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Apa bibliography guidelines

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Writing a Bibliography: APA Format - Science Buddies

as music essay In this lesson we’ll look at an IELTS music essay in order to explain how to approach a more complex IELTS task 2 question. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Many questions have a clear task. For example, the task may clearly state that you need to agree or disagree , offer solutions to a problem , or give the reasons why a problem exists. Some though may have more general questions. Take a look at the example below: There are many types of music in the world today. Why do we need music? Is the traditional music of a country more important and should it be preserved or is international music that is heard everywhere nowadays more useful to a society? This is quite complex - the IELTS music essay question is long and ‘music’ is yale medical school thesis quite an abstract topic. When you get a more complex IELTS task 2 question like this you should make sure you underline important words and carefully break it down into its different parts. This will make sure that you do not miss something when you answer the question. When you have done this, you should hopefully end up with something like this: Why is traditional music important?

Why is apa bibliography international music important? You need to discuss all these things as they are all within the IELTS music essay question. If you address all of these points then you will be fully answering the question . These kinds of question are usually asking your opinion in some way, and this question is the advantages no exception. All of the guidelines, points listed are asking for your opinion, but most importantly you MUST make it clear which type of music, traditional or international, you think is more important/useful (if indeed you do think one is more important than the other - you may think they are equally important). Planning and Organizing your Answer. You can use these questions to preliminary, brainstorm and plan your answer. With a question like this there is no ‘fixed’ way to organize it. There could be many different ways.

But you must ensure that, as always, it is logical and covers everything . One clear way would be to discuss why we need music first, then go on to discuss/compare the relative importance of traditional and guidelines international music, ensuring that you finish by flow essay, stating your opinion (or re stating your opinion if you already gave it in your introduction). Now, take a look at the IELTS music essay model answer. You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: There are many types of music in guidelines the world today. Why do we need music? Is the about myself, traditional music of a country more important and should it be preserved or is international music that is guidelines heard everywhere nowadays more useful to a society? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from medical school your own experience or knowledge.

Write at least 250 words. Music exists in some form or another in apa bibliography every culture around the world and it provides enjoyment to millions of people. Yale School! However, some people are concerned that traditional music is being lost because of the popularity of international music. Without a doubt, music is a necessity. Firstly, music is important as it provides enjoyment and pleasure in daily life. People listen to music to relax at home, to relieve the boredom of apa bibliography guidelines, long journeys, and to essay about, dance to apa bibliography, in the evening at clubs.

Not only this, music is also an expression of response essay, culture, often being an essential part of religious ceremonies such as weddings and funerals or yearly festivals. It is apa bibliography also now common in educational development as children learn to to do, play music at school. In considering which kind of apa bibliography guidelines, music is the most important, international music is school certainly useful to society because it can be argued that it helps us to understand and relate to apa bibliography guidelines, other people, cultures and countries as we all listen to the same songs. This has occurred as globalization means Western music is heard around the pay someone to do thesis, world. However, it is critical that this is not at the expense of traditional music. Apa Bibliography! It should be a priority to flow essay, preserve this since it teaches people about apa bibliography, their history, and helps societies remember and retain their national and cultural identity. Define Response! To conclude, I would argue that one type of music is not more important or useful than another. Traditional music is vital and should be preserved as it is part of a country’s cultural identity, but both are needed as they provide enjoyment to apa bibliography guidelines, people in different ways.

As you can see, the IELTS music essay answer is 270 words. There is preliminary essay a lot more you could have written about this topic and I could have made the answer longer, but this is to show you that you can address quite a few points in a short space. If you are a good writer and you can write more then that is fine, but most people cannot write much more if they have to brainstorm, plan and check their grammar as well as write the answer. The question has quite a few points to guidelines, discuss and they are all within the essay. Define Personal! Home › IELTS Lessons › Complicated Essay Question. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to guidelines, study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to yale medical school thesis, ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay.

Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to answer the question. This was the apa bibliography, essay question: The best way to understand. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay. Pay Someone! Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM.

Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays.

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little dorrit essay Where possible, bibliographical information appears in the form of in-text citations, which refer to the bibliography that appears below in this column. Clicking on superscript numbers will take you to longer notes, which appear in this column; clicking the back button on your web browser will return you to your place in guidelines, the main text. Links in the text take you to other documents and images in the Victorian Web . 1. Can You Forgive Her (1864); The Eustace Diamonds (1873); The Small House at thesis, Allington (1864); The Warden (1855); The Last Chronicle of Barset (1866) 2. Apa Bibliography! Later references to this character will be simply written as “Blandois,” the last pseudonym he assumes in flow essay, the novel. 3 These traits, and other references to abstract character traits that contribute the apa bibliography given character’s immoral behavior, are capitalized to flow essay elevate the apa bibliography guidelines power these traits have over a character’s moral disposition.

4 James Kay Shutlesworth’s work, from which Armstrong draws her claims, was done in flow essay, the mid-1830s, about 20 years before Dickens began serially publishing Little Dorrit . 5 The Tu quoque fallacy is “the fallacy of defending an error in one's reasoning by pointing out that others have made the same error. An error is still an error, regardless of how many people make it.” (Taken from the apa bibliography guidelines webpage of preliminary essay Glenn Whitman, Professor at CSU, Northridge.) 6 Langland attributes this claim to the work of Michael E. Rose, who according to Langland, argued that “the middle classes saw the lower classes qualitatively different from themselves.” Her citation of guidelines Rose’s work is as follows: Rose, Michael E. “The Disappearing Pauper” Victorian Attitudes to the Relief of the Poor.” Sigsworth 56-72. 7 I had also intended to consider Tatttycoram as a character who sacrifices herself, however her circumstances deposit her directly between the two groups of characters I have mentioned so far those who sacrifice others, and those who sacrifice themselves for others. Tattycoram ultimately sacrifices herself (particularly her individuality), but it is not for others, and is actually for her own conditional happiness with the Meagles family. It seems then that her sacrifice was executed to relieve herself of define response a worse condition (the one with Ms. Wade), which can be likened to Mr. Merdle’s suicide, but of course is much different for guidelines several reasons.

It is for these reasons that I have chosen to address Tattycoram in about myself school, this footnote rather than in the body of the apa bibliography essay, but for what it is worth, I believe the novel neither rewards nor punishes Tattycoram for her unique circumstance of sacrifice. Anderson, Amanda. The Powers of Distance: Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment . Flow Essay! Princeton University Press, 2001. Armstrong, Nancy. “History in the House of Culture: Social Disorder and Domestic Fiction in Early Victorian England.” Poetics Today . 7.4 (1986): 641-71. Blumberg, Ilana.

Unnatural Self-Sacrifice: Trollope’s Ethic of apa bibliography Mutual Benefit . University of California Press, 2004. 506-46. Dickens, Charles. Little Dorrit . Penguin Books, 2003. Fleishman, Avrom. “Master and Servant in Little Dorrit ” Studies in English Literature 14.4 (1974): 575-86. Goodlad, Lauren. “A Middle-Class Cut in Two: Historiography and Victorian National Character.” ELH 67.1 (2000): 143-78. Langland, Elizabeth. “Nobody’s Angels: Domestic Ideology and to do thesis, Middle-Class Women in the Victorian Novel.” PMLA (1992): 290-304.

Whitman, Glen. “Logical Fallacies and the Art of Debate” http://www.csun.edu/ dgw61315/ index.html. Accessed May, 2009. Yeazell, Ruth Bernard. “Do It or Dorrit” NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction 25.1 (1991): 33-49. Most readers of Charles Dickens will have noticed that his novels employ characters from various social classes of Victorian England, each character developed enough for guidelines the reader to define response essay make an inference about guidelines, Dickens’s commentary on social or domestic order, or at least enough for the reader to yale medical school thesis know that commentary is afoot, whether or not he or she is able to make anything of apa bibliography guidelines it. Additionally, most scholars who have read literary criticisms of essay about school Charles Dickens will have very likely been exposed to an extensive array of theories concerning what his commentary on social order, and the characters’ particularly defined roles within it, actually is. “It is Dickens’s almost unique genius,” begins Avrom Fleishman, Professor Emeritus of English at Johns Hopkins University, “to tell us not only how it feels to be alive in guidelines, class society, but also how people shape their own character under the spell of inequality” (575). Although Fleishman does not expand on his statement in this way, it can be read as if to say that although Dickens’s develops his characters within a specific social framework, the essay about school most provocative commentary rests not in the roles, responsibilities, virtues, and vices stereotypically found among the Victorian social classes, but rather through the ways in which the characters define their own moral characters, independent of apa bibliography guidelines their assigned social order. That is to say, one orphan may act entirely different than another orphan ( Great Expectations ’ Pip and Oliver Twist ’s title orphan), one capitalist entirely different from another capitalist ( Little Dorrit ’s Mr.

Meagles and Hard Times’ Bounderby), one cosmopolitan character entirely different from another cosmopolitan character ( Little Dorrit ’s Arthur Clennam and Monsieur Rigaud, to foreshadow a later discussion), and so on. Dickens’s novel then shifts from a commentary on Victorian social class, to a commentary on the individuals who are thrust, aptly or otherwise, into those classes. This shift does not deny the pay someone to do thesis existence of social and domestic categories, but instead suggests that each character has the willful agency to behave in guidelines, a way that is morally independent of those who share his or her social or domestic category. Dickens’s 1857 novel, Little Dorrit , serves well perhaps inadvertently to demonstrate that a character’s moral development has more to do with the individual’s disposition than his or her standing in the social and domestic hierarchies of Victorian England. Ruth Bernard Yeazell, in pay someone to do thesis, her essay “Do It or Dorrit”, similarly theorizes that “more than most Dickens’s novels, Little Dorrit frustrates any attempt to trace human acts or failures to act to single determining origins” (39). In order to exercise my claim, I will investigate the ways in which Little Dorrit ’s characters engage their moral identities through acts of apa bibliography guidelines sacrifice both in medical school thesis, terms of sacrificing oneself for others, and of sacrificing others, either for guidelines oneself or otherwise. This should be an about school, important and fruitful exercise, as “the relation of sacrifice to the mid-Victorian novel is an extraordinarily rich, surprisingly understudied topic” (Blumberg 515). It is indeed surprising, for as Blumberg goes on to note, “mid- to late-nineteenth century writings are exceptionally prone to conceive of social relations in terms of apa bibliography guidelines sacrifice” (515). Although her essay focuses this trope of sacrifice on response, five Anthony Trollope novels, the mid-Victorian novels with which she expands her claim are Bronte’s Jane Eyre (1847); Charolette Mary Yonge’s The Heir of Radcliffe (1853); George Eliot’s The Mill on the Floss (1860) and Silas Marner (1861); Wilkie Collins’ The Moonstone (1868) and apa bibliography guidelines, No Name (1862); Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations (1861) and A Tale of school Two Cities (1869). Apa Bibliography! 1 With regards to George Eliot, this trope could as well include Daniel Deronda (1876), and medical school, with regards to Dickens, we might also consider Bleak House (1853) in which Esther Summerson, determined to do good and “win some love”, is confronted with a potential sacrifice of her happiness in her efforts to thank Mr.

Jarndyce. Additionally, investigations of the individual and sacrifice have also resonated in apa bibliography, political and fantastical novels of the Victorian era. Yale Medical! Regarding the political, Beauchamp’s Career (1875) by George Meredith involves the apa bibliography guidelines sacrifice of its protagonist to selfless morality as he attempts to save a street urchin from drowning, while previously sacrificing his connection with a rich uncle in his attraction to the Radical ideology. Regarding sacrifice in the fantastical, the conclusion of George MacDonald’s Phantastes (1858), while vague, ought to personal response essay be considered as the character Cosmo sacrifices his own life to apa bibliography guidelines save the soul of his beloved. It appears then that Blumberg is correct in noting the tendencies of mid-Victorian novels to conceive of relationships in terms of yale thesis sacrifice; however, Little Dorrit separates itself with greater emphasis on morality and individuality, and this essay will be chiefly concerned with that emphasis. To capture a broad perspective of sacrifice, my investigation will consider several of Little Dorrit ’s developed characters from the pivotal players of Arthur Clennam, Mr. Merdle, and guidelines, Amy (Little) Dorrit, to the supporting cast members such as Tattycoram, Rigaud/Langier/Blandois, 2 and Ms. Wade, among others. Ultimately, the novel suggests that those characters who sacrifice others, either for their own personal benefit or in negligence, will in turn find themselves fatally sacrificed by the very forces within themselves Greed, Ignorance, Pressure, 3 etc. that catalyzed their sacrifice of others. Conversely, the novel suggests that those characters who sacrifice themselves for others will in define personal, turn find themselves rewarded with happiness, perhaps the most beloved reward of them all. Let us first consider those characters who sacrifice others, knowingly or negligently.

With each character thus analyzed, I will show, in order, who they sacrificed, why their social class or label cannot be an guidelines, excuse for essay their moral flaw, and apa bibliography guidelines, finally how they in essay, turn become sacrificed by the forces within themselves that catalyzed their sacrifice of apa bibliography guidelines others. Since the novel begins with the sinister Monsieur Rigaud, so then will I. It will be first useful to the advantages identify him, as he does himself, as a “cosmopolitan gentleman” (24). More explicitly, he declares, “I own no particular country. My father was Swiss Canton de Vaud. My mother was French by blood, English by birth. I myself was born in apa bibliography, Belgium. I am a citizen of the world” (24). This “gentleman” makes three attempts at the advantages of internet essay, sacrificing others, two of them successfully, the apa bibliography guidelines other nearly executed, but ultimately unsuccessful. First, he kills his wife “Struggling with her assassinating her!” (27) Then he deliberately poisons the Gowon’s dog both instances of course contrary to his own side of the story.

The third instance materializes in his unsuccessful attempt to sacrifice Mrs. Clennam by exposing her lie that concerns Arthur’s legitimacy, and likewise the legitimacy of essay her motherhood. The reader may now wonder why I found it “useful” to identify Monsieur Rigaud as cosmopolitan. First, with regards to a character’s moral disposition, Rigaud’s cosmopolitan nature coincides with Amanda Anderson’s observation of how Dickens involves cosmopolitan characters in apa bibliography guidelines, Victorian English society: On the one hand, Dickens ambitiously strove in his novels to comprehend a social whole, and his narratives repeatedly assert omniscient and comparative knowledge as an intellectual and ethical value.

On the other hand, insofar as the knowledge embodied in the narratives, and about myself, accessible to apa bibliography guidelines select characters, involves exposure to scathing truths about economic inequities or systemic corruption, it actually becomes a negative force as well, threatening the individual’s sense of purpose and capacity for clear moral vision when dealing with others who are suddenly viewed as fully complicit in the forms of power that structure the social world more broadly [emphasis added] (70). In short, Anderson argues that a character’s cosmopolitanism can sometimes generate an thesis, “ethical value,” and sometimes it can generate an ethical flaw. While this argument is not false, I believe it requires a slight adjustment. I would like to suggest that a character’s moral behavior is not governed by apa bibliography guidelines, cosmopolitanism itself, but is governed rather by the character’s individual response to his or her cosmopolitanism that is, how the characters use their cosmopolitanism, and not how cosmopolitanism uses the characters. To assert that Monsieur Rigaud’s “capacity for clear moral vision” is “threatened” is to put it as mildly as our English vocabulary allows. But to use the vocabulary that Anderson uses, what is his capacity for moral vision threatened by? For Anderson, it is the very actuality of his cosmopolitanism. In chapter two of her book, The Powers of Distance, she alludes to Dickens’s broader anxiety that “cultivated detachment aesthetic, scientific, and cosmopolitan poses a distinct threat to moral integrity, purposiveness, and forms of belonging” [emphasis added] (82).

She goes on, however, to stress that “in many of [cosmopolitanism’s] Enlightenment manifestations, it comprises both intellectual and ethical dimensions, with a prominent emphasis on the practice of define response self-cultivation” (64). Apa Bibliography! Since other cosmopolitan characters in Little Dorrit , in other Dickens’s novels, and in rulings essay, other Victorian works behave much differently than Rigaud, it seems more reasonable to guidelines say that his capacity for moral integrity is not threatened by cosmopolitanism, but rather his individual response to it. The moral differences between the cosmopolitan characters are therefore determined not by cosmopolitanism’s effect on the individual, but by the individual’s effect on cosmopolitanism by define response essay, the degree to apa bibliography guidelines which they use cosmopolitanism to morally cultivate themselves. This is an important distinction to make because by the advantages of internet, shifting accountability to the characters themselves, the novel is justified in the rewards or punishments it allots to the moral or amoral characters, respectively. Although granting that Monsieur Rigaud is guidelines perhaps more cosmopolitan than other characters who seem to be worthy of such a label, it must be noted that these other characters with traces of cosmopolitanism adhere to an entirely different program of moral values. After all, the “Fellow Travellers” from the East in Chapter Two behave without the coldness, deceitfulness, and manipulation to which Rigaud subscribes. The Meagles, granting their unwillingness to (further) improve Tattycoram’s well-being, by and large behave respectfully. Miss Wade, while pessimistic and suspicious, commits no real harm.

And Arthur Clennam, the flow essay novel’s hero, might be regarded as Rigaud’s moral antithesis. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Additionally, although she is define personal response essay not one of these “Fellow Travelers,” the cosmopolitan Mrs. General, who “in the course [of about seven years] made the guidelines tour of flow essay Europe, and saw most of apa bibliography guidelines that extensive miscellany of objects which it is essential that all persons of polite cultivation should see with other people’s eyes, and never their own . . . was a name more honorable than ever” (473). Flow Essay! Hence it is apa bibliography guidelines Rigaud’s reaction to response essay and apa bibliography, decided involvement with his cosmopolitanism that defines his moral makeup. When viewed in this light, the collection of cosmopolitan characters crumbles down, and the individuals, with their own unique dispositions, remain unscathed by medical thesis, this social category. The novel, with regards to guidelines moral temperament, is therefore neither pro- nor anti-cosmopolitan; however, it is the advantages of internet decidedly in favor of those who react to their cosmopolitanism honorably and selflessly (sacrificing themselves for others), and is against those who react dishonorably and selfishly (sacrificing others, knowingly or otherwise). Part of my thesis stated that those characters who sacrifice others, either for their own personal benefit or otherwise, will in guidelines, turn find themselves fatally sacrificed by the very forces within themselves that catalyzed their sacrifice of others. As just shown, the essay school catalyst cannot be Rigaud’s cosmopolitanism, as this trait surfaces in some of the moral characters of the novel as well. Manipulation, Deceit, and apa bibliography guidelines, Malice, therefore, seem to be the safest bets what instigated these traits, one can only guess.

In any case, it follows then that Rigaud fittingly dies beneath the very house that he tried to manipulate, or literally, “the great beam that lay upon him, crushing him” (828). Whereas Rigaud enters the novel in an unsympathetic and rather ominous light, the imprisoned Father of the Marshalsea, Mr. William Dorrit, is define response essay first introduced as “a very amiable and very helpless middle-aged gentleman . . . .a shy, retiring man; well-looking, though in apa bibliography, an effeminate style; with a mild voice, curling hair, and irresolute hands” (73). Yet Mr. Of Internet Essay! Dorrit, instead of sacrificing himself for the sake of his children, imposes sacrifices upon them Little Dorrit bearing most, but Fanny and Tip (because of their unwillingness to sacrifice themselves for others) suffering most. Apa Bibliography! He loosely spends Testimonial money from visitors and perpetuates his stay in the Marshalsea, which perpetuates the misfortune of the flow essay Dorrit children. The most poignant demonstration of Mr. Dorrit’s lack of sacrifice, however or more explicitly his lack of charity, which always involves sacrifice in some shape is captured while in his carriage bound for Paris. While “every cripple at the post-houses, not blind, who shoved his little battered tin box in at [Mr. Dorrit’s] carriage window for apa bibliography guidelines Charity in the name of heaven, Charity in the name of our Lady, Charity in the name of all the Saints,” Mr. Dorrit preoccupies himself with “castle-building. School! running towers up, taking towers down, adding a wing here, putting on a battlement there, looking to the walls, strengthening the defenses, giving ornamental touches to the interior, making in all respects a superb castle of it” (664).

Not only does he sacrifice his own children, but he fails to apa bibliography guidelines make a charitable sacrifice when the opportunity stares him in the face which especially weakens his moral character when the reader recalls that acts of charity or sacrifice by visitors to the Marshalsea (strangers to Mr. Dorrit) were that which made his bitter imprisonment tolerable, and daresay comfortable. Of what Mr. Dorrit is supposed to be representative, it becomes increasingly difficult to essay school tell. He is literally a father, though for most of the novel cared for as a child. He was “brought up as a gentleman,” and “Ed’cated at no end of expense,” though often times detrimentally ignorant (79). It is perhaps for these reasons that we need not demonstrate any further how the novel distinguishes Mr. Dorrit as a morally unique individual, but it should be remembered that no character save for Mr. Merdle who at apa bibliography, any time shares a social or domestic category with him, behaves with the immoral recklessness to which Mr. Dorrit subscribes. The closest argument would go to the cosmopolitan Rigaud, but this obliges one to see Mr.

Dorrit’s travel experiences as cosmopolitan, which becomes difficult to essay about myself school do when he simply surrounds himself with Englishmen while abroad. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! He is pay someone thesis like the guidelines American who vacations in Japan and books a reservation at define personal, Planet Hollywood not exactly the cosmopolitan experience. Apa Bibliography! What then is the force within that catalyzes his sacrifice of others and/or his lack of sacrifice for others? Some critics of Victorian-era behavior, both in and outside of the response novel, want to blame disrupted households. Contemporary critic Nancy Armstrong, recalling the research of James Shuttleworth, explains that machinization and problems of political order produced disorder in Victorian households, and likewise that “geographies of domestic disorder were also maps of moral disorder” (654). 4 First, this starkly contrasts with Elizabeth Langland’s assertion that “the nineteenth-century novel presents the household as a secure and moral shelter from economic and political storms,” however neither Armstrong’s nor Langland’s assertions add up in Little Dorrit , if at all elsewhere. Guidelines! Concerning Armstrong’s view that domestic disorder produced moral disorder, we have only to recall that not only do Amy Dorrit and rulings, her father both subscribe to domestic disorder, but they are in the same family! How did Amy evade moral degeneracy while it captured the rest of the apa bibliography family? How did Arthur behave so well despite the essay troubling circumstances of the Clennam household? Acknowledging the goodness in the characters of Amy and Arthur means a concurrent acknowledgment that, with regards to moral behavior, individual dispositions trump domestic order, or disorder.

Mr. Dorrit therefore has no social or domestic category to blame; the most likely culprit seems to be a combination of guidelines Self-Absorption and essay myself, Ignorance. This combination surfaces visibly in the “castle building” scene mentioned earlier, though Ignorance takes precedence concerning the sacrifice of his children: “All I have been able to do, I have done,” he says to Amy (248). And again to Amy: “I cannot, my dear child, think of engrossing, and ha as it were, sacrificing you” (638). Both forces (Self-Absorption and apa bibliography guidelines, Ignorance) again contribute to his injurious investments with Mr. Essay! Merdle: his Self-Absorption drives him into guidelines, the company of society’s most esteemed members, and his Ignorance of how to manage himself and medical thesis, his money in a society for which he pretends to be equipped (“though of course I should, under any circumstances, like the rest of the apa bibliography guidelines civilized world, have followed in Mr. Merdle’s train”) drives him to to do thesis lose everything, bringing his children down with him, again (643). Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Early in the novel, Amy foreshadows the danger of her father trying to exist in the world outside the prison, saying “he might not be so fit himself for the life outside, as he is for [the Marshalsea]” (113). The Advantages Of Internet! Because of this he is in turn sacrificed by the resulting pressure of his humiliation that follows these unfavorable endeavors.

One might sympathize with a man who caught the same Epidemic “in common with the rest of the world,” but the Ad Hominem fallacy “ Tu quoque ,” 5 while often tempting, is apa bibliography hardly a worthy excuse (538). Mr. Merdle brings us to my last though not the novel’s sole remaining example of response essay these amoral sacrificers. He is, however, the most obvious example, making sacrifices of everyone who trusted him with their investments, and spreading the symptoms (with help) of his own Epidemic. Upon the exposure of his Greed and apa bibliography guidelines, Manipulation, the to do thesis novel calls him “the greatest Forger and the Greatest Thief that ever cheated the gallows” (742). Guidelines! The novel explicitly labels Mrs.

Merdle as one of yale school his victims, explaining that she “had been sacrificed to the wiles of a vulgar barbarian” [emphasis added] (838). Mr. Merdle, however, attempts to save face as most guilty people do by attempting to explain the apa bibliography “sacrifices” he had born. While discussing society with his wife, Mr. Merdle claims she does “not know anything of the sacrifices [he makes] for it,” but these “sacrifices,” just like his self-sacrifice of suicide, are made solely for his benefit the former contributing to his bottomless pockets, the latter relieving him of the impending humiliation.

He is thus ultimately sacrificed by school, the Greediness that caused him to sacrifice others or at least the “Pressure” resulting from that greed (741). Like Mr. Dorrit and Monsieur Rigaud, Mr. Merdle’s amoral inclination to sacrifice others for himself stands independent of any social or domestic category. His behavior actually subscribes to the kind of guidelines morality that most middle-class citizens assigned to the bottom rungs of society. As Elizabeth Langland reminds us, “social ideology inscribed the lower classes as inherently less moral, less delicate, more physical, more capable of strenuous labor” (295).

6 To what then can we attribute his extreme lack of preliminary morals? It cannot be that he is apa bibliography a father; consider Mr. Meagles, the pay someone to do thesis elder John Chivery, the kind-hearted plasterer Mr. Plornish, and Mr. Rugg.

It cannot be his exposure to wealthy society; again consider retired banker Mr. Meagles and Mr. Rugg (and to an extent even the Barnacles in the Circumlocution Office, who do nothing at all). It cannot be his capitalist nature; consider Daniel Doyce, who Arthur describes as “the honest, self-helpful, indefatigable old man, who has worked his way all through his life,” and apa bibliography, who Mr. Meagles reminds us, “never complains” (134). Mr.

Meagles’ description of Doyce especially contrasts with Mr. Merdle when we recall that Merdle’s “ complaint had been, simply, Forgery and Robbery” (742) [emphasis added]. As the narrator in flow essay, Chapter Eleven points out, “There never was, there never had been, there never again should be, such a man as Mr. Merdle” (597). Just as the guidelines novel demonstrates again, perhaps inadvertently the amoral independence of characters such as Monsieur Rigaud, Mr. Dorrit, and Mr. Merdle, and punishes them accordingly by killing them at the hand of those forces within themselves that catalyzed their sacrifice of essay about school others Malice, Self-absorption, Ignorance, Greed, etc. the novel also displays those moral, self-sacrificing characters, as independent of social or domestic categories. That is to say, it is not only the amoral characters who eradicate a moral mold of social or domestic distinctions.

Let us now consider for what or for whom these self-sacrificing characters sacrificed themselves, how they stand morally independent of social or domestic category, and likewise how the novel rewards them for guidelines this moral behavior. The obvious example is Amy Dorrit, who sacrifices herself for just about everybody she meets in the novel (excepting young John Chivery, poor fellow). Define Personal Essay! In fact, she sacrifices so much for the well-being of others that her family’s existence entirely depends on Amy’s selfless industriousness: “My brother would have been quite lost without Amy,” says Mr. Dorrit. “We should all have been lost without Amy” (108). Any reader of apa bibliography guidelines Little Dorrit should not need further examples of about school Amy’s sacrificial character; however, her moral independence may not be as obvious. That she is the daughter of a poor family, or even that she is guidelines a child of an imprisoned widower (and therefore might seem to be saddled with greater responsibility), is not enough to explain her selfless actions for others; consider Tip and Fanny, both of to do whom are thrust into apa bibliography, the same circumstances, and both of whom unload the yale thesis sacrifices they ought to make onto the already feeble back of their youngest sibling. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Additionally, just as was the case with her father, Amy’s actions stand entirely independent of Armstrong’s supposed cause-and-effect of myself school domestic disorder and moral degeneracy.

Amy also pays no heed to the “social ideology [that] inscribed the guidelines lower classes as inherently less moral, less delicate, more physical, and more capable of yale school strenuous labor” (Langland, 295). Amy’s behavior actually renders this attempted categorization totally laughable, as she is more moral, more delicate, less physical, and less capable of strenuous labor. The novel itself identifies Amy as morally independent of others who share her social or domestic category, explaining that “she was inspired to be something which was not what the rest were, and to be that something, different and laborious, for the sake of the rest” (86). Amy’s ideals of being something, or doing something, “for the guidelines sake of the rest” is yale school thesis perhaps one of wholesome nostalgia. (Esther Somerson from Bleak House, as mentioned earlier, might coincide with Amy here as well). In the same article referenced earlier concerning domestic and guidelines, moral disorder, Nancy Armstrong discusses Peter Gaskell’s lamentation of. the passing of a time when families were bound together by the strong link of affection, each member in about, its turn, as it attained an age fitted for apa bibliography the loom, joined its labor to the general stock, its earnings forming part of preliminary rulings a fund, the apa bibliography whole of which was placed at the disposal of the father or the personal response essay mother, as the case may be; and apa bibliography guidelines, each individual looked to him or to her for the adequate supply of its wants.’ [656] Aside from the of internet essay discussion of apa bibliography role reversals upon which this paper’s thesis could have rested entirely (and differently), and for which another twenty pages would be necessary this passage, when considering the Dorrit family’s dependence upon Amy’s sacrifices, seems to deposit her amid an old-fashioned family unity that the rest of the preliminary rulings essay Dorrits selfishly resist. Or perhaps the rest of the Dorrits are unknowingly caught in the sway of what Blumberg calls “the emergent system of apa bibliography consumer capitalism, [which] with its emphasis on materialism and material success, recommended taking advantage of the sacrifices of others ” (513). Among other things, considering the Dorrit family in accordance with Gaskell’s lamentation serves to morally distinguish her from essay, others in her social or domestic sphere.

This lack of help from the family becomes more interesting when the novel reaches its conclusion and Arthur, perhaps siding with the reader, declares to Amy, “It is not my imprisonment only that will soon be over. This sacrifice of apa bibliography guidelines you must be ended” (849). I mention Arthur’s acknowledgement of the advantages of internet essay Amy’s sacrifices here specifically with regard to the lack of offered help from Amy’s family because it seems the person best equipped to guidelines help Amy is a self-sacrificing character who also subscribes to flow essay a similar set of moral principles. Amy, of course, is apa bibliography guidelines not the only character benefiting from Arthur’s self-sacrifices. The entire Dorrit family benefits from the sacrifices of his time, energy, and preliminary rulings, money, and if these were not enough, he accepts the full burden of the ruined partnership venture with Daniel Doyce. In addition to mentioning for what or for whom Arthur sacrifices himself, it is important to apa bibliography reveal how the novel describes the beautiful history of his moral development: He was a dreamer in such wise, because he was a man who had deep-rooted in his nature , a belief in all the essay school gentle and good things this life had been without. Bred in meanness and hard dealing, this had rescued him to be a man of honorable mind and open hand. Bred in coldness and severity, this had rescued him to have a warm and sympathetic heart. Bred in apa bibliography guidelines, a creed to darkly audacious to pursue, through its process of reversing the making of man in the image of his Creator to the making of his Creator in flow essay, the image of an apa bibliography guidelines, erring man, this had rescued him to flow essay judge not, and in humility to be merciful, and have hope and charity. Apa Bibliography! [180] It is hardly worth pointing out that Arthur’s moral character is independent of social and domestic categories, since the novel tells us it is rather “deep-rooted in his nature.” However, for the sake of thicker substance, I will say that his moral character cannot be attributed to his experiences in travel (or to Cosmopolitanism), for to do we have only to look at Rigaud and Mr.

Merdle; it cannot be that he is a son (of any social class), for we have only to guidelines look at essay about myself school, Tip Dorrit and Henry Gowon; it cannot be his domestic rootlessness or his bitter upbringing, firstly because he lives unaware of his illegitimacy, but secondly and more importantly because Ms. Wade, also “bred in coldness and severity,” while committing no real harm, has anything but “hope and charity.” It cannot be the domestic disorder of the Clennam household this paper has already said plenty on that topic. In short, it cannot be anything to do with social or domestic classes. The novel has created Arthur, just as it created Amy, as a selfless character morally independent of those with whom he shares typical social and domestic categories. Whereas the guidelines novel punishes those characters who sacrificed others particularly by sacrificing them to the vices that catalyzed those sacrifices the characters who have sacrificed themselves for myself others Little Dorrit and Arthur Clennam find themselves rewarded for apa bibliography their moral behavior. 7 Specifically, they tie the flow essay knot and enter “a modest life of usefulness and happiness” (859). This contrasts with Beauchamp’s Career in which the protagonist, while curiously in a loveless yet happy marriage, is punished (drowned) in guidelines, his selfless moral act of saving a drowning child. One might read a reward into that, though that is for another essay all together. Similarly, the Tulliver children of Mill on the Floss are punished (drowned) in their attempt to find and save Lucy Deane, however both children can as well be guilty of thesis sacrificing others for their own ends, and thus deserve the apa bibliography drowning according to the reward-punishment system discussed above. Regarding Little Dorrit ’s self-sacrificers, the reader should understand that although Arthur and essay about, Amy’s reward does not necessarily cease their sacrifices they continue “to give a mother’s care to Fanny’s neglected children no less than their own . . . Guidelines! and to define response give a tender nurse and friend to Tip” this does not negate their reward. The novel describes them as “inseparable and blessed” and guidelines, knows that they find “happiness” in seeing “the light shine on others and hailing it” (859, 181).

Of course, neither one of them has hardly any capital to their name, but with the fates of other characters mentioned in the advantages of internet essay, this essay, it is hard to imagine they would prefer anything to honorable moral company. By now, it might be tempting to apa bibliography guidelines recall the characters this paper has put beneath the moral microscope and think that many of of internet them have found ways to apa bibliography guidelines except themselves from the rule, as the saying goes. That is to say, the novel makes judgments about the morals of specific social and domestic categories parents, children, cosmopolitan, provincial, poor, wealthy, etc. School! but shows how certain characters have found ways to apa bibliography behave outside of those conventions. However, when the number of exceptions becomes equal to pay someone to do thesis or near the amount of apa bibliography guidelines rules, the foundations of the rules (behavioral conventions and stereotypes in this case) become brittle at best. This is especially the case when there exists more than one exception to a given convention. Arthur Clennam is not the of internet only cosmopolitan character who subscribes to honorable moral behavior; consider Mr. Meagles and Mrs. General. Likewise, Monsieur Rigaud is guidelines not the only cosmopolitan character to behave wickedly; remember “the greatest Forger and the Greatest Thief that ever cheated the to do thesis gallows” (742). The same can be said for characters under the circumstance of domestic disorder.

Arthur and Amy both emerge as the novel’s two most selfless, morally behaving characters, yet the other members of the apa bibliography Dorrit family are morally blind or shallow. Flow Essay! No matter which social or domestic category presents itself in Little Dorrit , there are always at least two characters who behave morally independent of that category. It is apa bibliography guidelines important to notice that behaving independently of social or domestic category is not synonymous with behaving in a certain way despite behavioral conventions typically associated with a given social or domestic categeory. After all, to behave despite X first requires an acknowledgement of X’s existence and then requires one to behave in a way contrary to X X in this case meaning “lower-class citizens behave this way,” or “capitalists behave this way,” and so on. That Little Dorrit ’s characters act independently however, insinuates that its characters’ social or domestic category has no bearing whatsoever on the morality of their behavior. This does not suggest that social or domestic categories do not exist in preliminary rulings, Little Dorrit (that would be downright silly), but rather suggests, as the apa bibliography guidelines reader may recall from the introduction, that each character has the willful agency to behave in a way that is morally independent of those who share his or her social or domestic category. Removing morality from the discussion, there are undoubtedly many things which social and domestic categories can and the advantages of internet, probably do influence, inside and apa bibliography, outside of the novel.

However, that is not with what this paper, in its limited scope, concerns itself. By demonstrating again, perhaps inadvertently that characters (and likely the medical school thesis citizens of the society within which, for which, or about apa bibliography, which the essay novel was written) can act morally and selflessly independent of guidelines any social or domestic category, Little Dorrit creates individuals in a society obsessed with compartmentalizing the flow essay many levels of guidelines social and domestic life in Victorian England. The Advantages Of Internet! Amanda Anderson is perhaps the literary critic most in touch with this as she explains “it is apa bibliography guidelines crucial to rulings essay note that Dickens does seek at least partly to ground the capacity for achieved attachments in individual nature or temperament” (76). She carries this idea further by saying “the true moral distinction that Dickens makes is between those who assert forms of redemptive belief against apa bibliography such bleak conditions and those who fail to do so” [emphasis added] (76). About Myself! A character’s moral development goes beyond just “redemptive belief against such bleak conditions,” however. As exemplified in Mr. Merdle, it is the characters in apa bibliography guidelines, all conditions of society from top to bottom, side to thesis side who must strive to hone selfless moral dispositions. Critics of the Victorian novel, and apa bibliography, likewise of Charles Dickens, will continue to draw lines around social and domestic categories, shaping and reshaping them as a new theory demands it.

However, with the lens of morality, these boundaries dissipate more and more, and eventually disappear. This dissipation especially plays out in essay about, moral boundaries concerning social classes that is lower-, middle-, or upper-class distinctions. As we see in Little Dorrit , members of the upper-classes include both moral and amoral characters, and the same can be said for the lower-classes. Most interesting perhaps is Mr. Dorrit, who moves from the lower society of the Marshalsea to upper-society toward the end of the apa bibliography novel, and behaves immorally in both. The creation of these morally independent characters also justifies the personal essay reward or punishment divvied out to them.

Since it is easier to gauge a character’s moral disposition by the extreme forms of morality, there was no better assessment than to follow Little Dorrit ’s characters into their engagement with sacrifice sacrificing oneself for the sake of guidelines others being the extreme form of selfless moral behavior, and sacrificing others (either in full knowledge or negligence) being the extreme form of immoral behavior. Little Dorrit rightfully rewards those characters Arthur and the advantages essay, Amy who willing sacrificed themselves for the sake of others by granting them happiness. Conversely, the novel punishes (by death) those characters who sacrificed others, fittingly at the hand of the forces within themselves that catalyzed their sacrifice of guidelines others. In other words, none of the immoral characters die accidentally; if a character is guilty of something as serious as sacrificing others, he or she can never be an innocent bystander. As more critics begin to consider the ways in which Little Dorrit exercises the ideas of morality, sacrifice, and individuality as discussed in this paper, this novel will likely join other Victorian works considered to essay be one of the apa bibliography “novels [that] served among the essay about school century’s chief agents in secularizing and apa bibliography guidelines, spreading the gospel of self-sacrifice” (Blumberg 514). This consideration will perhaps prove useful in an analysis of Victorian culture outside the novel as well, with the understanding that.

the nineteenth-century novel is drawn to self-sacrifice in flow essay, part as an exploration of its own aesthetic and historical tensions: between individual psychology and social structure; between idealized and realist representation; between the sympathetic, socially concerned aims of its writers and their professional, commercial ambitions. [Blumberg 516] Not only does Little Dorrit demonstrate the possibility of moral self-cultivation, but insists on it, and rewards or punishes those characters according to their moral behavior. In short, no one gets away with anything because everyone’s accountable for themselves. Optimists would love to believe this is representative of real Victorian society and even of real life today, but realists who want justice served ought to stay inside and read another book.

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in guidelines recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is medical far-reaching. To stand out in guidelines such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and about school, backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from apa bibliography, a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the about real test of guidelines a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by define personal, the keywords they choose to apa bibliography use. Rulings? Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to apa bibliography guidelines successfully pass through an yale medical school applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to apa bibliography guidelines have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Essay? Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in apa bibliography action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and define personal essay, how those specific skills played an important part.

The challenge is apa bibliography greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. Of Internet Essay? For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Apa Bibliography Guidelines? Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the essay about school book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to apa bibliography guidelines express them. Myself? Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and apa bibliography, how well you work with others.

The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and medical, works well with others; thrives in apa bibliography guidelines a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Of Internet Essay? Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. Apa Bibliography Guidelines? On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and essay about school, completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of guidelines conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and yale medical school thesis, how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage.

On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and apa bibliography guidelines, achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is of internet essay one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for guidelines jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Preliminary Essay? Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for guidelines new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement.

Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and define personal essay, social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by apa bibliography, Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.

Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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The Repeating Island – Representations of the Francophone Caribbean. With close reference to Benitez-Rojo’s notion of the ‘repeating island’, discuss how the Francophone Caribbean has been represented by guidelines writers, travellers and artists. This essay shall focus on yale medical thesis how various writers, travellers and artists have represented the apa bibliography, Francophone Caribbean. The Islands of rulings essay Martinique, Guadeloupe and Haiti shall serve as the focus as these are the locations in the Caribbean where a Francophone culture dominates. From the art of Agostino Brunias, to depictions of Haitian revolutionary hero, Toussaint Louverture. From Martinican poet, Aime Cesaire’s, Le Cahier du Retour au Pays Natale to how film director Euzhan Palcy depicts Plantation culture in Rue Case Negres . Of course, Benitez-Rojo’s notion of the guidelines, ‘repeating island’ shall never be far from our minds and in pay someone order to utilise his ideas to full effect it shall be essential to guidelines firstly summarise exactly what this Cuban author refers to define personal response in his conceptualisation of Caribbean culture. Antonio Benitez-Rojo sees in the Caribbean a meta-archipelago that is affected by elements of Chaos that repeat across the different islands, incorporating a polyrhythmic essence that reverberates across the multilingual cultures that comprise the Antilles.

In the postmodern, post-colonialist environment, the remnants of apa bibliography guidelines slavery cannot be escaped in that Plantation culture remains embedded, a core component of cultural discourses, resistance and a division along racial lines, more so than in other geographical regions of the world which adapt more readily to the global environment as they haven’t the personal response, same inherent difficulties as having to constantly define history, the oft suppressed history of the guidelines, Atlantic Slave Triangle, the undocumented creolization, an oral history of African traces or eradicated Carib races or of illiterate Maroon communities who struggled against their Beke masters. Essay. The repeating island is a polyrhythmic syncretic agglomeration of apa bibliography guidelines different cultures that unites Africa with Europe and Asia with the Americas. Agostino Brunias was a London-based Italian painter from myself school Rome, whose travels to the West Indies have bequeathed us with a rich vein of material of a not only escapist, but also romantic nature. Agostino Brunias ‘The Linen Market Santo Domingo’, ca. 1775. Agostino Brunias ‘Mujer criolla y criadas’, Saint-Domingue (Haiti), painted between 1773-1796. Agostino Brunias ‘Dancing Scene in apa bibliography guidelines the West Indies’, 1764-1796.

Dancing Scene in thesis the West Indies 1764-1796 Agostino Brunias c.1730-1796 Purchased with assistance from Tate Patrons and Tate Members 2013 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T13869. In the apa bibliography, first of the pay someone thesis, three paintings Brunias depicts a market scene. Apa Bibliography Guidelines. There is a stark contrast in yale school thesis the painting between the use of black and white, with the women mainly wearing white clothes. Guidelines. The dark-skinned people stand out and pay someone to do the colours of the colonial French flag can be seen in the umbrellas. The picture postcard setting with the blue skies and the colonial style town buildings offer us a Caribbean that is at once European, African and the melange of these stylistics bring us the Americas. This scene could be repeated across the Caribbean, where European styles are mixed with African slaves. The second painting has three women; a black slave, a mulattress and a white woman. They are sitting in a triangular formation, one perhaps representing Africa in the French Atlantic Slave Triangle, one European and the mulattress, the local Caribbean. There is a hierarchy in the height of each of apa bibliography their headpieces, demonstrating their relevant social importance. The sensuality of the mulattress, her voluptuous bosom, her staring across in deference to flow essay the white lady, represents a vibrant island. The dark woman is totally obedient towards her mistress, offering refreshments as the White woman looks on, her luxurious fan cooling her in the decadent heat.

Again, the tropical background with palm trees depicts a paradise, a romantic notion in apa bibliography an island where Plantation culture thrives. The third painting, again has a picture postcard backing, and plantations are visible on the advantages of internet the hillside. This painting delineates the apa bibliography, sensual African rhythms. The dancing, the thrusting of about myself hips is reminiscent of guidelines African culture and we could quite easily be up in the hills in a secret Vodou meeting of Maroons. ‘… a public in thesis search of a carnivalesque catharsis that proposes to divert excesses of violence…’ (Benitez-Rojo 1992:22) The way the Caribbean expresses itself in apa bibliography dance represents the essay about school, inherent violence in island culture.

The slaves were first instructed to dance as the apa bibliography guidelines, ships left the Gambian coast and in a society that struggles to pay someone thesis define itself with typical histories there is a struggle for cultural representation and apa bibliography this manifests itself in African-style rhythmic dancing. This violence emerges from the plantations, perhaps not as romantic a setting to satisfy the tastes of our Italian painter, Brunias, but the underlying brutality of the slaves as they submit to Code Noir discipline and torture is a consistent part of cultural representations across the meta-archipelago. ‘There is not a single country in the Caribbean that has ever been able to essay myself break away completely from the apa bibliography guidelines, repetitive Plantation mechanism.’ (Benitez-Rojo 1992:203) Turning to literary representations of the the advantages of internet, Caribbean, Martinican Aime Cesaire’s Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal is an extended poem that introduces the concept of Negritude . This movement empowers black people and is a nostalgic feeling for the African roots of the islands’ inhabitants. Apa Bibliography. Benitez-Rojo says of Cesaire’s work: ‘…they presumed that the essay, Caribbean white – white by self-definition – wore his skin colour on the outside, as though it weren’t a flag to be suspected always of guidelines showing black bloodstains spattered there by some deliberately forgotten encounter or by the planter’s or slavedriver’s whip. In reality, every Caribbean person…feels his skin as a territory in perpetual conflict, as a trench that he must take and the advantages of internet essay claim for his Self, or else surrender unconditionally to guidelines the Other.’ (Benitez-Rojo 1992:236) There is in the Caribbean, due to flow essay the colonial nature, even in a post-abolition environment, a certain dependence on guidelines skin colour, the exterior. Cesaire has a longing to reverse the Middle Passage, a situation that was not possible, as the slave ships never returned from the Caribbean back across the to do, Atlantic to Africa. The French Atlantic Triangle operated in one direction and, once embarked upon, there was no return of the Middle Passage.

The Cahier seeks to discover and to apa bibliography be proud of the African heritage. It recognises Benitez’Rojo’s meta archipelago and it draws up a syncretism of different continental identities: ‘Ce qui est a moi, ces quelques milliers de mortiferes qui tournent en rond dans la calebasse d’une ile et ce qui est a moi aussi, l’archipel arque comme le desir inquiet de se nier, on dirait une anxiete maternelle pour proteger la tenuite plus delicate qui separe l’une de l’autre Amerique; et ses flancs qui secretent pour l’Europe la bonne liqueur d’un Gulf Stream, et l’un des deux versants d’incandescence entre quoi l’Equateur funambule vers l’Afrique.’ (Cesaire 1995:89) Cesaire maintains a violence in his writings, an medical thesis, underlying struggle for the Caribbean’s inhabitants. The Plantation culture is inherent, the sound of the slavedriver’s whip still reverberates. Apa Bibliography Guidelines. The whole structure of the poem is personal essay, polyrhythmic in essence, a testament of true Caribbean cultural spirit. It meanders and repeats like the island chain itself. There are disjunctive repetitions, ruptures and breaks throughout. It is par excellence the literary culmination of Caribbeaness and apa bibliography the essence of what it is to essay be a former slave inhabitant of the islands. Christopher Miller recognises Cesaire’s cultural contribution: ‘No one is a prophet in his own land, but Cesaire’s poem is a touchstone of African culture.’ (Miller 2008:339) For Negritude to be realised there needs to be a true black hero from the Caribbean and apa bibliography guidelines nobody matches this identity more so than the pay someone, hero of the apa bibliography, Haitian revolution, Toussaint Louverture. ‘Toussaint Louverture’ by Jean de Beauvais 1802.

‘Toussaint’ by Nicolas-Eustache Maurin, 1832. Edouard Duval-Carrie ‘ Toussaint blue’ 2014. mixed media in artist frame, Jimmy Jean-Louis in the role of Toussaint L’Ouverture in the France 2 telefilm 2012. Statue of Toussaint L’Ouverture, east bank of essay about school Garonne River, Bordeaux (2005)

Toussaint is apa bibliography, represented by artists in different ways as is demonstrated above. Thesis. The importance of visual representations of apa bibliography Toussaint cannot be underestimated: ‘Images of the leaders of the Haitian Revolution were an inspiration to rulings essay people of African descent throughout the Americas.’ (Dubois 2004:305) Toussaint can be Napoleonesque, as Jean de Beauvais sees him, an African who has transcended his roots and sits high on his horse, a proud general, European in essence. Celebrated Trinidadian author C.L.R. Apa Bibliography Guidelines. James attests to the importance of Toussaint: ‘The writer believes, and is confident the yale, narrative will prove, that between 1789 and 1815, with the single exception of guidelines Bonaparte himself, no single figure appeared on rulings essay the historical stage more greatly gifted than this Negro, a slave till he was forty-five.’ (James 2001:xix) Maurin focuses on the African, highlighting the deep blackness of Toussaint, over-exaggerating the lips and cranial features. Carrie brings us a more modern Toussaint in blue, a celebration of the tropical Caribbean.

The general’s uniform is the epitome of apa bibliography how Toussaint has defeated the colonial masters. He has risen from his servitude and can address the Beke overlords on their own terms. The importance of the success of the Haitian revolution cannot be underestimated for its impact on the Caribbean. ‘…in the last decade of the eighteenth century there were slave rebellions and massive escapes in literally all of the yale thesis, region’s islands and coasts. One might think that there was a huge conspiracy, of which the Haitian Revolution was only guidelines a part, the medical thesis, part that triumphed visibly.’ (Benitez-Rojo 1992:154) Returning to Benitez-Rojo’s chaotic remembrance of the guidelines, Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, the fusion of different beliefs, in Toussaint we see a pride in the African Vodou and how it has been used as a core factor in creating the success of the revolution. ‘Immediately, we remember that the preliminary, Haitian Revolution was mobilized thanks to voodoo, and that Toussaint himself practiced magical medicine before adopting the rationalist ways of the guidelines, Enlightenment.’ (Benitez-Rojo 1992:303) The Plantation culture that underpins the islands did not disappear with slavery and the hierarchy of master and essay myself school slave persisted after abolition. The essence of the plantation is captured by Martinican director Euzhan Palcy in Rue Case Negres . Guidelines. The protagonist Jose Hassam is a young boy whose French-thinking grandmother, M’man Tine, is myself school, trying to guide his escape from the Plantation via the colonial education system.

He crosses ethnic boundaries and revels in the African remembrances of guidelines Medouze, an oral recantation of an otherwise suppressed history. About Myself. We see in apa bibliography Krik-Crac the vibrancy of essay African traditions. Guidelines. There is a patchwork aesthetic, a meeting of cultures, the school thesis, creolization of a variety of characters, typical of the Caribbean. Guidelines. The Antilles are a testing ground for the modern capitalist world and nowhere more so is this apparent than on pay someone to do the plantation. Apa Bibliography. The Caribbean is a tabula rasa , emptied out of memory, a laboratory for Europeans to dominate and maintain their capitalist values. Palcy directs the camera to flow essay gaze upwards towards the gereurs and apa bibliography commanders.

We see through the eyes of the about myself, cane cutters themselves. Gone is the picture postcard island, we see the true brutal nature of the apa bibliography, plantocracy, a post-abolition maintenance of a strict racial hierarchy. Leopold cannot inherit his dying father’s name as he is but a Mulatto. Never far from view is the yale school, true division of the society along strict racial lines, something that predominates thinking in the Caribbean. ‘We are dealing obviously with an unpredictable society that originated in the most violent currents and eddies of modern history where sexual and class differences are overlaid with differences of an ethnographic nature.’ (Benitez-Rojo 1992:27)

Palcy dwells upon these class and sexual differences and her scene of the apa bibliography guidelines, 1930s Martinique sugar plantation is an define response, idea whose rhythmic echoes unwind across the meta archipelago . Rue Case Negres neatly defines the guidelines, essence of the Caribbean and visualises the island Other that non inhabitants and those who are unfamiliar with the yale thesis, area cannot readily discover. There is a Freudian struggle within the representations of the Caribbean, in art, in literature, in film. The triangle is always apparent and there is apa bibliography guidelines, a yearning for flow essay, a reversal of the Middle passage. The mestizo culture that results from the syncretic components of apa bibliography guidelines multi-ethnic elements is always is in debt to a capitalist European ‘father’ and love for a forgotten African ‘mother’. Various cultural interpretations of the Francophone Caribbean draw upon this bricolage of different ethnic rhythms and flow essay the sociocultural violence of the apa bibliography, plantation underpins most of the thinking. Racial divide can be celebrated and in a postmodernist way, the chains of slavery can be resisted yet we are reminded so often in flow essay subtle ways of the true (ignored) history of slavery and the notion of guidelines skin colour is never far from the surface. One of the best idealisations and capture of the true Caribbean spirit, that reveals the yale thesis, suppressed memories of slavery and the struggle of post colonialism can be seen in Valere’s memorial of apa bibliography guidelines slavery in Martinique: Le memorial Cap 110, Martinique, by preliminary rulings artist Laurent Valere.

The white statues of black African slaves gaze out across the guidelines, ocean, remembering the Middle Passage. The figures stand in an Atlantic triangular formation, attesting to the horrors of define essay slavery and demonstrating a unity. It is a confrontation to the colonial masters and a true reflection of the island cultural spirit. Benitez-Rojo’s repeating island is a concept that unites the cultural output of all who reflect upon the Caribbean. It is a reminder of the guidelines, suppressed history and ethnographic violence that underpins all cultural output from preliminary essay these islands. In understanding the syncretic elements that form the meta archipelago, it requires a deeper knowledge of the true histories of apa bibliography slavery and colonialism. Flow Essay. All who succeed in portraying the Francophone Caribbean account for the true essence of the repeating island. Benitez-Rojo, Antonio. Apa Bibliography Guidelines. The Repeating Island: the myself school, Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective . Trans. James Maraniss. (Durham, N.C.; London: Duke University Press, 1992)

Cesaire, Aime, Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal (Hexham: Bloodaxe Books,1995) Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the guidelines, New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004) James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (London : Penguin Books, 2001) Miller, Christopher L. The French Atlantic Triangle: Literature and Culture of the Slave Trade (Durham: Duke University Press, 2008) Account For The Nationalist Victory In The Spanish Civil War.

The Spanish Civil War lasted for flow essay, three years from 1936 to apa bibliography guidelines 1939 and was ultimately won by the Nationalists. This victory was far from certain at various points of the rulings essay, conflict and apa bibliography this essay shall explore the essay about myself school, many factors that actually contributed to the ultimate outcome and that which paved the way for almost 4 decades of the authoritarian Franco regime in Spain. The single most important factor, in my opinion, which led to the Nationalist victory in guidelines the Civil War, was the international support that was offered to Franco’s troops. The Republican side became an international pariah, with only Russia substantially offering support, yet on flow essay the Nationalist side a coalition of Axis dictators paved the way for guidelines, Franco with both Hitler and Mussolini readily providing materiel. ‘International participation and the ideological zeal which surrounded both sides conferred upon the war the character of a crusade.’ (Romero Salvado 1999:94) Indeed, the whole military uprising, in flow essay the first place, couldn’t have succeeded without the Germans successfully transporting Franco’s Army of apa bibliography Africa across the Straits of Gibraltar. ‘Reinforcements were needed urgently on the mainland and, since the yale medical school, rising in the fleet had failed, aeroplanes were essential to carry the Army of Africa to Spain.’ (Beevor 2006:71)

They were stranded and the whole pronuncamiento might have failed completely had Hitler’s Luftwaffe never intervened. Franco’s army provided the most crucial backbone for the Nationalist army. ‘In any case, the decisive factor in the power stakes was Franco’s control of the 47,000 well-armed and well-trained men of the Moroccan Army. Guidelines. The battle-hardened colonial army, consisting of the professionals of the Spanish Foreign Legion and Arab mercenaries of the Regulares Indigenas (native regulars), was to about be the cornerstone of Nationalist success. (Preston 1996:83) The Arab mercenaries went on to strike terror into all they came across, in particular the civilian populations who they brutalised.

Indeed the use of terror was about three times more prevalent in the Nationalist Zone. Despite the presence of the apa bibliography, backbone of the Catholic Church in school Nationalist Spain, discipline was strict. This was a military area and reprisals for the enemy were widespread and brutal. ‘Although figures are very unreliable and guidelines open to controversy about 55 000 Rightists were murdered, mostly in the first months of war, for over 200 000 leftists.’ (Romero Salvado 1999:113) The theatre of Spain was a testing ground for new military tactics and pay someone to do thesis equipment. We saw firsts in the Spanish Civil War. We were introduced to carpet bombing by guidelines the Condor Legion in Guernica, when German planes completely flattened the historic Basque town. This was a scary new development in modern warfare and the civilian population were shocked and outraged that they should be so viciously attacked.

Even in WW1, civilians weren’t attacked. Flow Essay. The Spanish Civil War thus signifies the end of the apa bibliography guidelines, ‘Gentleman’s Agreement’ in warfare. Pay Someone To Do Thesis. The Spanish Civil War became a theatre for advanced mechanised warfare, seen never before. Materiel from the Nationalist allies was forthcoming. The Germans commited the Condor Legion with 10,000 troops, 800 aircrafts and guidelines 200 tanks. Italy commited 70,000-75,000 troops, 750 planes and 150 tanks.

All equipment sent to response the Nationalists was much more advanced than that sent by the USSR to the Republicans. The cost of Russian support came indeed at a great price for the Republican government, as they had to sacrifice their entire gold reserves to pay for apa bibliography, the arms and advisors. Early in the war the entire gold stock was sent out to preliminary essay Moscow in advanced payment. Whether or not a decent return was ever provided for this cost is debatable but it certainly tied up a lot of money that could have been used elsewhere in guidelines the overall war effort. It wasn’t so much international support that was given that proved the key factor in the Spanish Civil War, but rather that international support that was withheld. ‘While the essay, Republic was being ostracized in guidelines the international arena, the flow essay, response received by the Nationalists was entirely different.’ (Romero Salvado 1999:97) At the initial outbreak of war, arms were being trafficked from France into guidelines, Spain, but the insistence of the British and French governments on the signing and sticking to of the Non-Intervention Pact, dried these supplies up. Germany and Italy were also signatories to school the Non-Intervention Pact but openly flouted the conditions, sticking rigorously to their private agreements with Franco.

Western views on war in guidelines Europe was that it was ultimately inevitable but that they were not yet prepared, unlike in the Fascist zones were militaries had been steadily being reinforced for years. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of medical thesis Great Britain was in guidelines the era of appeasement. Pay Someone Thesis. In 1938, he had his famous moment with Adolf Hitler, signing the apa bibliography guidelines, Munich Agreement and declaring it ‘Peace for our Time.’ The French and yale medical British governments were too weak to prop up the democratically elected Republicans of Spain and guidelines they didn’t want to embroil themselves in what would inevitably have turned into a wider European conflict. The aim of non-intervention and appeasement were to contain the myself school, Spanish Civil War within the Iberian Peninsula and thus delay the breakout of a war in Europe. It was turning a blind eye to curiously see what would happen. These countries wanted to see what Germany and Italy were prepared to do in full-scale war and with Guernica and the mechanised nature of the warfare the omens were dark. Ultimately wider European politics distracted the Russians from their support of the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. Apa Bibliography Guidelines. Stalin was equally trying to prevent an outbreak of war with Germany in the East and response essay the signing of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Nazi-Soviet Pact brought Germany and Russia together in an agreement to carve up Poland between them.

Stalin was less keen on fighting the Condor legion in distant Spain when he could diplomatically affect his own neighbourhood with appeasement policies. I think that tactically, Franco’s side were better prepared militarily. They were fighting a war of attrition and were not over-rushing to apa bibliography grab land and get quick victories. Franco left the conquest of the big cities, Madrid and about myself school Barcelona, until the apa bibliography, final stages of the war. By owning most of the rural hinterlands, Franco could ensure that the response essay, Nationalists has ready access to food and supplies whereas he could starve out the guidelines, populations in flow essay the industrial centres of Barcelona and Madrid. ‘Lack of food was one of the major factors in war-weariness that overtook Catalonia.’ (Fraser 1979: 376) Often militarily Franco was better prepared.

He would sometimes sacrifice, like a good general, to apa bibliography the greater good. He could have taken Madrid and focussed on preliminary essay the final goal but en route, instead, he decided to relieve the guidelines, siege of the Alcazar. It would prove to be of propaganda value and the population of Madrid would eventually succumb. Franco was in school no real rush to apa bibliography end the flow essay, war. As far as he was concerned, as a victorious general, heading the Army of Africa, he was in his element. He was slowly carving his own future empire and apa bibliography visions of medical himself heading it.

The areas Franco governed in apa bibliography the Nationalist zone were the traditional conservative heartlands of Spain. Flow Essay. In these areas all was subordinated to the Military. Apa Bibliography. There was a ready infrastructure of support already in yale medical place by apa bibliography guidelines one of the essay about myself school, Nationalists’ key allies: The Catholic Church. Next to the military the support of the Catholic Church was critical to Franco’s cause. The Pope was one of the first international bodies to guidelines officially recognise the Nationalist government and provided key backing to the military regime. The Advantages Of Internet Essay. In the church the apa bibliography guidelines, Nationalists has what was already the define, cornerstones of the education system and also church attendance. Guidelines. In Nationalist areas there would be less dissidence if the social structure was intact and supportive of the military.

The third key body that supported Franco in addition to the Military and the Church was the Falange. This youthful keen far-right political movement gave Franco his dictatorial credentials when dealing with Hitler and Mussolini. They were a political establishment that had been cutting their teeth in the street violence in the build up to the outbreak of hostilities. Pay Someone To Do. This Falange became the FET y de las JONS and apa bibliography survived many years into Francoism. ‘Franco had accumulated in essay his hands more power than the medieval monarchs. He was the apa bibliography guidelines, Generalissimo of the armed forces, head of the government and of the state, Caydillo of the crusade with the enthusiastic blessing of the Church, and chief of the pay someone to do thesis, only political party. Guidelines. The hesitant rebel had obtained in eighteen months practically absolute control over every aspect of Spain’s political life. (Romero Salvado 1999:112) Franco was the head of a strong, united, unassailable pyramid. This was in stark contrast to the political frailty of the Republicans.

We can see that in the Nationalist zone there was more organisation and response essay less spontaneity than in the Republican zone. The Civil war was won by the Nationalists not just by the strength of guidelines Franco’s troops but by the disunity often demonstrated by about school the Republican side. There was a Civil War within a Civil War with reds turning on reds, in particular in the city of Barcelona in April 1937. ‘For four days, members of the CNT-FAI and the POUM fought a mini war against the PSUC and the left-wing Catalan Nationalists, leaving hundreds of apa bibliography guidelines casualties.’ (Romero Salvado 1999:116) ‘Franco was, of course, delighted with the turn of events in Barcelona, even though the flow essay, nationalists had not profited from it in military terms.’ (Beevor 2006:300) Indeed, a war was fought within the Communist ranks itself, the apa bibliography guidelines, Trotskyist POUM being purged at the orders of Stalin who was rallying to unite the yale, Communist party internationally. We were living in the era of purges and many of the best Russian military advisors were recalled to Moscow on suspicion of being Trotskyist agents. ‘…the communists had concentrated upon the persecution of the POUM. Its leaders were accused of apa bibliography fascism and preliminary rulings essay of conspiring with Franco.’ (Thomas 2001:680) The war brought much foreign attention to apa bibliography Spain but that soon petered out after it had ended and Franco’s Spain began its long journey as an international pariah state. ‘For three years, Spain had been front-page news in the world’s papers. The name of Spain had been a rallying cry in the streets of flow essay great cities; it had served as a banner to guidelines intellectuals everywhere; it was a symbol of essay about hope.

Then, when Madrid had fallen, Spain faded out: just a few articles remained on apa bibliography a back page describing some ceremony or military parade.’ (Gallo 1973:64) During the flow essay, course of this essay we have heard many different views accounting for guidelines, the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War. Of Internet Essay. I think that overall it has been demonstrated that the unity on apa bibliography guidelines the Nationalists’ side was paramount in defeating the disunited leftists. Essay About School. International support was the obvious overwhelming factor that enhanced the Nationalists’ victory odds. Franco was a lucky general but he had made the callous decisions to verify his luck.

He was a military man, fighting a military campaign with a more powerful military apparatus at his hands. The Nationalists’ victory was inevitable and only by guidelines the Spanish Civil War escalating into a full-scale global conflict, could the outcome have ever been reversed. Of course, the other European powers and the USA wished to thesis keep the Iberian conflict contained and ultimately it was settled months before the outbreak of World War 2 in 1939. Beevor, A 2006 The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 , London: Orion. Fraser, R 1979 Blood of guidelines Spain: An Oral History of the school, Spanish Civil War , New York: Pantheon Books. Gallo,M 1973 Spain Under Franco: A History , London: Cox Wyman. Preston, P 1996 A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War , London: Fontana Press. Romero Salvado, Francisco J. 1999 Twentieth-Century Spain, London: Palgrave Macmillan. Thomas, H. 2001 The Spanish Civil War, London: Penguin.

No Es Necesario Viajar Para Aprender Un Idioma Extranjero. Has leido en Internet que el antiguo ministro de Educacion espanol ha expresado publicamente que no es necesario viajar para aprender un idioma extranjero. Apa Bibliography. Como estudiante de idiomas, ?que opinion tienes al respecto? Soy estudiante de traduccion en la universidad de Cardiff y durante mis tres anos de estudios no tengo que ir al pais extranjero para aprender los idiomas. Yale. Por eso yo creo que es muy posible que el antiguo ministro de Educacion espanol sea correcto. Por supuesto, si viaja al extranjero se puede ganar unas ventajas para sus estudios. Se puede ganar de sumergirse en la cultura nativa, totalmente rodearse en el idioma extranjero, por el que todo el mundo que se encuentra es hablar. Ademas de la oportunidad de tener una plena inmersion en una cultura totalmente diferente se puede creer amistades internacionales que pueden ofrecer mas durante la vida. Por otro lado es posible quedarse en su propio pais y aprender un idioma extranjero. Por ejemplo, si aprende un idioma muerto como el griego antiguo o el latin, es imposible visitar un pais donde se hablan estas lenguas. Un lenguaje moderno no es necesariamente diferente de aprender que un lenguaje muerto.

En la paz de un aula es posible centrarse y aprender bien. Con un hablante nativo de ultramar como su profesor durante dos horas a la semana es como si estuviera visitando un pais extranjero por un breve periodo concentrado. Hay servicios de internet como italki.com donde se puede aprender en linea y conocer a los instructores a traves de skype. Me gusta mucho este servicio y aunque nunca he visitado Espana me siento como puedo hablar con un buen acento e imagino que he viajado realmente alli. Es mas comodo estudiar en su propio entorno donde esta relajado y tiene una tasa de estudio mas alta. En general, aunque ciertamente puedo ver algunas de las ventajas de estudiar en el extranjero, creo que el Ministro es totalmente correcto y que es posible estudiar idiomas extranjeros sin viajar. « Le succes du filtre Facebook rappelle que l’indignation est parfois selective. » Selon vous : « Est-ce une raison pour brocarder ceux qui l’adoptent pour exprimer publiquement leur solidarite ? » Apres les attaques terroristes a Paris en novembre 2015, un filtre qui vous permet de changer votre photo de profil a celle du tricolore francais est apparu sur Facebook. Ce filtre vous permet supposement de montrer votre solidarite avec les victimes des attaques.

Le filtre s’est revele tres populaire et s’est repandu de maniere virale a travers le monde occidental. Cependant, le filtre a egalement suscite des critiques de certains milieux et dans cet essai, nous visons a discuter une partie de la controverse entourant le filtre. Guidelines. Est-ce que l’indignation est parfois selective ? Est-ce qu’il faut brocarder ceux qui adoptent le filtre ? D’une part, la popularite du filtre est un excellent moyen de montrer la solidarite contre les terroristes horribles. Que le filtre s’est repandu jusqu’ici et large montre comment offense le monde occidental a ete par l’outrage terroriste. D’autre part, l’utilisation du filtre peut etre critiquee. Pourquoi un filtre pour les victimes de l’attaque au Liban la veille des attaques de Paris n’a-t-il pas ete utilise? L’utilisation du filtre demontre l’eurocentrisme et montre peut-etre la limite de notre empathie. Non seulement il y a des attaques terroristes a Paris, mais aussi a Bagdad, en Syrie, au Pakistan, mais pourquoi ne changeons-nous pas nos drapeaux pour ceux de ces pays?

On peut dire que peut-etre nous valorisons les victimes occidentales, les femmes dans leurs chapeaux de magasins laineux, plus que ces femmes voilees du Moyen-Orient. Essay. Est-ce un signe de la suprematie blanche que nous choisissons de draper nos photos de profil avec le tricolore? C’est un signe d’indignation selective. Mais on apa bibliography peut nous pardonner de faire preuve de solidarite avec nos voisins? Les attaques terroristes sont pratiquement sur notre porte. Pay Someone To Do Thesis. Paris est une ville ou nous passons des escapades romantiques de week-end, que nous etudions en detail dans nos cours de francais GCSE, la capitale de notre voisin le plus proche. Une attaque contre Paris est surement une attaque contre nous? Je pense qu’il est naturel que nous devions faire preuve d’empathie pour les victimes des attaques de Paris. Cependant, y aurait-il une meilleure facon de manifester de l’indignation contre les terroristes?

D’autres groupes ont essaye d’imiter le succes du filtre francais. Par exemple, les militants du mariage homosexuel aux Etats-Unis ont introduit un filtre arc-en-ciel, mais il n’a certainement pas decolle de la meme maniere que l’original. Je pense que le filtre tricolore etait un evenement unique dans les medias sociaux, un evenement original, et qui se tiendra dans l’histoire comme un point dans le temps d’Internet, quand le monde uni contre le terrorisme. Apa Bibliography. Certes, le filtre a peut-etre eleve le statut des attaques et nourri dans le plan des terroristes – il les a aides a atteindre leurs objectifs. Essay. Il peut certainement y avoir des connotations negatives attachees a l’utilisation du filtre et le fait que nous analysons son utilisation ici demontre comment sa deconstruction s’est transformee en matiere academique. Il est materiel pour l’esprit et quelque chose pour nous tous a reflechir sur, si nous avons decide d’utiliser le filtre ou non.

Personnellement, je n’ai pas utilise le filtre Facebook tricolore. Je sentais que c’etait un peu minable et peut-etre ne pouvais pas diffuser le message sur l’indignation que je ressentais. J’ai eu la sympathie pour les victimes de l’attaque et a dit mes prieres pour eux pourtant je sentis que les utilisateurs du filtre comme il a grandi et a grandi dans la popularite etaient souvent juste suivre la foule et il est devenu une sorte de declaration de mode. Quelles lecons pouvons-nous tirer du filtre tricolore? Peut-etre a l’avenir, nous pourrons trouver une facon de demontrer la conscience publique afin qu’elle se montre indignation pour toutes les attaques terroristes a travers le monde, peu importe ou ils sont. Apa Bibliography Guidelines. Paris n’est qu’un evenement individuel et le tricolore temporaire n’a pas d’impact durable sur les terroristes. Il ne serait donc pas necessaire de juger durement ceux qui ont utilise le tricolore et qui ont fait face a toutes les accusations portees contre eux.

Je pense que la gravite de l’evenement et son debordement sur les medias sociaux introduit de nouvelles facons d’agir collectivement. Les medias sociaux sont interactifs et peut-etre que les evenements mondiaux a venir utiliseront de facon creative les medias sociaux afin de sculpter leurs propres chemins dans l’histoire.

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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dr. Marlin Thurston Marlin O. Thurston served as President of Thurston-Bell Associates, located in Columbus, Ohio. He was also a consultant and member of the research team on intraoperative detection of cancer in The Ohio State University’s Division of Surgical Oncology. Dr. Thurston received the Bachelor of Science and Master of guidelines Science degrees in physics from the University of Colorado in 1940 and yale medical thesis 1946, respectively. He earned his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from The Ohio State University in apa bibliography guidelines, 1955.

From 1946 to 1952, Dr. Thurston served as a faculty member and acting head of the yale school thesis Electrical Engineering Department at the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in Dayton, Ohio. While at AFIT, he made significant contributions to the development of the graduate program at the institute. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! During this period he also taught part-time at the University’s Electron Device Laboratory. Dr.

Thurston joined the faculty of the Department of Electrical Engineering at The Ohio State University in 1955, as an Associate Professor, and was promoted to Professor in of internet essay, 1959. He served as Chairman of the department from 1965 to apa bibliography guidelines 1977. Flow Essay! He retired from the University in 1982 and joined a local company which later became known as Thurston-Bell Associates. During his academic career, Dr. Thurston was a specialist in apa bibliography, semiconductors and solid state electronics. He won wide recognition as a distinguished researcher and produced numerous technical journal articles and four patents. During his tenure as chairman, and rulings essay director of the Electronics Materials and apa bibliography guidelines Devices Laboratory, research activities reached a high level of excellence, and the Department became one of the top electrical engineering departments in the U.S. He was instrumental in establishing successful programs which are still underway.

During this period he won the Fellow Award from the Institute of flow essay Electrical and Electronics Engineers, “For contributions to electron devices and for ability as both a teacher and an administrator.” He was an excellent teacher, consistently among the top rated in the department and his students were widely sought by industry. Dr. Thurston has served as a consultant to numerous U.S. companies, such as Reliance Electric Co., Westinghouse, Battelle, CVI Division on Pennwalt Corp., Floyd Bell Associates, Whirlpool, and others. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! He has also served as a member of the Board of Directors of Dekker’s series of textbooks on electrical engineering and electronics. In 1968 he served as a member of the Research Advisory Committee of the about myself U.S. Army Nuclear Defense Laboratory. Guidelines! He also served on the USAF Science Advisory Board’s Committee on Electro-Optics, and essay as Vice-President of the National Electronics Conference. Dr. Thurston’s service to apa bibliography guidelines Ohio State and the advantages of internet essay his profession has been exemplary.

He was a member of numerous departmental, college, and university-wide committees. He served as a chairman of the Columbus Section of the Institute of Electrical Engineers from 1965-1966. In 1975, he was named Robert M. Crutchfield Professor to Electrical Engineers “… to be eminently qualified for this honor in recognition of his outstanding achievements as teacher, administrator, researcher and consultant to industry and government.” In the early 1980s, Dr. Thurston began working with Dr. Edward Martin, cancer surgeon at OSU’s Division of apa bibliography Surgical Oncology, on an electronic device which would help cancer surgeons detect cancers and secondary tumors. Their work resulted in the invention of a hand-held electronic device, called the Neoprobe, that can dramatically increase the success rate for cancer surgery.

In addition to his ability to detect cancers which are too small for detection by the surgeon, the Neoprobe results are expected to produce some redefinition of standard procedures for cancer surgery. Drs. Thurston and Martin, and other investors, started Neoprobe Corp. in 1983 to develop and market the rulings essay device. This model of interdisciplinary work by Drs. Thurston and Martin has resulted in apa bibliography guidelines, the publication of 17 articles in the medical literature, and the issuance of three patents. One of define response essay their patents was one of 20 recognized in 1989 by apa bibliography the intellectual Property Owners Foundation, “… for a method of detecting cancerous tissue while surgery is underway using a hand-held radiation detection probe, to help eliminate the need for a second operation to remove additional cancerous tissue.” In addition, Drs. Thurston and Martin jointly received the 1991 Central Ohio Technical Achievement Award in recognition of this important and outstanding work. This is an flow essay, extremely significant invention and a truly superb example of interdisciplinary research. Dr.

Martin, a surgeon, could not have done this alone, and Dr. Thurston, an engineer, could not have done this alone. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Together, they have produced a marvelous instrument which can save lives and prevent countless numbers of follow-up surgeries. The most common comment following cancer surgery is pay someone to do “I hope they got all of it”. The Neoprobe greatly improves the apa bibliography guidelines surgeon’s chances of “getting it all”. It is rulings so sensitive that it has detected cancers of such small size that pathologists have not detected them in routine analyses. The impact that engineering technology has made upon medicine has been very great, and yet it has done very little for the surgeon. For the most part, his only tools are his hands and apa bibliography guidelines eyes.

Dr. Thurston has put a very powerful instrument in the hands of the surgeon. As Dr. Ridihalgh’s endorsement letter states, the development of monoclonal antibodies targeted to specific tumor antigens introduced scanning technology which can detect tumors. However, this could only be done prior to or subsequent to surgery, after surgery has been completed. Dr. Thurston has brought this technology into the operating room, enabling the the advantages of internet surgeon to probe with an guidelines, even more sensitive instrument after he/she believes the surgery to be completed to see if traces of the tumor remain and to do thesis continue until it has been removed completely. In recognition of their work, Drs. Thurston and Martin received the Central Ohio Technical Achievement Award on February 28th, 1991. In recognition of this work and his many other distinguished achievements, Dr.

Thurston also received a major award from the Ohio State University College of apa bibliography guidelines Engineering on April 26, 1991. Marlin Thurston personifies the lofty ideals of flow essay teaching, research and service for which a great university strives. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! As a classroom teacher, he was outstanding. After a 12-year tenure as chairman, he returned to teaching and research and assembled a group of graduate students that brought a real strength to his Department’s weaker areas before his time, it is now one of the strongest and continues to develop further each year. Many of flow essay his students from guidelines this and medical school thesis prior periods have gone on apa bibliography to make strong contributions in industry and academia. If it is of internet essay true that the best test of the quality of guidelines a teacher is the success of his students, Dr. Rulings! Thurston passes the test with the highest marks. Although his teaching years are behind him, his research accomplishments continue to mount. It is interesting to note that the Neoprobe, which will probably be his most significant single contribution, was developed during periods of his life which most people would consider the retirement years. He retired officially from apa bibliography university service in 1982, at the age of 63. A registered professional engineer in the state of flow essay Ohio, Dr.

Thurston also complimented his teaching and research with a strong commitment to the development and guidelines advancement of his profession. In his endorsement letter, the Rev. Flow Essay! Kenneth Whitt, Senior Pastor of Mountview Baptist Church, describes Dr. Thurston as “gentle, compassionate, passionate, soft-spoken, self-giving, optimistic and focused.” “Dr. Thurston incarnates the greatness of the American scientific spirit.” These are all apt descriptions of Dr. Thurston. Apa Bibliography! His faculty colleagues and peers consider him the personification of the word gentleman; he is define personal essay truly a gentleman in all aspects of his life. During his twelve-year term as chairman of a major electrical engineering department which was growing and expanding in spite of severe budget restrictions, there must have been countless periods of frustration, setbacks and upsetting developments. However, no one ever saw a single manifestation of guidelines his troubles in his demeanor.

No one in his department has ever heard him shout or behave in any way other than being the perfect gentleman. His personal character traits and integrity are not only beyond question, they are a model of exemplary behavior. As stated earlier, Dr. Thurston was a consultant to yale school thesis a surgical oncology team. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! What was not stated before is the fact that he was not a paid employee of the university or of anyone else for his work.

He was probably working as hard as he ever worked, the satisfaction of making a contribution to humanity and school thesis society, and the feeling of personally making a difference. Rev. Whitt’s letter tells of the work Dr. Thurston did in designing and installing a computer system “that supports the life and ministry of our church”. When he first became involved with OSU Dept. of Surgery, he saw that their system for managing student records was antiquated and cumbersome.

He designed a computer system which brought that phase of operations into the computer age, again a volunteer activity. It is known that for some period he housed Vietnamese refugees in his home, because they were in need of apa bibliography guidelines help. These are the character traits of a caring person, who freely shares his resources and flow essay talents with others who can benefit from them. He taught his students that engineering is a service profession, one in which the primary focus is service to humanity. Dr. Thurston taught this with far more than words; his life is testimony to his belief in this principle. Yet another indication of his character is shown by the fact that when he was names Critchield Professor of guidelines Electrical Engineering, he asked that the substantial salary supplement which this honor carried be given to his department to support worthwhile activities rather than just be added to his salary.

Even before this time, he had joined OSU’s president’s club and was one of the principal benefactors of the Department of about myself school Electrical Engineering. At a later time, he donated additional funds to fund a graduate fellowship in solid state electronics. He served and helped his department in virtually every way available to an individual. Service to the Profession. Dr. Thurston’s busy and productive career of teaching and apa bibliography research primarily also contained a very strong commitment to serving and advancing his profession. Offices and affiliates which he has held include: Active duty for of internet four years in the Army Signal Corps and Air Force, 1942–1946 USAF Ready Reserve from 1946 to 1965 before returning as Lt. Guidelines! Colonel. Chairman of Columbus Section IEEE from 1965–1966 Member, Research Advisory Board, U.S.

Army Nuclear Defense Laboratory from 1968–1969 Vice-President for Conference Affairs, National Electronics Conference, 1970 Vice-President, National Electronics Conference from 1972–1973 Member, National Science Foundation Review Panels, 1972–1975 Chairman, Board of Directors of National Engineering Consortium, 1978–1979 Consultant to various U.S. companies, such as Reliance Electric Co. Preliminary Rulings Essay! Westinghouse, Battelle, CVI Division of Pennwalt Corp., Floyd Bell Associates, Whirlpool, Inc. and others. Apa Bibliography! Editor, Marcel Dekker, for series of text books on electrical engineering and electronics. Rulings Essay! Member, Electro-Optics Technology Committee, U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board 1972–-1973, and Consultant to numerous U.S. laboratories and forms. Dr. Thurston has shown a strong willingness to apa bibliography guidelines share his talents and resources with others who can benefit from them. As stated earlier, he designed and installed a computer system to facilitate the administration of his church. Preliminary Rulings Essay! Upon seeing that the OSU Dept. of Surgery’s system for managing student records was antiquated and cumbersome, he voluntarily devised a computer system which greatly enhanced the operation of that department’s administrative office. In addition, he and his wife were very active in the local Red Cross unit and through this activity even opened their home to house Vietnamese refugees who had no home.

In the case of Dr. Apa Bibliography Guidelines! Thurston, however, this writer believes that community service is tightly coupled with his professional activities, if one defines community service as actions which benefit others in the general sense, teachers have available to them more opportunities for pay someone to do thesis this kind of influence than have members of apa bibliography nearly all other professions. A teacher who has a long career enriches the lives of hundreds of other human beings, makes their lives fuller and of higher quality. His influence further ripples through society through the actions of his students. In addition to large numbers of students whom Dr. Thurston influenced in the advantages, the formal classroom, he personally worked with and advised a large number through their master’s and PhD studies. Many of these have gone on apa bibliography to make strong contributions in industrial as well as academic positions. The Advantages Essay! Some have become entrepreneurs, creating jobs for guidelines others in our society. The true influence of pay someone to do a teacher upon society cannot be accurately measured; it can even propagate through many generations in ways which the teacher will never know.

Therefore, if one takes a larger view of community service, an outstanding teacher such as Dr. Thurston has been extremely successful. Dr. Thurston has done conventional things which qualify under the apa bibliography guidelines usual definition of about myself school community service, but by a larger definition of community service, his contributions are very substantial, and time may well prove them to be monumental.