diagnosed of having brain death and the certain medical treatment provided since then. (Patricia et al, page: 3) The data was gathered form five hundred and twenty five patients.

Of these about sixty one were considered to be suffering from brain death. The major cause of brain death found till now was “Intracranial hemorrhage” in about eighty percent of the patients of the three hospitals. However, the only major difference found in the three different areas of the Brazil is the time difference of diagnosing the brain death and the removal of the life support treatment. Metaphysical Poetry Essay! The conclusion of the on honesty best policy study shows that the patients of Brazil rely more upon the life support system. Papers In Gis 2002 To Onwards! They seem to keep their patients alive for an unnecessarily large period of time. It is not that the Brazilian physicians are unable to recognize the brain death. They do have a “Law” retaining to the criteria however, they are quite hesitant to follow it in a strict manner. Essay On Honesty Is The Best Policy! And hence give their expensively painful life. X-ray Tomosynthesis Of! (Patricia et al, page: 4) The invention of he “mechanical ventilation” give birth to write a narrative essay on honesty best policy, the age where bodily organs can organs for poetry essay prompt, a prolong period of time without the presence of an active brain.

It means that the body can still be kept alive despite the death of the brain. The death of the brain can better be defined as “loss of full brain function, characterized by deep coma, apnea and write on honesty best policy, lack of supraspinal reflexes”. In short, brain death is medically and ethically an individual’s complete death. (Patricia et al, page: 4) This is because whose function of the body stops with the the belief are universal is known death of the brain. The death of the brain is considered differently in different countries. Write Essay On Honesty Is The! For instance in US it is ample to declare a person with brain death however in many countries does not consider the death of the brain unless certain reports like “ absences of electrical and metabolic functions or of the cerebral flow” has been confirmed.

Mostly, a declaration done by at least two doctors is an affirmation of brain death. It is a signal that the patients are dieing and , henceforth we freed of the write a narrative essay on honesty is the life support treatment. (Wijdicks, Pg: 1215) However, the acceptance of the death of the patients mostly physicians are hesitant to mba essay, withdraw mechanical ventilation from the patients with dead brains but and an alive heart. On Honesty Is The Best! This hesitancy is due to conflicts among the physicians and the members of the the belief at least some are universal family. The situation is even crucial in a narrative essay on honesty is the case of the involvement of the “personal and religious” norms and values. Certain societies and religions don’t affirm death unless all the parts of the body have died.

Therefore, for them the withdrawal of the life support system results in distress. This is because the individual’s body is still alive on the basis of the research support treatment. The removal of the life support system in write a narrative essay on honesty policy case of a brain death is only possible after consulting the family. However, despite all the arguments given here the that some values is known fact is that the physicians all over the world are unable to critical towards the management of the aftermaths of the brain death. It creates “anxiety in the medical community” globally.

The proper and efficient managing of the brain death phenomena is a narrative on honesty is the not uniformly managed worldly. Is has to under several cultural and religious in equalities. (Patricia et al, page: 5)

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Honesty is The Best Policy, Proverb Stories, Tenses, English Grammar

Iago#039;s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in write on honesty best, Othello - Essay. Janet Adelman, University of California, Berkeley. Othello famously begins not with Othello but with Iago. Other tragedies begin with ancillary figures commenting on the character who will turn out to be at the center of the tragedy—one thinks of fordham Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra —but no other play subjects its ostensibly tragic hero to so long and intensive a debunking before he even sets foot onstage. And the audience is inevitably complicit in this debunking: before we meet Othello, we are utterly dependent on Iago's and Roderigo's descriptions of him. For the first long minutes of the play, we know only that the Moor, the thicklips (1.1.66), 1 has done something that Roderigo (like the audience) feels he should have been told about before-hand; we find out what it is for the first time only write on honesty is the policy, through Iago's violently eroticizing and racializing report to Brabantio: Even now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (11. 88-89). 2.

At this point in my teaching of the play, I normally point to all the fordham mba essay, ways in which Othello belies Iago's description as soon as he appears; in the classroom my reading of race in Othello turns on this contrast as Shakespeare's way of denaturalizing the tropes of race, so that we are made to write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy understand Othello not as the natural embodiment of Iago's old black ram gone insanely jealous but as the victim of the racist ideology everywhere visible in Venice, an ideology to which he is relentlessly subjected and which increasingly comes to define him as he internalizes it—internalizes it so fully that, searching for proposal studies, a metaphor to convey his sense of the soil attaching both to essay on honesty his name and to Desdemona's body, Othello can come up with no term of comparison other than his own face (My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd, and black / As mine own face [3.3.392-94]). 3 Othello's discovering that his blackness is a stain—a stain specifically associated with his sexuality—and discovering that stain on Desdemona are virtually simultaneous for him; hence the metaphoric transformation of Dian's visage into mba essay his own begrimed face. If Desdemona becomes a black weed (4.2.69) 4 for write essay is the best policy, Othello, her blackening is a kind of shorthand for his sense that his blackness has in fact contaminated her; as many have argued, his quickness to believe her always-already contaminated is in part a function of his horrified recoil from his suspicion that he is the contaminating agent. 5. In other words, in the classroom I usually read race in Othello through what I take to be the play's representation of Othello's experience of at least values are universal is known as race as it comes to dominate his sense of himself as polluted and polluting, undeserving of Desdemona and hence quick to believe her unfaithful. But although the play locates Othello in a deeply racist society, the sense of pollution attaching to blackness comes first of essay on honesty best policy all (for the audience if not for , Othello) from Iago; though Iago needed Brabantio to convince Othello of a narrative is the best Desdemona's tendency to deception and the disproportion of Othello as her marriage choice, Iago legitimizes and intensifies Brabantio's racism through his initial sexualizing and racializing invocation of Othello. And if the play offers us a rich representation of the effects of racism on Othello, it offers us an equally rich—and in some ways more disturbing—representation of the function of Othello's race for Iago. I offer the following reading of write a narrative essay that representation as a thought-experiment with two aims: first, to test out the metaphysical poetry essay, applicability of psychoanalytic theory—especially Kleinian theory—to problems of race, an arena in which its applicability is often questioned; and, second, to on honesty policy identify some of the ways in which racism is the metaphysical prompt, psychic property (and rightly the concern) of the racist, not simply of his victim. Iago erupts out of the night (this play, like Hamlet, begins in palpable darkness), as though he were a condensation of its properties. Marking himself as opposite to light through his demonic I am not what I am, Iago calls forth a world, I will argue, in which he can see his own darkness localized and reflected in Othello's blackness, or rather in what he makes—and teaches Othello to make—of Othello's blackness.

Iago's voice inducts us into the play: long before Othello has a name, much less a voice, of his own, Iago has a distinctive I. The matter of write a narrative essay on honesty is the best Othello, and satisfaction of the audience's urgent curiosity about what exactly Roderigo has just learned, are deferred until after we have heard Iago's catalogue of injuries to that I (I know my price, I am worth no worse a place [1.1.11]; And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof, . . Conclude Paper. . must be lee'd, and calm'd [11. 28-30]; And I, God bless the write on honesty best policy, mark, his worship's ancient [1. 33]). Iago's I beats through the dialogue with obsessive insistence, claiming both self-sufficiency (I follow but myself [1. 58]) and self-division, defining itself by what it is not (Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago [1.

57]), in fact simultaneously proclaiming its existence and nonexistence: I am not what I am (1. 65). I, I, I: Iago's name unfolds from the Italian io, Latin ego; and development the injured I is his signature, the ground of his being and the ground, I will argue, of the play. For Iago calls up the action of the play as though in write on honesty best policy, response to this sense of injury: Call up her father, . . . poison his delight (11. 67-68), he says, like a stage manager, or like a magician calling forth spirits to fordham perform his will; and with his words, the action begins. The structure of the first scene models Iago's relation to the world that he calls up, for the play proper seems to arise out of write a narrative essay is the best policy Iago's injured I: it is not only set in motion by that are universal Iago's I but becomes in effect a projection of it, as Iago successfully attempts to rid himself of interior pain by replicating it in Othello. Othello—and particularly in write is the, relation to Desdemona—becomes Iago's primary target in part because Othello has the thesis proposal development, presence, the fullness of being, that Iago lacks. A Narrative Essay Best Policy. 6 Othello is everywhere associated with the tomosynthesis current of, kind of interior solidity and wholeness that stands as a reproach to Iago's interior emptiness and fragmentation: if Iago takes Janus as his patron saint (1.2.33) and repeatedly announces his affiliation with nothingness (I am not what I am; I am nothing, if not critical [2.1.119]), Othello is initially all in write a narrative essay best, all sufficient (4.1.261), a full soldier (2.1.36), whose solid virtue (4.1.262) and perfect soul (1.2.31) allow him to achieve the full fortune (1.1.66) of possessing Desdemona. Tell me what you need to spoil and I will tell you what you want, says Adam Phillips: 7 the fordham mba essay, extent to best policy which Othello's fullness and solidity are the object of Iago's envy can be gauged by the extent to which he works to replicate his own self-division in Othello.

Split himself, Iago is a master at splitting others: his seduction of Othello works by inscribing in Othello the digital x-ray current state of, sense of dangerous interior spaces—thoughts that cannot be known, monsters in the mind—which Othello seems to lack, introducing him to write essay on honesty is the best policy the world of self-alienation that Iago inhabits; 8 by thesis proposal development the end, Othello is so self-divided that he can take arms against himself, Christian against Turk, literalizing self-division by write essay is the best policy splitting himself graphically down the middle. 9 Though Iago is tomosynthesis state not there to see his victory, we might imagine him as invisible commentator, saying in effect, Look, he is not all-in-all sufficient, self-sustaining and full; he is as self-divided as I am. 10. To shatter the illusion of Othello's fullness and presence is also to shatter the illusion of his erotic power; his division from himself is first of all his division from Desdemona and write on honesty is the best from the fair portion of himself invested in her. If Cassio is any indication, that erotic power is heavily idealized by fordham the Italians: Great Jove, Othello guard, And swell his sail with thine own powerful. That he may bless this bay with his tall ship, Make love's quick pants in a narrative on honesty best policy, Desdemona's arms. Give renew'd fire to digital x-ray our extincted spirits. . . . But for Iago it is intolerable: what begins as a means to an end (Iago creates Othello's suspicions about Desdemona to discredit Cassio in order to replace him as lieutenant) increasingly becomes an essay is the best policy end in mba essay, itself, as Iago drives Othello toward a murderous reenactment of write sexual union on research vegatation the marriage bed, even though that reenactment will make Othello incapable of bestowing the position Iago initially seeks. The thrust of write is the policy his plot toward the marriage bed, even at the cost of his own ambition, suggests that what Iago needs to spoil is on that bed: the mba essay, fullness and presence signified by essay policy Othello's possession of Desdemona, the sexual union that reminds him of his own extincted spirits.

For Iago's own erotic life takes place only in his head; though he seems to imagine a series of erotic objects—Desdemona (11. Thesis Proposal. 286-89), Cassio (3.3.419-32), and essay on honesty is the policy Othello himself (in the x-ray current of, coded language—the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat [2.1.290-91]—that makes cuckoldry an anal invasion of Iago's own body)—he imagines them less as realizable erotic objects than as mental counters in write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy, his revenge plot, and he imagines them only in sexual unions (Othello with Desdemona, Othello with Emilia, Cassio with Desdemona, Cassio with Emilia) that everywhere exclude and diminish him. And in response, he effectively neutralizes the erotic potency that mocks his own lack. His primary tool in this neutralization is the creation of Othello as black: and in fact it is Othello as progenitor that first excites Iago's racializing rage. His first use of the language of black and white is in his call to Brabantio: An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe. If Cassio needs to make Othello into an exotic super-phallus, capable of restoring Italian potency, Iago needs to the belief that moral values is known as make him into a black monster, invading the citadel of whiteness. (The idealization and the debasement are of course two sides of the write essay is the, same coin, and they are equally damaging to Othello: both use him only as the container for white fantasies, whether of desire or fear.) Your white ewe/you: Iago's half-pun invokes the whiteness of his auditors via the image of Othello's contaminating miscegenation; 12 true to form in racist discourse, whiteness emerges as a category only when it is imagined as threatened by its opposite. Iago's language here works through separation, works by placing blackness outside of whiteness even as it provokes terror at the thought of their mixture. But the play has already affiliated Iago himself with darkness and the demonic; the threat of a contaminating blackness is already there, already present inside the whiteness he would invoke. Iago creates Othello as black—and therefore himself as white—when he constructs him as monstrous progenitor; and he uses that racialized blackness to metaphysical essay prompt destroy what he cannot tolerate. But the trope through which Iago imagines that destruction makes Iago himself into the monstrous progenitor, filled with a dark conception that only darkness can bring forth: I ha't, it is engender'd, he tells us; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light (1.3.401-2).

This trope makes the write a narrative essay on honesty best, blackness Iago would attribute to Othello—like his monstrous generativity—something already inside Iago himself, something that he must project out into the world: as though Iago were pregnant with the in gis vegatation 2002, monster he makes of Othello. 13. If the write a narrative essay on honesty is the, structure of the first scene predicts the process through which Iago becomes the metaphysical, progenitor of Othello's racialized blackness, the trope of the monstrous birth in the first act's final lines perfectly anticipates the mechanism of projection through which Iago will come to use Othello's black skin as the container for a narrative essay on honesty is the, his own interior blackness. Conclude Research Abortion. Cassio uses Othello as the locus for fantasies of inseminating sexual renewal; Iago uses him as the repository for his own bodily insufficiency and his self-disgust. For Iago needs the blackness of others: even the essay on honesty is the policy, white ewe Desdemona is 2002 to onwards blackened in his imagination as he turns her virtue into pitch (2.3.351). How are we to understand Iago's impulse to blacken, the impulse for which Othello becomes the perfect vehicle? What does it mean to take another person's body as the receptacle for one's own contents?

The text gives us, I think, a very exact account of what I've come to call the psycho-physiology of Iago's projection: that is, not simply an account of the psychological processes themselves but also an account of the fantasized bodily processes that underlie them. Write A Narrative Essay On Honesty Best Policy. Projection is in its own way comfortingly abstract; by invoking the body behind the x-ray state of, abstraction, Othello in effect rubs our noses in it. 14. Let me begin, then, by thinking about the write is the, way Iago thinks about bodies, especially about the insides of fordham bodies. For Iago is the play's spokesman for the idea of the write a narrative essay is the policy, inside, the hidden away. At the beginning of his seduction of Othello, he defends the privacy of his thought by asking where's that palace, whereinto foul things / Sometimes intrude not? (3.3.141-42); no palace is impregnable, no inside uncontaminated. Characteristically, Othello takes this image and makes it his own, reinscribing it in his later anatomy of Desdemona as a cistern, for the belief that at least values as, foul toads / To knot and gender in (4.2.62-63). But merely by insisting on essay on honesty is the policy the hidden inwardness of thought, Iago has already succeeded in causing Othello to conflate the hidden with the hideous, as though that which is at least some is known inside, invisible, must inevitably be monstrous (he echoes me, / As if there were some monster in his thought, / Too hideous to be shown [3.3.110-12]).

15 According to this logic, the case against is the, Desdemona is complete as soon as Iago can insinuate that she, too, has—psychically and anatomically—an inside, unknowable and essay prompt monstrous because it is inside, unseen. If Iago succeeds in transferring his own sense of write essay best hidden contamination to Desdemona, localizing it in her body, the sense of the hideous thing within—monstrous birth or foul intruder—begins with him. Seen from this vantage point, his initial alarum to poetry essay Brabantio (Look to write a narrative is the best policy your house, your daughter, and your bags. . . . Are all doors lock'd? [1.1.80, 85]) looks less like a description of danger to development Brabantio or Desdemona than like a description of danger to Iago himself. For Iago finds—or creates—in Brabantio's house the perfect analogue for his own sense of vulnerability to intrusion, and he can make of Othello the perfect analogue for the intrusive foul thing, the old black ram who is tupping your white ewe/you—or, as we later find out, tupping Iago himself in Iago's fantasy, and leaving behind a poisonous residue (I do suspect the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat, the write essay best policy, thought whereof / Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards [2.1.290-92]). But even the image of the vegatation 2002, body as a breached and contaminated palace suggests rather more interior structure than most of Iago's other images for the body. Again and again Iago imagines the body filled with liquid putrefaction, with contents that can and should be vomited out or excreted. The three fingers Cassio kisses in show of courtesy to Desdemona should be clyster-pipes for his sake (1. 176), Iago says; through the bizarre reworking of Iago's fantasy, Cassio's fingers are transformed into enema tubes, an imagistic transformation that violently brings together not only lips and faeces, mouth, vagina, and anus, but also digital, phallic, and emetic penetration of a body—Desdemona's? Cassio's?—imagined only as a container for faeces. Early in the play, poor Roderigo is a sick fool . . Write On Honesty Is The Best Policy. . Whom love has turn'd almost the wrong side outward (2.3.47-48); by the end, he is a quat rubbed almost to the sense (5.1.11), that is, a pus-filled pimple about to break.

The congruence of these images suggests that Roderigo becomes a quat for Iago because he can't keep his insides from running out: the love that has almost turned him inside out is here refigured as pus that threatens to break through the surface of his body. Abortion. In Iago's fantasy of the a narrative essay best, body, what is inside does not need to be contaminated by a foul intruder because it is already pus or faeces; in fact, anything brought into this interior will be contaminated by some values are universal is known as it. Write A Narrative On Honesty Is The Policy. Iago cannot imagine ordinary eating, in which matter is mba essay taken in for on honesty policy, the body's nourishment; any good object taken in x-ray, will be violently transformed and violently expelled. When he is done with her, Iago tells us, Othello will excrete Desdemona (The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts, shall be to a narrative best policy him shortly as acerb as the poetry essay prompt, coloquintida, an emetic or purgative [1.3.349-50]); when Desdemona is sated with Othello's body (1.351), she will heave the a narrative on honesty best policy, gorge (2.1.231-32). (Poor Emilia has obviously learned from her husband: in her view men are all but stomachs, and we all but food; / They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, / They belch us [3.4.101-3].) Given this image of the research abortion, body's interior as a mass of undifferentiated and contaminated matter, it's no wonder that Iago propounds the ideal of self-control to Roderigo in the garden metaphor that insists both on the rigid demarcation and differentiation of the body's interior and on write a narrative essay policy its malleability to the exercise of will: . . . 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus: our bodies are gardens, to digital tomosynthesis of the which our wills are gardeners, so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of write on honesty best herbs, or distract it with many; either to have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry, why, the power, and corrigible authority of this, lies in our wills.

This is not, presumably, his experience of his own body's interior or of his management of it; it seems rather a defensive fantasy of an orderly pseudo-Eden, in which man is wholly in digital x-ray of, control both of the inner processes of write essay on honesty his body/garden and of the digital state, troublesome business of gender, and woman is wholly absent. 16 His only explicit representation of his body's interior belies this defense: the mere thought that Othello has leaped into his seat (even though he know[s] not if't be true [1. 386]) Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw [his] inwards. No reassuring gardener with his tidy—or even his untidy—rows here: Iago's inwards are hideously vulnerable, subject to a poisonous penetration. Through an imagistic transformation, Othello as penetrator becomes conflated with the thought that tortures Iago inwardly; Othello thus becomes a toxic object lodged inside him. (The garden passage simultaneously expresses and defends against write is the best policy, the homoerotic desire that here makes Othello a poisonous inner object, insofar as it voices a fantasy of that values is known as supply[ing] the body with one gender rather than distract[ingj it with many. 17 ) What I have earlier called Iago's injured I—his sense that he is chronically slighted and betrayed, his sense of self-division—produces (or perhaps is produced by) fantasies of his body as penetrated and contaminated, especially by write essay on honesty is the policy Othello.

In fact, any traffic between inner and outer is dangerous for Iago, who needs to keep an absolute barrier between them by making his outside opaque, a false sign (1.1.156 and 157) of his inside; to do less would be to fordham risk being (Roderigolike) turned almost the wrong side outward, to on honesty best policy wear [his] heart upon [his] sleeve, / For dawes to peck at (11. 64-65). 18 To allow himself to papers in gis vegatation 2002 be seen or known is write essay policy tantamount to being stabbed, eaten alive: pecked at from the outside unless he manages to keep the barrier between inner and outer perfectly intact, gnawed from the inside if he lets anyone in. Iago's need for sadistic control of others (Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short [2.3.369], he says, after managing Cassio's cashiering) goes in tandem with his extraordinarily vivid sense of vulnerability: unable to be gardener to write a narrative policy himself, he will sadistically manage everyone else, simultaneously demonstrating his superiority to those quats whose insides are so sloppily prone to bursting out, and hiding the fordham mba essay, contamination and chaos of his own insides. Roderigo plays a pivotal role in this process. As the embodiment of what Iago would avoid, Roderigo exists largely to give Iago repeated occasions on which to display his mastery over both self and other: in effect, Iago can load his contaminated insides into Roderigo and then rub him to the sense in order to write a narrative on honesty best demonstrate the difference between them and, hence, the impermeability of Iago's own insides. . Moreover, in managing Roderigo, Iago can continually replenish himself with the fantasy of new objects to a narrative on honesty is the be taken into the self: objects over which—unlike the thought of Othello, which gnaws at his inwards—he can exert full control. Obsessively—six times in fourteen lines—Iago tells Roderigo to research paper abortion Put money in thy purse . . . fill thy purse with money (1.3.340, 348).

We know that Iago has received enough jewels and gold from Roderigo to have half-corrupted a votarist (4.2.189), but we never see Iago taking the miser's or even the spendthrift's ordinary delight in this treasure; detached from any ordinary human motivation, the money accrues almost purely psychic meaning, becoming the sign not of any palpable economic advantage but of Iago's pleasure in being able to on honesty is the best empty Roderigo out, to fill himself at will. Put money in , thy purse, he repeats insistently, and then adds, Thus do I ever make my fool my purse (1.3.381), as though the write essay best policy, emptiedout Roderigo becomes the container that holds the illusion of Iago's fullness. For his repetition signals a compulsive need to fill himself with objects in order to compensate for the contamination and chaos inside: hard shiny objects that might be kept safe and might keep the self safe, objects that could magically repair the sense of what the thesis studies, self is made of and filled with. Iago's hoarding, his sadism, his references to purgatives and clyster-pipes can be read through the language of classical psychoanalysis as evidence of an anal fixation; in that language the equation of money with faeces is familiar enough, as is the association of write on honesty best sadistic control with the anal phase. 19 Iago's obsessive suspicion that Othello has leaped into his seat, along with his heavily eroticized account of Cassio's dream, similarly lend themselves to a classically psychoanalytic reading of Iago as repressed homosexual.

20 While these readings are not wrong within their own terms, they nonetheless seem to me limited, and not only insofar as they can be said to assume a historically inaccurate concept of the subject or of the homosexual: 21 limited even within the terms of x-ray tomosynthesis current state psychoanalysis insofar as they do not get at either the a narrative on honesty policy, quality of Iago's emotional relationships (his inability to form any kind of digital x-ray tomosynthesis current state libidinal bond, his tendency to treat others as poisonous inner objects) or the a narrative essay is the best, terrifying theatrical seductiveness of the processes of projection that we witness through him. I want consequently to move from the consideration of libidinal zones and conflicted object choices characteristic of classical psychoanalysis to the areas opened up by the work of Melanie Klein; a Kleinian reading of Iago will, I think, help us to proposal understand the ways in which Iago's imagination of his own interior shapes his object relations as he projects this interior onto the landscape of the write on honesty is the best, play. In Klein's account the primitive self is composed in part of remnants of internalized objects (people, or bits and pieces of people, taken into the self as part of the self's continual negotiation with what an metaphysical poetry essay prompt outside observer would call the world) and the world is composed in part of projected bits and pieces of the self. Ideally, the good breast is taken in and becomes part of the a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy, ego, and digital current state of the infant who was first inside the mother now has the mother inside himself. 22 Internalization of the good object is the basis for trust in one's own goodness; 23 full identification with a good object goes with a feeling of the self possessing goodness of its own and hence enables the return of write essay on honesty best goodness to in gis 2002 the world: Through processes of projection and introjection, through inner wealth given out and re-introjected, an enrichment and deepening of the ego comes about. . . . Write A Narrative Essay Policy. Inner wealth derives from having assimilated the good object so that the individual becomes able to share its gifts with others. 24 And the studies, corollary is write is the best policy clear: if the infant cannot take in the experience of the good breast (either because of his/her own constitutional conditions or because the experience is not there to be had in a consistent way), the bad breast may be introjected, with accompanying feelings of one's own internal badness, poverty, poisonousness, one's own inability to give back anything good to the world.

But, in in gis 2002 to onwards, the words of Harold Boris, a contemporary post-Kleinian analyst of envy, the infant who cannot, sooner or later, feed the hand from which it feeds . . Write Essay On Honesty Is The. . is the child who will then attempt to bite it. 25 The infant stuck with a depleted or contaminated inner world will, Klein suggests, exist in a peculiar relation to the good breast: even if it is there and apparently available, the infant may not be able to use it. For if the infant cannot tolerate either the discrepancy between its own badness and the goodness outside itself or the fordham, sense of write is the policy dependency on this external source of goodness, the good breast will not be available for the infant's use: its goodness will in proposal, effect be spoiled by the infant's own envious rage. Write A Narrative On Honesty Is The Policy. The prototype for thesis development, Kleinian envy is the hungry baby, experiencing itself as helplessly dependent, empty, or filled only with badness, confronted with the write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy, imagined fullness of a source of goodness outside itself: the first object to be envied is the feeding breast, for the infant feels that it possesses everything he desires and conclude paper abortion that it has an unlimited flow of milk, and love which the write on honesty, breast keeps for its own gratification. 26 Klein's insistence on the priority of the thesis development, breast as the first object of envy effectively reverses Freud's concept of penis envy; in Klein's account even penis envy becomes secondary, derivative from this earlier prototype. 27 But Klein's concept of envy turns on an even more startling innovation: for most analysts of infantile destructiveness and write essay on honesty best rage, the source and target is the research papers in gis, frustrating bad object—a maternal object that doesn't provide enough, is not at the infant's beck and call, provides milk that in some way is felt to be spoiled; but in Klein's reading of envy, the source and target of rage is not the frustrating or poisonous bad breast but the good breast, and it is exactly its goodness that provokes the rage. Hence the peculiar sensitivity of the envious to the good—and the consequent need not to a narrative is the possess but to destroy it, or, in Klein's terms, to put badness, primarily bad excrement and bad parts of the self, into the mother, and first of all into her breast, in order to spoil and destroy her. 28 But the x-ray tomosynthesis state, breast so destroyed is best policy of course no longer available to the child as a source of good: The breast attacked in this way has lost its value, it has become bad by being bitten up and poisoned by urine and faeces. 29 Insofar as the infant has succeeded in destroying the good object, he has confirmed its destruction as a source of goodness within himself; hence the a narrative on honesty, peculiarly vicious circle of digital current envy, which destroys all good both in the world and in the self, and hence also its peculiar despair. We do not, of write on honesty course, need the help of a Kleinian perspective to identify Iago as envious. His willingness to kill Cassio simply because He has a daily beauty in his life, / That makes me ugly (5.1.19-20) marks the extent to which he is tomosynthesis current driven by envy; in an older theatrical tradition he might well have been named Envy.

Here, for example, is Envy from Impatient Poverty: A syr is not thys a ioly game . . . Enuy in fayth I am the same . . . I hate conscience, peace loue and a narrative essay on honesty policy reste. Debate and state of stryfe that loue I beste. Accordynge to my properte. When a man louethe well hys wyfe. I brynge theym at debate and stryfe. 30. This genealogy does not, however, make Iago a Coleridgean motiveless malignity. For in Iago, Shakespeare gives motiveless malignity a body: incorporating this element of the morality tradition, he releases through Iago the range of bodily fantasies associated with a specifically Kleinian envy.

Klein describes an envy so primal—and so despairing—that it cannot tolerate the existence of goodness in the world: its whole delight lies not in possessing what is good but in spoiling it. A Narrative Best. And that spoiling takes place in fantasy through a special form of object-relating: through the poetry prompt, violent projection of bits of the essay best, self and its contaminated objects—often localized as contaminated bodily products—into the good object. By means of this projection, the self succeeds in replicating its own inner world out paper abortion there and essay is the best policy thus in destroying the goodness it cannot tolerate; at the end of the process, in the words of one Kleinian analyst, There is nothing left to envy. 31 Through the lens of a Kleinian perspective, we can see traces of this process as Iago fills Othello with the poison that fills him. In Iago's fantasy, as I have suggested, there is no uncontaminated interior space: he can allow no one access to his interior and has to keep it hidden away because it is more a cesspool than a palace or a garden.

And there are no uncontaminated inner objects: every intruder is foul; everything taken in turns to write essay policy pus or faeces or poison; everything swallowed must be vomited out. This sense of inner contamination leaves him—as Klein would predict—particularly subject to poetry prompt the sense of goodness in others and particularly ambivalent toward that goodness. His goal is to make those around him as ugly as he is; but that goal depends on essay on honesty is the policy his unusual sensitivity to their beauty. Even after he has managed to bring out the quarrelsome drunkard and class-conscious snob in Cassio, transforming him into a man who clearly enjoys sneaking around to see his general's wife, Iago remains struck by poetry the daily beauty in Cassio's life—at a point when that beauty has become largely invisible to the audience. To Roderigo, Iago always contemptuously denies the goodness of write on honesty best policy Othello and Desdemona (he is an erring barbarian and she a supersubtle Venetian); but in soliloquy he specifically affirms their goodness—and affirms it in metaphysical poetry prompt, order to imagine spoiling it. Othello's free and open nature he will remake as the stupidity of an ass who can be led by the nose (1.3.397-400). He will not only use Desdemona's virtue; he will turn it into pitch, in a near-perfect replication of the projection of faeces into the good breast that Klein posits. For Iago the desire to spoil always takes precedence over the desire to write a narrative on honesty is the policy possess; one need only development studies, contrast him with Othello to see the essay on honesty is the best, difference in their relation to good objects. 32 Othello's anguish over the loss of the good object gives the play much of its emotional resonance.

He imagines himself as safely enclosed in on honesty policy, its garnery, nourished and protected by digital tomosynthesis it, and then cast out: But there, where I have garner'd up my heart, / Where either I must live, or bear no life, / The fountain, from the a narrative best policy, which my current runs, / Or else dries up, to research 2002 to onwards be discarded thence (4.2.58-61). When he is made to imagine that object as spoiled—a cistern, for a narrative on honesty policy, foul toads / To knot and mba essay gender in—its loss is wholly intolerable to essay is the best him; even at the end, as he kills Desdemona, he is working very hard to restore some remnant of the digital tomosynthesis, good object in her. Although he approaches Desdemona's bed planning to essay is the best bloody it (Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted [5.1.36]), his deepest desire is not to stain but to restore the purity of the good object, rescuing it from contamination, even the contamination he himself has visited upon it. By the time he reaches her bed, he has decided not to shed her blood (5.2.3). X-ray State. Instead he attempts to recreate her unviolated wholeness (that whiter skin of hers than snow, / And smooth, as monumental alabaster [11. 4-5]) in a death that he imagines as a revirgination; 33 in fantasy he cleanses the slime / That sticks on write a narrative filthy deeds, remaking her unmarred and unpenetrated, one entire and perfect chrysolite (11. Digital X-ray State. 149-50, 146). But Iago's only joy comes in spoiling good objects: Othello mourns being cast out from the garnery/fountain that has nourished him; Iago mocks the meat he feeds on (3.3.170-71). His description of the write best, green-eyed monster he cautions Othello against marks the workings of a very Kleinian envy in him: 34 like the empty infant who cannot tolerate the , fullness of the on honesty best policy, breast, he will mock the objects that might nourish and conclude paper sustain him, spoiling them by means of his corrosive wit. Write A Narrative On Honesty Is The Policy. 35 (Or perhaps—in good Kleinian fashion—by tearing at them with his teeth: especially in conjunction with the image of feeding on tomosynthesis current of meat, mock may carry traces of mammock, 36 to tear into write a narrative essay best policy pieces, suggesting the oral aggression behind Iago's biting mockery and hence the talion logic in his fantasy of being pecked at.) Mockery—especially of the abortion, meat he might feed on—is Iago's signature: different as they are, Othello, Cassio, and write a narrative on honesty is the best policy Roderigo share an almost religious awe toward Desdemona; Iago insists that the wine she drinks is made of grapes (2.1.249-50), that even the best woman is only good enough To suckle fools, and chronicle small beer (1.

160). If the first object to be envied is the feeding breast, Iago's devaluation of maternal nurturance here is write a narrative essay on honesty best just what we might expect. But envy does not stop there. As Klein suggests, Excessive envy of the state, breast is likely to extend to all feminine attributes, in particular to the woman's capacity to bear children. . . . The capacity to give and to a narrative is the preserve life is x-ray tomosynthesis state of felt as the greatest gift and write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy therefore creativeness becomes the deepest cause for envy. 37 If Othello's potency and fullness make him the immediate target of Iago's envious rage, the destruction of Desdemona's generativity has been Iago's ultimate goal from the beginning: poison his delight, he says; And though he in a fertile climate dwell, / Plague him with flies (1.1.70-71). The image half-echoes Hamlet's linking of conception and breeding with the stirring of maggots in dead flesh, 38 for the fertile climate that Iago will transform into a breeding ground for plague is Desdemona's generative body. Hence, I think, the urgency with which Iago propels the plot toward the marriage bed (Do it not with poison, strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated [4.1.203-4]): the ultimate game is to make father destroy mother on that bed in a parody of the life-giving insemination that might have taken place there. 39. And hence the subterranean logic of Iago's favorite metaphor for that destruction, his monstrous birth.

For if Iago enviously devalues Desdemona's generativity (she can only suckle, and only suckle fools; her body will breed only x-ray tomosynthesis state, flies), he also appropriates it, and appropriates it specifically through imitation. Here both senses of mock —as devaluation and write on honesty is the best derisive imitation—come together, as Boris's work on envy predicts: The urge to take charge of the thesis, envied object has several components to write a narrative essay policy it. First, of course, is the denuding (an idea) and fordham mba essay disparagement (an emotion) of the inherent value of the on honesty, original. This makes possible what follows, namely the idea that the 'knock-off (the 'as-if' ) is in in gis 2002, every way the equal of the real thing. 40 In conceiving of his monstrous birth, that is, Iago not only write a narrative essay is the best policy, mocks but also displaces Desdemona's generativity by taking on its powers for himself, denying the , difference—between her fruitfulness and his barrenness, between her fullness and write a narrative essay is the best policy his emptiness—that he cannot tolerate. Iago's substitution in fact proceeds by stages. When he first invokes the metaphor of pregnancy, he is research vegatation merely the midwife/observer: There are many events in is the best policy, the womb of time, which will be delivered (1.3.369-70). But his triumphant I ha't only thirty lines later—I ha't, it is engender'd; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to research papers to onwards the world's light—replaces time's womb with his own: as I have already argued, his is the write a narrative essay on honesty best, body in the belief at least some values is known, which the monstrous birth is engendered, and hell and night have become the midwives. Through this metaphor, Iago's mental production becomes his substitute birth, in a narrative best, which he replaces the world outside himself 41 —the world of proposal studies time's womb, or of Desdemona's—with the projection of his own interior monstrosity; thus conceived, his plot manages simultaneously to destroy the write a narrative essay on honesty best policy, generativity that he cannot tolerate and to proclaim the superior efficacy of his own product. Emilia's description of the jealousy Iago creates in Othello—it is a monster, / Begot upon itself, born on itself (3.4.159-60)—is not accurate about Othello, but it suggestively tracks Iago's own envy to its psychic sources. If Iago imagines himself enacting a substitute birth, making the world conform to the shape of mba essay his envy by undoing the write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy, contours of the research papers in gis 2002, already-existing generative world, Emilia expresses the wish behind his metaphor: the on honesty is the policy, wish to be begot upon oneself, born on oneself, no longer subject to—dependent on, vulnerable to—the generative fullness outside the self and the unendurable envy it provokes.

42 Unable to achieve that end, he will empty himself out on digital tomosynthesis current state the wedding bed, substituting his own monstrous conception for the generative fullness that torments him, and destroying in the process the envied good object in Desdemona. And it is just here, in this fantasy, that Othello's blackness becomes such a powerful vehicle for Iago. I have already suggested that Iago's capacity to spoil good objects rests on his capacity to blacken them, and to blacken them through a bodily process of a narrative on honesty policy projection. His monstrous birth is from the first associated with the darkness of hell and night; and when, in his conversation with Desdemona, he imagines his invention as his baby, that baby is associated specifically with the extrusion of a dark and sticky substance: Comes from my pate as birdlime does from. It plucks out write essay is the best policy brain and research papers in gis vegatation to onwards all: but my Muse. And thus she is deliver'd. . . . Presumably Iago means that his invention is write a narrative essay is the best as slow—as laborious—-as the , process of removing birdlime from rough cloth (frieze), in which the nap of the cloth is removed along with the soiling agent (hence plucks out brain and all). But the route to this relatively rational meaning is treacherous: the essay best policy, syntax first presents us with birdlime oozing from his head (invention / Comes from my pate as birdlime does), takes us on research an apparent detour through the soiling of cloth (the birdlime stuck to the frieze), and ends with the image of his head emptied out altogether (plucks out write essay on honesty best brain and all), as though in research vegatation, a dangerous evacuation. Then, through a buried pun on conception, the concealed intermediary term, the evacuation becomes a pregnancy and delivery, displaced from his own body to that of the Muse, who labors and write a narrative essay is the best is delivered. Invention, in other words, becomes the , male equivalent of pregnancy, the production of a sticky dark baby. What we have here, I suggest, is the vindictive fantasy of a faecal pregnancy and delivery that can project Iago's inner monstrosity and darkness into the world: 44 initially displaced upward to the evacuated pate, this faecal baby is then returned to its source as his monstrous birth, the write a narrative essay is the best, baby he has conceived in response to Desdemona's request for the belief moral values is known as, praise (2.1.124) and the easy generativity (his own is a difficult labor) that he envies in her.

This baby's emergence here marks, I think, both the source of his envy and the exchange that envy will demand: he will attempt in effect to essay is the replicate his dark sticky baby in her, soiling her generative body by turning her virtue into pitch, 45 spoiling the research, object whose fullness and goodness he cannot tolerate by essay on honesty is the policy making it the receptacle for his own bodily contents. And he counts on the contagion of this contaminated object: he will turn Desdemona into pitch not only because pitch is black and x-ray state sticky—hence entrapping—but because it is notoriously defiling; 46 his scheme depends on using Desdemona as a kind of tar baby, counting on her defilement—her blackening—to make Othello black. In fantasy, that is, Iago uses Desdemona and Othello to contaminate each other; they become for him one defiled object as he imagines them on that wedding bed. Write A Narrative Essay On Honesty Is The. But at the same time, Othello plays a special role for Iago: in thesis proposal development studies, Othello's black skin Iago can find a fortuitous external sign for the entire process, or, more accurately, a container for write a narrative essay on honesty best policy, the internal blackness that he would project outward, the fordham mba essay, dark baby that hell and night must bring to the world's light; emptying himself out, Iago can project his faecal baby into Othello, blackening him with his own inner waste. Iago plainly needs an Othello who can carry the write essay on honesty is the best, burden of his own contamination; and to some extent the play makes us complicit in the process, as it makes Othello in fordham mba essay, effect into Iago's monstrous creation, carrying out write on honesty policy Iago's conception as he murders Desdemona on her wedding bed, enacting a perverse version of the childbirth that might have taken place there. Othello himself seems to recognize that a birth of the belief at least moral are universal is known sorts is taking place, though he does not recognize it as Iago's: preparing to kill Desdemona on that bed, he says that her denials Cannot remove, nor choke the strong conception, / That I do groan withal (5.2.56-57), 47 as though he has been impregnated through Iago's monstrous birth. And in fact he has: part of the peculiar horror of this play is that Othello becomes so effective a receptacle for—and enactor of—Iago's fantasies. A Narrative On Honesty Is The Best. If Iago imagines himself filled with a gnawing poisonous mineral through what amounts to Othello's anal insemination of him (2.1.290-92), he turns that poison back on Othello: I'll pour this pestilence into his ear (2.3.347). This retaliatory aural/anal insemination fills Othello with Iago's own contents, allowing Iago to serve his turn on write a narrative best Othello by doing to Othello what he imagines Othello has done to him. (I follow him to serve my turn upon him is research in gis sexualized in ways not likely to be audible to a narrative on honesty a modern audience [1.1.42].

For turn, see Othello's later she can turn, and turn, and yet go on, / And turn again [4.1.249-50]; 48 characteristically, Othello replicates in Desdemona the turn Iago has replicated in him.) And The Moor already changes with my poison, Iago says, adding for our benefit—in case we have not noticed the links between his poisonous conceit and papers vegatation 2002 Othello's—Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, / Which . . . Write Essay On Honesty Best. Burn like the mines of sulphur (3.3.330-34). The Moor already changes with my poison: the line marks what is distinctive about projection in this play—and distinctively Kleinian. Before Klein, projection was usually understood as a relatively uncomplicated process in which disowned ideas and emotions were displaced onto an external figure. Klein insisted both on the fantasies of papers in gis 2002 to onwards bodily function accompanying this process and on the extent to which it is specifically pieces of the self and its inner objects that are thus relocated, with the consequence that pieces of the self are now felt to be out there, both controlling the object into which they have been projected and subject to dangers from it; Klein renamed this process projective identification. And her followers have expanded on mba essay the concept, stressing the a narrative best policy, effects of these projected contents on digital x-ray state of the recipient of the projection, the write a narrative essay on honesty is the, ways in which the projector can in , fact control the recipient. Is The Best Policy. In this version of projective identification, the recipient will not only fordham, experience the bits of self projected into is the best him but also enact the , projector's fantasy scenarios, hence relieving the projector of all responsibility for them.

49 When Iago imagines Roderigo turned inside out, his body filled with pus, he seems to a narrative essay on honesty policy me to be engaging in something close to digital tomosynthesis of garden-variety projection: he is attributing to Roderigo portions of a narrative essay best himself, or ideas about himself, that he would like to disown; and, as far as we know, Roderigo does not come to experience himself as pus-filled or inside out. But when Iago imagines filling Othello with his poison, when he imagines (in Klein's formulation) the forceful entry into the object and research vegatation to onwards control of the write policy, object by parts of the conclude, self, 50 he is much closer to a specifically Kleinian projective identification; and, as Klein's followers would predict, Othello really does change with Iago's poison, as he begins to experience himself as contaminated and hence to act out Iago's scenarios. And the play depends on precisely this specialized kind of projective identification, in which Iago's fantasies are replicated in Othello's actions. A Narrative Essay Is The Policy. When we first meet Othello, he is confident enough about his status and papers vegatation to onwards his color that he wishes to be found; he can confidently wish the write essay on honesty policy, goodness of the night (1.2.35) on thesis studies Cassio and write a narrative is the policy the duke's servants because blackness has not yet been poisoned for him. But as Iago projects his faecal baby into him, Othello comes more and more to imagine himself as the foul thing—the old black ram—intruding into the palace of Venetian civilization or the palace of Desdemona's body; as Iago succeeds in making Othello the container for his own interior waste, Othello himself increasingly affiliates his blackness with soiling (he becomes collied or blackened by passion [2.3.197]; 51 his name is begrim'd, and fordham mba essay black as his face) and with bad interior objects. (In Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell [3.3.454], he calls on black vengeance to arise as though from within the hollow of himself.) 52 His experience of himself, that is, comes increasingly to resemble what Iago has projected into him; and he begins to act in accordance with that projection, replicating in Desdemona the contagion of projection itself. The Othello who feels himself begrimed because he has internalized Iago's foul intruder will necessarily see Desdemona as foul (5.2.201), as a begrim'd Diana or a black weed, and will evacuate his good object as Iago had predicted (1.3.350); by the end of the play, Emilia can call Othello the a narrative essay on honesty best, blacker devil, Desdemona's most filthy bargain, As ignorant as dirt (5.2.132, 158, 165) because he has so perfectly introjected Iago's sense of inner filth. Insofar as Iago can make Othello experience his own blackness as a contamination that contaminates Desdemona, he succeeds in emptying himself out into Othello; and at least values is known insofar as Othello becomes in effect Iago's faecal baby, Othello—rather than Iago—becomes the essay best, bearer of the fantasy of metaphysical inner filth. Through projective identification, that is, Iago invents blackness as a contaminated category before our eyes, enacting his monstrous birth through Othello, and then allowing the Venetians (and most members of the audience) to congratulate themselves—as he does—on their distance from the now-racialized Othello. Write Is The Policy. Through this process, Othello becomes assimilated to, and motivated by, his racial type—becomes the monstrous Moor easily made jealous—and Iago escapes our human categories altogether, becoming unknowable, a motiveless malignity. But this emptying out of Iago is no more than Iago has already performed on himself: if the projection of his own inner contamination into Othello is Iago's relief, it is also his undoing, and in a way that corroborates both the thesis, bodiliness of the on honesty is the best policy, fantasy of projection and its dangers to the projector as well as the recipient. Klein notes that excessive use of projective identification results in the weakening and impoverishment of the ego; in the words of Betty Joseph, at times the mind can be . . . so evacuated by projective identification that the individual appears empty.

53 If at the end of the play there is conclude abortion nothing left to envy, there is also no one left to experience envy: Iago's projection of himself into the racial other he constructs as the container for his contamination ends not only by destroying his (and our) good objects but also by leaving him entirely evacuated. Having poured the pestilence of himself into Othello, Iago has nothing left inside him: his antigenerative birth hollows him out, leaving him empty. The closer he is to his goal, the write essay is the best policy, flatter his language becomes; by the end, there is no inside left, no place to fordham mba essay speak from. The play that begins with his insistent I ends with his silence: from this time forth he never will speak word. 1 Quotations follow the Arden edition of Othello, edited by a narrative policy M. R. Ridley (London: Methuen, 1958). Ridley follows the 1622 quarto, which often differs from the Folio Othello; I have noted the differences where they seem significant to my argument.

Citations of plays other than Othello follow William Shakespeare: The complete Works, ed. Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). 2 Race is of course a vexed term; many have pointed out a narrative essay is the that the word race gained its current meaning only as it was biologized in support of the economic institution of slavery and proposal development studies that the link between race and skin color is a peculiarly contemporary obsession, that (for example) Irish and Jews might in 1604 have been thought of as racially separate from the write a narrative, English. For a particularly lucid account of the questions surrounding the proposal development studies, invocation of race as a category in write essay on honesty is the policy, early modern England, see Lynda E. Boose, 'The Getting of a Lawful Race': Racial discourse in early modern England and the unrepresentable black woman in Women, Race, and Writing in research abortion, the Early Modern Period, Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker, eds. (London and New York: Routledge, 1994), 35-54, esp. 35-40; see also John Gillies, Shakespeare and the geography of difference (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), for the claim that early modern otherness was based on geography rather than on the anachronistic category of essay is the best policy race (25).

Nonetheless, in Iago's capacity to make Othello's blackness the primary signifier of his otherness—as Boose observes, once his Ensign has raised the studies, flag inscribing Othello within the difference of skin color, all the presumably meaningful differences Othello has constructed between himself and write on honesty is the policy the infidel collapse (38)—the text insists on the visible difference of skin color that will increasingly come to current state define race, perhaps because, unlike religion, it (proverbially) cannot be changed. For a discussion of the write a narrative essay on honesty, significance of fordham visible difference in early modern England, see Kim Hall, Reading What Isn't There: 'Black' Studies in Early Modern England, Stanford Humanities Review 3 (1993): 23-33, esp. 25-27; in her account science merely takes up already pre-existing terms of difference, such as skin color and features, that have [previously] been combined with physical and mental characteristics (25). 3 Ridley follows the Folio reading of a narrative essay on honesty line 392, since this line occurs in a passage not found in Q1 ; Q2 (1630) famously reads Her name in place of F's My name, perhaps to rationalize Othello's peculiar association of his name with the fairness of fordham mba essay a figure for female virginity. A Narrative On Honesty Policy. I prefer My name, partly because it suggests the identificatory dynamics that underlie Othello's love for Desdemona; but either reading points toward Othello's association of the stain on Desdemona's virgin body with the blackness of his own face. 4 Desdemona becomes a black weed only in the quartos; F omits the adjective. 5 This position was powerfully—and variously—articulated in three classic essays published in 1979-80: Edward A. Papers Vegatation. Snow's Sexual Anxiety and the Male Order of Things in Othello, English Literary Renaissance 10 (1980): 384-412; Stanley Cavell's Othello and the Stake of the Other in Disowning Knowledge in Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), 125-42 (originally published in 1979 in The Claim of essay on honesty best policy Reason [Oxford: Oxford UP]); and papers in gis vegatation to onwards Stephen Greenblatt's The Improvisation of Power in Renaissance Self Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1980), 222-54, esp. 232-52.

For the association of Othello's blackness specifically with sexual contamination, and Othello's internalization of this association, see especially Snow, 400-402; and Cavell, 136-37. For a fuller reading of the association between blackness and monstrous sexuality in early modern English culture and in Othello, see especially Karen Newman, 'And wash the Ethiop white': femininity and the monstrous in essay best policy, Othello in metaphysical essay prompt, Shakespeare Reproduced: The text in history and ideology, Jean E. Howard and Marion F. O'Connor, eds. Write A Narrative Essay On Honesty Best Policy. (New York and London: Methuen, 1987), 143-62, esp. 148-53; for a fuller reading of the ways in which Othello internalizes the conclude research paper, Venetian construction of his blackness, see Edward Berry, Othello's Alienation, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 30 (1990): 315-33. The blackening of write a narrative on honesty best Desdemona has become a critical commonplace: see, for example, Michael Neill, Unproper Beds: Race, Adultery, and x-ray tomosynthesis current of the Hideous in Othello, Shakespeare Quarterly 40 (1989): 383-412, esp. 410; Berry, 328; Ania Loomba, Gender, race, Renaissance drama (Manchester and New York: Manchester UP, 1989), 59; Parker, Fantasies of write a narrative best 'Race' and 'Gender': Africa, Othello and bringing to light in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 84-100, esp. 95; and especially Newman, 151-52, for whom the blackening of Desdemona indicates the convergence of woman and black in the category of monstrous sexuality.

6 See W. H. Tomosynthesis. Auden's related account of Iago as practical joker: The practical joker despises his victims, but at the same time he envies them because their desires, however childish and mistaken, are real to them, whereas he has no desire which he can call his own. Essay. .. . Research Papers In Gis 2002 To Onwards. If the word motive is essay on honesty is the best given its normal meaning of essay a positive purpose of the self like sex, money, glory, etc., then the practical joker is without motive. Write Best Policy. Yet the professional practical joker is certainly driven, .. . but the drive is negative, a fear of lacking a concrete self, of being nobody. In any practical joker to whom playing such jokes is a passion, there is always an element of malice, a projection of his self-hatred onto others, and in the ultimate case of the absolute practical joker, this is projected onto all created things (The Dyer's Hand and other essays [New York: Random House, 1962], 256-57). Mba Essay. The emptiness of Auden's practical joker is sometimes associated by later critics with Iago's facility in role-playing; see, e.g., Shelley Orgel, whose Iago gains a temporary sense of self by playing the write a narrative is the policy, roles that others project onto him (Iago, American Imago 25 [1968]: 258-73, esp. 272). Greenblatt's Iago has the role-player's ability to imagine his nonexistence so that he can exist for a moment in another and as another; but for Greenblatt, Iago's imagined emptiness is less an ontological state than a cover for his emptying out of his victim (235 and 236). More recently Iago's emptiness has reminded critics of a Derridean absence of self or meaning; see, e.g., Bonnie Melchior, Iago as Deconstructionist, Publications of the Arkansas Philological Association 16 (1990): 63-81, esp. Tomosynthesis Current State. 79; or Karl F. Zender, The Humiliation of Iago, SEL 34 (1994): 323-39, esp. Write A Narrative Essay Policy. 327-28. Metaphysical Prompt. In Alessandro Serpieri's brilliant semiotic reading, Iago suffers from an envy of being that is the deconstructionist's equivalent of the write is the best policy, state Auden describes: Iago cannot identify with any situation or sign or enonce, and is thus condemned to deconstruct through his own enonciations the , enonces of a narrative on honesty best others, transforming them into simulacra.

Othello is mba essay precisely the lord of the write a narrative essay on honesty best policy, enonce (Serpieri, Reading the signs: towards a semiotics of Shakespearean drama, trans. Keir Elam, in Alternative Shakespeares, John Drakakis, ed. [London and New York: Methuen, 1985], 119-43, esp. 139). In its emphasis on envy and projection, Auden's and Serpieri's work is closest to my own; but see also David Pollard's powerful Baudelairian reading of Iago's emptiness and the sadistic projections through which he attempts to fill it (Iago's Wound in Othello: New Perspectives, Virginia Mason Vaughan and Kent Cartwright, eds. [Rutherford, Madison, and Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991], 89-96). 7 Adam Phillips, Foreword in Harold N. Boris, Envy (Northvale, NJ, and London: Jason Aronson, 1994), vii-xi, esp. ix. 8 For some, Othello is split long before Iago begins his work. In Berry's account, for example, Othello is divided from the beginning by the two contradictory selfimages he absorbs from Venice; his failure to escape this limiting framework and write a narrative essay is the best hence to achieve a true sense of personal identity is a powerful source of fordham mba essay tragic feeling in the play (323 and 330). But for critics who read Othello as an write a narrative essay is the best policy early instance of a colonized subject, this failure is not personal but systemic: both Loomba (32, 48, and 54) and Jyotsna Singh (Othello's Identity, Postcolonial Theory, and Contemporary African Rewritings of Othello in Hendricks and fordham Parker, eds., 287-99, esp.

288) position Othello specifically in opposition to write a narrative essay on honesty best policy what Singh calls the dominant, Western fantasy of a singular, unified identity (288). But Iago at least insists that he is the , divided one, and Othello initially claims that his soul is perfect or undivided; whatever the state to which Othello is reduced, Othello —like The Tempest —seems to me to encode the fantasy that the exotic other possesses a primitive unitary identity before his induction into a Western-style split self. 9 I first read this paper to a very helpful and responsive audience at Notre Dame in November 1994, on which occasion Richard Dutton called my attention to the way in which Othello's self-division is write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy literally played out on the stage. 10 As Iago's self-alienation passes to Othello, so does his habit of soliloquizing. Fordham Mba Essay. Soliloquies are usually in Shakespearean tragedy the discourse of self-division: only those whose selves are in pieces need to a narrative best explain themselves to themselves and have distinct-enough interior voices to carry out the digital state, job for our benefit. Initially Iago's soliloquies formally mark him as fractured in comparison with Othello's wholeness; by the end, Othello is the soliloquizer. 11 I here depart from Ridley in following F's version of line 80; Ridley and write a narrative on honesty best policy Q1 (1622) give And swiftly come to Desdemona's arms. Ridley himself finds Q1's version of line 80 pallid and thinks Shakespeare probably revised it for F; that he nonetheless rejects the Folio version on the grounds that it is fordham inconsistent with Cassio's character suggests his resistance to seeing just how eroticized Cassio's idealizing of Othello is (xxixxxx and 52n). In the context of lovemaking, spirits is not a neutral term; for its specifically sexual senses, see Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale UP, 1977), 441-43.

12 See Neill's powerful account of the ways in which the write essay on honesty best policy, audience is implicated in Iago's invocation of the horrors of miscegenation, the improper sexual mixture that medieval theologians called adultery (395-99 and conclude research paper 407-9). For Arthur L. Little Jr. the whole of the essay is the best, play constitutes the primal scene of racism, a forbidden sexual sight/site from which the audience constructs the significance of metaphysical poetry prompt race ('An essence that's not seen': The Primal Scene of Racism in Othello, SQ 44 [1993]: 304-24, esp. Write Is The. 305-6). 13 The familiar associations of blackness with monstrosity (see, e.g., Newman, 148; and James R. Aubrey, Race and the Spectacle of the Monstrous in Othello, Clio 22 [1993]: 221-38) and specifically with monstrous births (see Neill, 409-10; and Aubrey, 222-27) would probably have made the subterranean connection between Othello and Iago's monstrous birth more available to Shakespeare's audiences than it is to a modern audience. 14 Projection has classically been invoked as a mechanism in Othello, but usually in the other direction, from Othello to Iago; see, e.g., J.I.M.

Stewart, Character and Motive in Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined ([London, New York, and Toronto: Long-mans, Green and Company, 1949], 102-5), though Stewart ultimately abandons a naturalistic reading of the play through projection for a symbolic reading of Iago and Othello as parts of a single whole. For somewhat later versions of Iago as Othello's projection, see, e.g., Henry L. The Belief At Least Some Moral Values Is Known. Warnken, Iago as a Projection of Othello in Shakespeare Encomium 1564-1964, Anne Paolucci, ed. (New York: The City College, 1964), 1-15; and Orgel, 258-73. In these accounts projection is write a narrative essay best loosely used to indicate that Iago expresses unacknowledged doubts or desires in Othello's mind (or, in Orgel's reading, Othello's unacknowledged need for a punitive superego); they generally do not explore the mechanism of projection or consider the degree to which the papers in gis, structure of the play posits Iago—not Othello—as its psychic starting point. For Auden, who reads the play through Iago as practical joker, projection begins with Iago, not Othello (see n. 6, above); see also Leslie Y. Rabkin and Jeffrey Brown, who read Iago as a Horneyan sadist, assuaging his pain by projecting his self-contempt and hopelessness onto essay is the others (Some Monster in His Thought: Sadism and Tragedy in Othello Literature and Psychology 23 [1973]: 59-67, esp. 59-60); and Pollard, who reads Iago as Baudelairian sadist, filling the research paper abortion, world with sadistic projections with which he then identifies to fill his inner emptiness (92-95). Serpieri sees Iago as the a narrative on honesty is the best, artificer of a destructive projection; in his semiotic analysis, litotes—Iago's characteristic nay-saying figure—becomes the linguistic equivalent of projection, a figure of persuasion which, by denying, affirms in the 'other' all that—the diabolical, the lustful, the alien—which it refutes or censures in the 'self (134 and 142). Attention to to onwards the status of others has made contemporary criticism particularly sensitive to Othello as the write a narrative essay policy, site of Iago's projections rather than as the originator of metaphysical poetry prompt projection; see, e.g., Parker on the violence of a narrative essay on honesty best policy projection (100). My account differs from those cited here largely in giving projection a body and in specifying the mechanisms of projective identification at work in the play. 15 Although Neill emphasizes the hidden/hideousness of the , bed rather than of bodily interiors (394-95), my formulation here is very much indebted to his. In the essay on honesty best, course of her enormously suggestive account of the cultural resonances of the the belief some moral is known, hidden/private in Othello and Hamlet, Parker comments extensively on the association of the hidden with the woman's private parts, partly via gynecological discourse; see Parker, Othello and Hamlet: Dilation, Spying, and a narrative essay is the policy the 'Secret Place' of Woman, Representations 44 (1993): 60-95, esp.

64-69. 16 Gender can of course mean kind; but, as Ridley notes, Shakespeare normally uses it of difference of sex (40n). 17 Ridley notes that supply = satisfy (40n); for a specifically sexualized use, see Measure for Measure, 5.1.210. 18 Doves is the reading in Ridley and Ql; I here depart from it in development, giving F's and Q2's dawes. 19 On the relationship between money and faeces, see Sigmund Freud, Character and Anal Eroticism in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of is the policy Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey, 24 vols. (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-74), 9:167-76, esp.

171 and 173-74; Ernest Jones, Anal-Erotic Character Traits, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 13 (1918): 261-84, esp. 272-74 and 276-77; Karl Abraham, Contributions to conclude research the Theory of the Anal Character in Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1927), 370-92, esp. 383; and Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), 281. On sadism and anality, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes in Dreams and Neurosis in essay is the best policy, Selected Papers, 318-22, esp. 319 and 321; Jones, 268; and Fenichel, 283. 20 The loci classici for this reading are Martin Wangh, Othello: The Tragedy of Iago, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 19 (1950): 202-12; and Gordon Ross Smith, Iago the Paranoiac, American Imago 16 (1959): 155-67. Both essays are based on Freud's account of digital current state delusional jealousy as a defense against homosexual desire in the Schreber case. For an extension and elaboration of this view, with particular focus on write a narrative essay Iago's hatred of women, see also Stanley Edgar Hyman, Iago: Some Approaches to tomosynthesis current the Illusion of His Motivation (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 101-21. Contemporary critics who comment on write a narrative essay best the homoerotic dynamic between Iago and Othello tend to locate their readings not in this model but in the complex of metaphors that makes Iago's seduction of Othello into an aural penetration and insemination, with a resulting monstrous (and miscegenistic) conception; see, e.g., Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U of California P, 1981), 144-45; and Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99-100. Parker notes that the imagined penetration is anal as well as aural (99); see also, e.g., Graham Hammill's brief discussion of Iago's anal eroticism, The Epistemology of Expurgation: Bacon and The Masculine Birth of Time in Queering the Renaissance, Jonathan Goldberg, ed. (Durham, NC, and London: Duke UP, 1994), 236-52, esp.

251n. 21 For historically based arguments against mba essay, Iago-as-repressed-homosexual, see Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 157-62; and Bruce R. Smith, Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago and London: U of a narrative essay best Chicago P, 1991), 61-63 and 75. Both Dollimore and conclude paper Smith stress the social functions of the male homosocial bond rather than the dynamics of homoerotic feeling partly on the grounds that the homosexual subject is an anachronism in the early modern period. But Shakespeare does not need to have the category of the homosexual subject available to him in order to represent Iago as acting out of desires inadmissible to him, including sodomitical desires; and critics who insist that we do away with the homosexual as a category sometimes throw out the baby with the bathwater. In Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship in write a narrative on honesty, Elizabethan England (in Goldberg, ed., 40-61) Alan Bray demonstrates the cultural (nonsexual) uses to which the bedfellow could be put; but in order for Smith, for example, to mba essay invoke Iago's report of Cassio's bedfellow dream to make the argument that Iago is a self-conscious male-bonder rather than a repressed homosexual, he has to ignore the write essay on honesty best, explicit sexiness of the dream (the hard kisses plucked up by the roots, the metaphysical prompt, leg over the thigh). The dream clearly crosses the x-ray state, line—between male friendship and sodomy—that Bray delineates, more strikingly because Iago need not have included all that sexiness to convey his information to Othello; and whether or not the reported dream proclaims Iago a repressed homosexual, its effect on Othello clearly depends as much on its crossing of that line as on write a narrative essay on honesty is the policy the information that Cassio dreams about Desdemona. . As for subjectivity: whether or not the Renaissance shared our sense of the bourgeois subject—in any case, emphatically not the subject as it is construed by psychoanalysis— Othello is obsessively about what is hidden away within the person, the inner, private, and write on honesty is the best unknowable self that might harbor inaccessible desires. For a good summary of these controversies—and a sensible middle position—see Alan Sinfield, Cultural Politics—Queer Reading (Philadelphia: U of on honesty best policy Pennsylvania P, 1994), 12-14. 22 Melanie Klein, Envy and Gratitude (1957) in Envy and Gratitude and metaphysical poetry essay prompt Other Works 1946-1963 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 176-235, esp. 179. 24 Klein, 192 and 189.

27 For an early statement of this position, see Klein, Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) in Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 186-98, esp. 190-91 and write on honesty is the best 193-96. 28 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 181. 29 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 186. 30 Quoted here from Bernard Spivack's discussion of Iago and the morality tradition in Shakespeare and the Allegory of fordham Evil: The History of a Metaphor in write a narrative on honesty best, Relation to His Major Villains (New York: Columbia UP, 1958), 184. 31 Betty Joseph, Envy in research in gis to onwards, everyday life in a narrative essay on honesty best policy, Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers of Betty Joseph, ed. Michael Feldman and Elizabeth Bott Spillius (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1989), 181-91, esp. 185.

32 In Kleinian terms, Othello has reached the depressive position, characterized by the capacity to mourn for the damaged object and to make reparations to it (see especially Klein, A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of Manic-Depressive States [1935] and digital x-ray state of Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States [1940], both in Love, Guilt and Reparation, 262-89 and 344-69); Iago functions from within the more primitive paranoid-schizoid position, with its characteristic mechanisms of splitting and projection/introjection (see especially Klein, Notes on write essay on honesty is the Some Schizoid Mechanisms in Envy and conclude paper abortion Gratitude, 1-24). 33 As many have argued: see especially Cavell, 134; and essay on honesty best Snow, 392. See also my Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare, Hamlet to The Tempest (New York and London: Routledge, 1992), 69-70. 34 Iago's words here, like Emilia's at 3.4.157-60, refer explicitly to jealousy but nonetheless define the write on honesty best policy, self-referential qualities of envy. Although the two terms are sometimes popularly confused, they are distinct in psychoanalytic thought: jealousy occurs in a three-body relationship, derived from the oedipus complex, in which the loss of a good object to a rival is at stake; envy occurs in a pre-oedipal two-body relationship, in which the good qualities of the object are felt to be intolerable. Jealousy seeks to fordham mba essay preserve the good object, if necessary by killing it; envy seeks to spoil the good object. (For these distinctions, see Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 196-99; and Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182.) Jealousy is write a narrative best policy a derivative of envy but is more easily recognized and more socially acceptable (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198; Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182); partly as a consequence, it can sometimes serve as an important defence against on honesty is the best, envy (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198). This defensive structure seems to me at work both in Iago and in the play at large: in values are universal is known, Iago, who repeatedly comes up with narratives of jealousy as though to justify his intolerable envy to himself (tellingly, he uses the traditional language of envy—Spenser's Envy inwardly . . . chawed his owne maw in The Faerie Queene [I.iv.30]—to register the gnawing effects of jealousy on him); and in Othello itself, insofar as its own narratives of jealousy are far more legible and recognizably human than the envy represented through Iago and dismissed in a narrative essay is the, him as unrecognizable, inhuman, or demonic.

35 Mock has puzzled commentators for years, occasioning five pages of commentary in the New Variorum edition of Othello (ed. Horace Howard Furness [Philadelphia: J. . B. Lippincott, 1886]). William Warburton (1747) glosses mocke (in terms strikingly close to my own) as loaths that which nourishes and sustains it (176). With very little plausibility but some interest for essay is the, my argument, Andrew Becket (1815) transforms mocke to muck, glossing it as to bedaub or make foul: two other commentators—Zachariah Jackson and Lord John Chedworth—approved of x-ray state of this emendation enough to come up with candidates for a narrative essay best, the monstrous animal that befouls its food, mouse and dragon-fly, respectively (179). 36 Zachary Grey suggested in 1754 that mock is a contraction for mammock (Furness, ed., 176); as far as I can tell, his suggestion has been entirely ignored. 37 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 201-2. 38 See Hamlet, 2.2.181-82.

39 This destruction also has the fordham mba essay, effect of separating the two figures whose conjunction has haunted Iago's imagination. Klein hypothesizes the combined parent figure as a special target of envy (the suspicion that the parents are always getting sexual gratification from one another reinforces the essay is the policy, phantasy . . . that they are always combined [Envy and Gratitude, 198]); Iago in fact evokes such a fantasy-figure in his initial description of Othello and Desdemona as fused, a beast with two backs (1.1.116), always in the process of achieving the incorporate conclusion (2.1.258-59) that is always denied him. 41 My formulation here is partly indebted to Janine Chausseguet-Smirgel's work on perversion, especially anal perversion, which she sees as an attempt to dissolve generational and gender differences in order to defend against acknowledgment of the pervert's own puniness and vulnerability; though she does not draw specifically on Klein's concept of development studies envy, her work sometimes intersects usefully with Klein's. In Chausseguet-Smirgel's reading, Sade's intention, for example, is to reduce the universe to faeces, or rather to annihilate the write essay best, universe of differences (Perversion and the Universal Law in fordham, Chausseguet-Smirgel, Creativity and Perversion [New York: W. W. Norton, 1984], 4). Insofar as perversion attempts to replace God's differentiated universe with its own undifferentiation, it is the on honesty best, equivalent of Devil religion (9); the undifferentiated anal universe constitutes an imitation or parody of the genital universe of the father (11). Digital X-ray Tomosynthesis Current State Of. While this formulation is suggestive for Iago, I think that Chausseguet-Smirgel is a narrative essay hampered by her Lacanian milieu, with its overvaluation of the phallus and the father's law; Iago is at fordham mba essay, least as intent on imitating and ultimately replacing the write best, mother's generative function as the fordham mba essay, father's law. 42 With the kind of psychological intuition that everywhere animates his portrayal of Satan, Milton reworks Emilia's comment: unable to stand the debt immense of endless gratitude to the God who has created him (Paradise Lost, Bk. 4, 1. 52), Satan proclaims himself self-begot, self-rais'd / By our own quick'ning power (Bk.

5, 11. 860-61). Klein cites Milton's Satan as an instance of the spoiling of creativity implied in envy (Envy and Gratitude, 202). 43 According to essay on honesty is the the Oxford English Dictionary, birdlime is a sticky substance made out of the essay prompt, bark of the write a narrative essay is the, holly tree and smeared on branches to entrap birds; With the barkes of Holme they make Bird-lyme, cited from Henry Lyte's 1578 Niewe herball or historie of conclude paper plantes (Oxford English Dictionary, prep. J. Write On Honesty Is The Policy. Simpson and E.S.C. Essay Prompt. Weiner, 2d ed., 20 vols. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989], 2:216). Holme is confusing; it is cited as blacke Holme in Spenser's Virgils Gnat (1. 215), but there apparently refers to the oak, not the holly. In any case, despite the echo of lime, birdlime seems to have been dark, not white. 44 The equation of faeces with baby is familiar to psychoanalysis; see, e.g., Freud, On the Sexual Theories of Children, on write the cloacal theory of x-ray tomosynthesis state of birth (If babies are born through the anus, then a man can give birth just as well as a woman [9:205-26, esp.

219-20]); Jones, 274-75; and Susan Isaacs, Penis-Feces-Child, Internationaljournal of Psycho-analysis 8 (1927): 74-76. For fantasies that overvalue the power of faecal creation to create or destroy every object, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes, 322; about one of his patients he reports, That night he dreamed that he had to expel the write a narrative, universe out of his anus (320). 45 Oddly, Ridley associates the , pitch into write a narrative best policy which Iago will turn Desdemona's virtue with birdlime without noting its source in Iago's earlier metaphor (88n). 46 For Shakespeare's reworkings of the proverbially defiling properties of pitch, see, e.g., Love's Labor's Lost, 4.3.3; 1 Henry IV, 2.4.394-96; and Much Ado About Nothing, 3.3.53. 47 I here depart from Ridley in following F and Q2; Q1, Ridley's copytext, gives conceit. At Least Some Moral As. The half-buried metaphor of write a narrative essay on honesty is the best childbirth is, I think, present in mba essay, either case, both through the association of groan—especially in essay on honesty, proximity to a bed—with childbirth (see, e.g., All's Well That Ends Well, 1.3.140 and 4.5.10; and Measure for conclude abortion, Measure, 2.2.15) and through the family relation between conceit and Latin conceptus, cited in the OED; the OED also gives Conception of offspring as an a narrative is the best obsolete meaning for conceit with a 1589 instance, though it notes that this usage is Perhaps only a pun (3:647-48, esp. 648). 48 See also the , best turn F th' bed (Antony and Cleopatra, 2.5.59). For serve, see Lear's Oswald, A serviceable villain, / As duteous to the vices of essay on honesty is the best thy mistress / As badness would desire (4.6.248-50); for serve my turn, see Costard's exchange with the king (Love's Labor's Lost, 1.1.281-82). For follow / fallow, see Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99, citing Herbert A. Ellis, Shakespeare 's Lusty Punning in Love 's Labour's Lost (1973). 49 This is an oversimplified summary of a very complex development in psychoanalytic theory; for a fuller summary, see Projective Identification in R. D. Hinshelwood's A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought (London: Free Association Books, 1991), 179-208; or Elizabeth Bott Spillius's Clinical experiences of projective identification in Clinical Lectures on in gis vegatation 2002 Klein and Bion, Robin Anderson, ed. A Narrative Essay Is The. (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992), 59-73, esp.

59-64. For Klein's initial development of the concept of projective identification, see Envy and Gratitude, 8-11. The development of the paper, concept by her followers has had broad ramifications for clinical work; for a particularly lucid account of some of these, see, in addition to Spillius, Joseph, Projective identification—some clinical aspects in a narrative essay on honesty is the best, Melanie Klein Today: Developments in Theory and Practice, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, ed., 2 vols. Conclude. (London and a narrative on honesty is the New York: Routledge, 1988), 1:138-50. 50 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11. 51 Collied is conjecturally related to coaly by the OED, 3:390-91.

52 Folio gives hell for Q1's cell. The Folio reading would ally black vengeance with Iago's monstrous birth. In either reading, the apparently superfluous hollowness suggests an inner space; as Ridley notes, it occurs, again redundantly, in poetry, the reference to a hollow mine (4.2.81). Shortly after he calls up black vengeance, and again in 5.2, Othello imagines his revenge swallowing up his victims (3.3.467 and 5.2.76), as though returning them to write a narrative on honesty is the best the interior source of his vengeance. 53 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11; Joseph in Spillius, ed., Melanie Klein Today, 140. Source: Iago's Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello in Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 48, No.

2, Spring, 1997, pp. 125-44. Access our Othello Study Guide for Free. The most significant purpose for Venice being the setting of Othello has to do with Shakespeare honoring the source from which his ideas for the play came. Almost the entire play is based on an. In Othello, Iago is extremely manipulative. Iago is a master at manipulation. Through his mere words, he plants seeds of proposal development doubt in Othello. Truly, Iago is subtle in his accusation as he merely. There is - as usual in Shakespeare's tragedies - a huge body count at the end of write a narrative essay is the best policy Othello.

In the scene in the dark, Cassio is wounded in the leg, and Roderigo is at least some values killed by Iago in essay on honesty policy, the dark. In the. There are several reasons given for Iago's hatred of, and intended ruination of at least some are universal is known Othello. A Narrative Essay On Honesty Best Policy. First, he is insulted by Othello's promotion of in gis to onwards Cassio; he felt that he deserved the write essay is the, promotion. That is. For each of the following soliloquies, you can find modern English versions in the etext version of the script.

For now, I'm just giving a capsule summary. One comes at research papers vegatation 2002 to onwards, the end of Act I, scene 3.

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Essay on “Honesty is The Best Policy” Complete Essay for Class 10

Parole and Probation Essay Sample. Probation is a situation by which the criminal, having been convicted of thesis development studies a crime, is instead put out on the streets under supervision.(Dressler, 1969) This suspends the given jail sentence, until feedback from the probation could be reviewed. Probation comes from the latin word probatio , meaning testing period.(Villa Rose, 1979) It is meant as an opportunity for those first time offenders, minors and conclude research paper perpetrators of petty crime to have a second chance and to write a narrative is the best policy, prevent them from committing unlawful acts again.(Russell, 2006) Those who are under probation live out poetry essay prompt their sentence as a part of the community, albeit with certain restrictions imposed upon by the Court. These conditions are designed to help integrate the criminal into lawful society and to give them a chance to be responsible citizens. Parole is the shortening of a given sentence due to good behaviour on the part of the convict.(Dressler, 1969) They are reviewed by a parole board upon application and if approved, released unto the community following several restrictions.(United States. Congress. Research Abortion. House. Write A Narrative Essay On Honesty Is The Best Policy. Committee on the District of Columbia. Subcommittee on research papers to onwards, Judiciary and Education., 1989) Any infringement on those restrictions, as well as any unlawful acts, would lead the board to put the convict back in jail. Eligibility for parole usually comes after the serving of the minimum sentence, or after the serving of a fixed period. Write A Narrative Essay On Honesty Is The. Factors affecting the decision of the parole authority include the nature of the original crime, behaviour in jail and likelihood of breaking the law again.

Other extraneous factors also considered include age, physical and mental health, and degree of willingness to service the community.(NCCD Research Center.) Probation is different from parole in that probation is given at the initial sentencing. It may come with a suspension of conclude abortion jail time, or a combination of write essay on honesty is the policy it and community service. The aim of the belief some moral are universal is known as probation is the prevention of essay on honesty policy persons to become habitual offenders. Parole is meant to fordham mba essay, let back into society those offenders that have seen the error of their ways and have the potential to once again be law-abiding citizens.

Probation and parole usually include a system of supervision whereas the client checks in on a regular basis with the parole/probation officer.(Erickson, 1973) Most probation systems aim to isolate the client and bring about rehabilitation in a new environment. Thus, most probationary systems integrate requirements like steady employment, and abiding of local laws as well as having a curfew. Write A Narrative On Honesty Is The Best. The clients are usually confined to a small geographical area, such that the officers would find them easier to monitor. Being a preventive action, some systems usually provide counselling and therapy to special cases.(Klein, 1997) Parole systems also tend to poetry, follow the same system as that of write a narrative essay on honesty is the best policy probation. Parolees are sometimes first required to spend time in a halfway house, or a small community so that the transition from prison life to the outside would be gradual.(Villa Rose, 1979) Drug and in , some cases, alcohol use is also prohibited in a parole/probation system. A Narrative Essay On Honesty Is The Policy. A steady form of employment and close monitoring of behaviour is also implemented.

Any infringement of thee terms would result in the client being reviewed again by the parole board or the court. In a report of the department of justice on the statistics of probations systems, we find that about 5 million individuals were supervised as probationers/parolees. The number of those probationers who committed felonies and misdemeanours are statistically equal, at about 49%. The relapse rate of those in parole remain a steady 16% percent, while about 1 in on honesty best policy, 5 probationers are re incarcerated.(Albanese, 1981) There are also special cases that require corresponding attention from parole/probation systems.

These special cases include drug addicts, perpetrators of violent crimes, those with mental illnesses and sex offenders. X-ray Current. In this paper, we will review the different forms of parole/probation systems and how they respond to monitoring and managing sex offenders released into the community. The strengths and weaknesses of each system will be evaluated, and at the end, a proposal for a new system incorporating the research gathered would be formulated. Sexual offenders as a special case. Sexual offenders are often said to be the most loathed of all criminal types. The revulsion for write a narrative on honesty is the best, rapists and molesters proves to be a major factor in the consideration of their rehabilitation and punishment. The stigma of having a parolee/probationer who has committed sex crimes set loose in a community of law-abiding citizens provides a higher degree of difficulty in thesis proposal studies, managing such special cases.(Holmes, 1983) The balance between the concern for the safety of the community and the rehabilitation of the offender usually falls into conflict when related to sex related crimes. The fear of releasing sexual offenders has prompted the enactment of the sex offender registration act in 2004, which gives awareness of any sex offenders living in one’s proximity. Sex offense parole/probation programs.

An example of a program facing these difficulties is the Multnomah County Sex Offender program in Portland, Oregon. Mba Essay. The program aims to balance out the rehabilitation of the parolees/probationers, and the management of the risk associated with their re entry into society. To achieve this, the program initiates a thorough risk assessment of the offender, looking at court, police and jail records as well as interviews and recognition of the actions taken by the offender in lieu of the crimes in order to obtain an assessment on the risk of thesis proposal development entering the community. Those perceived to be high risk include offenders who were found guilty of serious sexual offenses like rape or child molestation, those with a history of write a narrative essay best policy violence, and those who do not respond favourably to treatment and digital state assessment.(Schwartz Cellini, 1997) The program also includes a plan for notification of those people living in proximity of a high risk offender, the neighbours, schools, the police and write essay on honesty best policy churches. To monitor the offender’s actions, surveillance and visits are imposed upon the offender’s house. Interviews with neighbours and community institutions are also initiated to obtain feedback regarding attitude, actions and over all behaviour.

A provision of the program also calls for the use of a polygraph to assess the offender. To rehabilitate the offender, the program employs psychological treatment, counselling and facilitates discussion between the offender and the victim.(United States. Conclude Paper. General Accounting Office. United States. Congress. House.

Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime., 1996) The program also acts as a facilitator to obtain knowledge about sex offenders in the area via the sex offenders registration act. The Multnomah County Sex Offender program illustrates the paranoia associated with perpetrators of metaphysical essay sexual crimes. They are essentially marked in the society the try to on honesty policy, rehabilitate in, shunned by people in the community and watched the majority of the time. The polygraph testing and surveillance may look to some as an invasion to privacy.

The program takes great pains to on honesty is the best policy, safeguard the public against the offender, giving a smaller amount of write a narrative on honesty policy attention as to how to rehabilitate the person. Another institute, which has programs for the rehabilitation of parolee/probationary sex offenders, is the Rehabilitations and re-entry division of the Texas department of Criminal Justice. The institute offers two very comprehensive rehabilitative programs that focus directly on the offender. Fordham Mba Essay. It aims to root out the psychological causes of sexual crimes through counselling and cognitive therapy. The program aims to let the offenders have the tools to help control their urges. The development of interpersonal relations as well is significant as to sufficiently provide a moral foundation upon full mergence into society. This program operates upon the assumption that the urges that compelled the perpetrator to commit the act will always be there, what rehabilitation could do is to supply methods of control to regulate those urges and channel them tin ways that are acceptable to the law.

Other states utilize a variety of means to corral sex offenders in their vicinity. In California, the use of electronic tagging devices both to monitor subject’s forays outside the allotted area and to pinpoint the exact location via GPS has proven to be an effective mechanism for separating the public from the parolees/probationers. The methods utilized by both federal and state government isolate the parolee/probationer of a sex crime from the society.(Henderson) This in essence defeats the aim of the parole/probation system, because it refuses the subject a chance to a narrative essay best policy, fully integrate with society.(Sacks, Logan, Connecticut. Dept. of Correction., 1979) the labelling and fordham mba essay registration schemes, although necessary and effective at trying to prevent sexual crimes, also tends to further alienate the offender from society, effectively branding them as outcasts. The sex offender registration act also makes this stigma against sex offenders a nationwide phenomenon, further increasing concerns about write a narrative essay is the best, them mingling in public. In formulating a new approach to sex offender parole/probation management, one must look at the factors and intentions that compose it. The concern for public safety must not be the only consideration. Additional thought must be given as to how the offender can leave the crimes behind, and start anew as an accepted member of society.

Ideal Parole/probation program for sex offenders. An ideal scenario for the management of such cases would be to have greater personal interaction between the parole/probation officer and digital x-ray current the offender. In order to essay on honesty is the best, achieve this, the authorities must make it a point to set a small maximum number of cases for a particular officer to hold. Routine checks, as well as surprise visits from officers who have achieved a certain degree of familiarity with their clients would reduce the risk of the offenders feeling that they are and will always be under suspicion. The building of trust between officer and convict would provide additional motivation for keeping themselves in check.

Steady counselling would also be a prime priority, both within days prior to parole/probation and also within the duration. Counseling designed to mba essay, pinpoint the cause of why the offender performed the crime would be crucial in the offender’s rehabilitation. Awareness of what the offender’s act did to the victim and the impression that the offender was responsible would facilitate the development of guilt and regret. Integration of an individual in a community would be hampered if underlying suspicions and fears are there. Thus, a system by which the community is not simply notified, but instead has a bigger hand in integrating the parolee/probationer in the society. By breaking down the suspicion barrier and a narrative on honesty is the policy gaining familiarity, the community may get to see the convict not merely as a sex offender, but instead as a real person. By helping the community accept a person who is an outcast, the program would in effect help the outcast realize that he/she is a person. The program could involve the local church in surrounding the perpetrator with an a narrative essay best policy, atmosphere of acceptance and welcome, not of suspicion and distrust. Dialogue between the parolee/probationer and the members of the community should be encouraged, both to allay any fears and also to rehabilitate the offender. Supervision of sex offenders would entail surveillance.

This would ideally come in the form of write is the best policy visits, searches, and contact. Regulation of Internet access, alcohol consumption and movement at essay prompt, night would also be helpful in reducing the risk of a relapse. A schedule polygraph test, about once a month, would also be helpful, although this should come with the parolees consent. The facilitation of discussion between offender and victim is also a good factor to , incorporate in the program. The acceptance of guilt and the hope for change are strong motivations by which a sex offender could utilize to start anew. An essential part of the program would also include a creative and productive outlet by which the parolees could use.

These may be in the form of choirs, art classes, book discussions or even simply a walking club. Any effort to incorporate the offender to join a group, however small would send the message that the people around him support his decision to change. The role of this type of program would be the prevention of recurrence of crime by trusting that the offender has the willingness to change. We can see that as alternatives to hail, both parole and probationary systems still have some effect on the convict. The millions that are able to have a second chance is reason enough to write essay on honesty is the best policy, balance out the few that do commit crime again. Parole an probation offers ways in which a criminal could be used to research papers in gis vegatation to onwards, better society. In sex offender cases, the affectivity of system is reduced by the reluctance of the community to open its doors and write on honesty best trust a fellow human being. The associated stigma against conclude paper abortion sexual; offenders make parole/probation systems for them problematic. This, instead of write a narrative essay is the best being resolved by existing programs, is instead highlighted, thus further propagating the atmosphere of fear. A new type of program should face head on thesis proposal development studies, the need for rehabilitation and the fact that this rehabilitation will occur in write a narrative on honesty is the best, a community. The community must learn to accept these people, and also realize their responsibility in giving them a second chance to be good citizens once more.

The cloud of fear must be lifted, the distrust lessened so that those deserving of second chances would not be denied by the same society they are trying to rejoin. The criminal justice system should see that prevention of future crimes from these paroles and probationers starts not with keeping them away from society. Rehabilitation for these people starts from thesis development making them realize the error of their ways, the hope that they could start anew, and the justification that the society they are coming back to would still regard them as human beings. Albanese, J. S. Essay Policy. (1981). Is probation working? : a guide for managers and methodologists. x, 180 p. Dressler, D. (1969). Practice and theory of probation and parole. Thesis Development Studies. 347 p. Erickson, R. J. (1973). Paroled but not free. xiii, 129 p.

Henderson, D. Treating sex offenders. Holmes, R. M. (1983). The sex offender and the criminal justice system. xiii, 236 p. Klein, A. R. (1997). Alternative sentencing, intermediate sanctions, and probation. A Narrative Essay On Honesty Best. xvii, 432 p. NCCD Research Center. Parole in the United States, Uniform parole reports. Thesis Proposal Studies. (pp. v.). [Washington] ;: Dept. of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Russell, C. (2006). Alternatives to prison : rehabilitation and other programs. 111 p.

Sacks, H. Write A Narrative Essay Policy. R., Logan, C. H., Connecticut. Dept. of Correction. Fordham. (1979). Does parole make a difference? , 120 p. Schwartz, B. K., Cellini, H. R. (1997). The sex offender : new insights, treatment innovations and legal developments : volume II. xviii, various pagings. United States. Congress.

House. Committee on the District of Columbia. Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education. (1989). D.C. Board of Parole–power and a narrative on honesty is the authority over prisoners : hearing before the Subcommittee on Judiciary and Education of the Committee on the District of Columbia, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, second session, on H.R. 1792 … June 30, 1988. iii, 63 p. United States. General Accounting Office., United States.

Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Crime. (1996). Sex offender treatment : research results inconclusive about what works to reduce recidivism : report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Crime, Committee on some values are universal as, the Judiciary, House of Representatives. 23 p. Villa, R. J., Rose, S. (1979). The probation manual. 1 v. Essay On Honesty Is The Best. (various pagings). Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Parole and Probation.

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English essays: Honesty is the best policy

African Development Portrayed in Film. Posted by beersa1 on Monday, November 4, 2013 in News. Growth is biased, leaning more favorably to those institutions and countries with the most money, knowledge, and development. On Honesty Is The Best Policy? For the purposes of this paper, a developed country shall be one with the following characteristics: gender equality, accessible healthcare, and a responsive government with a concern for research papers in gis to onwards, its people. These qualities are those that compromise a country’s ability to provide a safe environment, especially in terms of curbing diseases like HIV/AIDS.

Quantifying these standards is difficult, yet the following measurements will suffice: HIV prevalence, doctor to patient ratios, and income from write a narrative, medicines. These statistics provide insight into the effect that HIV/AIDS has on the country’s state of development studies development, and vice versa. Using South Africa and the United States as examples, one can examine how governmental and societal response to emergencies changes as the country’s state of development changes. Because HIV/AIDS created a sense of emergency within South Africa, it initiated a series of developmental reforms, simultaneously depleting the essay is the policy, resources of the country and development studies making it exponentially more difficult to implement these reforms. Yet it was the hostile social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS that prevented the United States government and people from responding appropriately to the disease and instead actively choosing ignorance.

The United States was just as ineffective in essay on honesty is the policy containing HIV/AIDS at the start of the epidemic as South Africa was in terms of sympathizing with victims and forming and implementing policy; its only saving characteristic is its high amount of resources compared to write on honesty that of South Africa. It can be said that HIV/AIDS has done more harm than good in terms of the lives it has taken, yet it catalyzed long-term policies that are on track to improve the quality of life compared to before HIV/AIDS. If only it did not take a crisis to fordham necessitate progress in equality (in terms of gender, healthcare, etc.), governments worldwide would be far more responsible. Even though they are drastically different, the United States and South Africa handled the same crisis in a nearly identical way, until the resources and essay on honesty is the policy development of the United States overwhelmed the the belief that some values are universal is known, prevailing sense of prejudice and negligence towards HIV/AIDS. Extrapolating on this idea, it is most likely that if South Africa had the resources that the United States did, treating HIV/AIDS would be a much smaller problem, as the politics of the disease would fade into a narrative essay on honesty best policy, the background. Dr. James Mason, the Director of the CDC during the HIV/AIDS crisis, stated, “there are certain areas which, when the goals of science collide with moral and ethical judgment, science has to take a time out” (Francis 2012). Although this is a discouraging claim, especially from the fordham, head of a narrative is the one of the most important science departments in the world, it proved to be true.

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Essay on “Honesty is The Best Policy” Complete Essay for Class 10

Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If you’ve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the job search itself. Fortunately, making a resume is as simple as following a format. With some key information in the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is a narrative, a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and other information . The purpose is to show you’re a perfect candidate for the position you are applying for. It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to learn about applicants quickly and easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities. An interview might also be needed to land the job, but a resume is a narrative essay on honesty is the policy, necessary to start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out conclude research paper abortion, job seekers who don’t have the right experience and qualifications. Write. A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the competition.

Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on track to having a great entry-level resume and all the opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and combination. It helps to familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on write a narrative best policy the right resume template for you. This is conclude research, one of the write a narrative on honesty is the best most common resume formats. It lists your work history in reverse chronological order, starting with the digital x-ray most recent position. It is often headed with a “Career Objective” section. We will talk about these sections in more detail later in this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken.

This is a common resume format. It’s easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and get an idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for you. Prospective employers will throw your resume in the “No” pile if all they see is work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over development, work experience.

This type of a narrative, resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at , specific jobs. It will probably still have some sort of work history section, but it will be placed at the bottom rather than at the top of the page. Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on this type of resume. In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in order of relevance instead. This type of research vegatation 2002, resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience.

It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and can draw attention to your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and foremost. The Belief That At Least Moral Values Are Universal Is Known As. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in reverse chronological order. It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of resume is ideal. You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about your skills and other knowledge you have.

It’s also useful if the work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the mba essay job you’re looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy. How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and city at the top of your resume. You don’t need to include your full street address, but you can if you’d like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the on honesty is the best policy following:

Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and Interests Achievements, Awards, and Honors References. Each of a narrative policy, these sections will consist of a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by details about that section. Papers In Gis Vegatation To Onwards. For example, under the “Education” heading, you might list the schools you’ve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of these headings. Write Essay On Honesty Is The Best Policy. Just pick the ones that are most relevant to you and the job you’re seeking. Every section requires a slightly different approach. Let’s break it down and see how it works. This can be a difficult section to tackle on a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. Metaphysical Poetry Prompt. Don’t worry though.

Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. If you do have official work experience, it’s important to mention it in this section, especially if it is a job similar to the one you are applying for. Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think. Conclude Paper Abortion. Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of work experience on a teen resume.

Under the “Work Experience” heading, list the name of the company you worked for, your job title, and dates of essay on honesty, employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and accomplishments. Mba Essay. That way, it’s clear what kind of write best policy, experience you gained. Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and duties for each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for real-world examples of work experience sections.

In the write a narrative essay best “Education” section, state the that values are universal high school you attended or presently attend and the years you were there or the write a narrative essay best date you expect to graduate. For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia. Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. You can mention your future education plans too. For example: I have been accepted to Chicago State University, and I am planning to major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to prepare for college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of write a narrative on honesty is the, job you’re looking for.

It consists of one or two sentences near the top of your resume that describe your desired job. Poetry. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into a summary. Write On Honesty Is The Policy. A summary is a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills.

For example: I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and their use by people from write on honesty is the best policy different economic and social backgrounds. The Belief Is Known. I have a business mindset and am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to describe yourself and your goals in your own words. It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the objective or summary is write essay on honesty, short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for.

These can be listed under “Professional Skills.” Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to mention “Ability to handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to that job. But you might mention, “Ability to use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position.

You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in some way to what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests. It might even tie into write is the best policy the “Skills” section. Think of mba essay, extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Write A Narrative Best Policy. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Digital Of. Playing football? You might be a good team player. A Narrative Essay On Honesty Is The Policy. These are qualities that employers are looking for.

Some examples of thesis proposal studies, school activities that could look good on a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops. Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and your role/position. For example:

West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011. If your resume is short on fordham work experience, you can list more details about your activities to show what you gained from essay on honesty is the them. You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about your character. Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of conclude, interest to potential employers. X-ray Tomosynthesis Current Of. For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. It’s great to mention major achievements and awards you’ve earned at school or in your activities. Write Essay On Honesty Best. Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and hard work.

For example: Student of the Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for your knowledge and skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Conclude Paper. Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one. Many people simply write “References Available on proposal Request” at the bottom of their resumes. If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in case a prospective employer requests them.

However, if you have limited experience to put on your resume, you might want to list the write on honesty is the names and contact information of your references on write essay on honesty best your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. Thesis Proposal Development. There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and a basic idea of write a narrative on honesty is the, what to write. Research Papers In Gis. We also have High School Graduate Resumes and other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and personal skills, hobbies, and references examples. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6268 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in a fast food industry.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 7444 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and common content for any type of position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27356 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and volunteer experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 18045 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142.

Sample for position in gardening or landscape. Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for students who would like to promote tutoring services to other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4215 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146. Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. Can be easily modified for similar positions in different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6591 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant. Can also be used for kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 4310 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4677 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5314 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154. Sample resume for an apprentice welder and assisting in different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position. Can be easily modified for a different position in the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26442 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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