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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. Tumblr! This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and religious practices common among enslaved Africans in the pre-emancipation Caribbean. It describes obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at the confluence of several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the reconfiguration of relations between religion and science, reconsiderations of colonial archives and their representation of subordinated peoples, and new scholarship about obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in the West Indies. In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of religion and science for the inhabitants of that world.

Historians of science have reconceived the buy research, disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by old essays tumblr, the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. 1 1. Global Warming! On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” View all notes Indeed, recent studies of old essays tumblr key religious and scientific figures, from Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work. 2 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . View all notes And, as James H. Sweet’s study of African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Atlantic World in its denominational and epistemological contours. 3 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . Cell Research! For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of tumblr Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. The Advantages Of Internet Essay! View all notes.

Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to explore new methods for reading colonial archives and new strategies for recovering and studying the knowledge and beliefs of unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and Betty Joseph – the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives – position archiving as an ongoing process that produces documents with histories and itineraries of tumblr their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read “along the grain,” in essays macbeth order to uncover how “[c]olonial archives were sites of old essays tumblr command – but of countermand as well.” 4 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the american essay nurse, East India Company . Tumblr! View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to stem cell define and tumblr discipline its subjects and sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at essay, discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and colonial archives is found in studies of old essays tumblr obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about cell thesis, forms of old essays power and knowledge in the Caribbean. Scholars from association nurse anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the world that colonists and old essays Africans inhabited and resume services the texts that represented that world. Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and Diana Paton have shown how obeah and its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. For early studies of old essays obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of macbeth Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about old essays tumblr, African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the the advantages, term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the tumblr, past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and global warming and solutions Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in old essays tumblr which colonial accounts of quotes essays obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and old essays tumblr legal aims.

See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and of internet essay Forde, Obeah and tumblr Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” View all notes. Co-edited by two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on the advantages essay, medicine and on old essays tumblr, religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by buy research papers line, analyzing previously unconsidered archives about obeah, by accounting for the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of old essays tumblr obeah performed by managing African women’s bodies, and by tracing how the power of religion and research thesis science manifests itself in the Atlantic World. Old Essays Tumblr! As all of the articles in this special issue demonstrate, the archive on obeah contains accounts, reports, and documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists’ textual and political control. The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is part of this archive yet that also extends beyond it. It is stem research thesis this space – one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and textual – that the articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to old essays transform obeah into a set of knowable practices, on the one hand, and buy research the range of practices, beliefs, and old essays knowledge that Africans employed as a form of line power in tumblr the Atlantic World, on the other. Warming And Solutions Essay! In this introduction, we describe obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in tumblr the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in which obeah and textual forms are entangled.

As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to analyze obeah’s powers and the representation of those powers. How to write the history of obeah. “Obeah” refers to a set of practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from healing and revenge, to protection and cell thesis rebellion. These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in tumblr separate categories but were mutually constitutive. This was the case because natural and quotes macbeth supernatural, human and nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply “good” or “bad”; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and attempted to employ those forces to accomplish various goals. Tumblr! As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a “protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to use energy dynamically.” 6 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of cell forms, even being “reasserted under the mask of Christianity” during the 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica. 7 7. Old Essays! Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. View all notes.

While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in colonial texts. There, the term “obeah” originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in stem cell the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples’ bodies and minds. As Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, “‘Obeah’ became a catch-all term for tumblr a range of supernatural-related ideas and behaviors that were not of the advantages European origin and which [whites] heavily criticized and condemned.” 8 8. Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. Tumblr! View all notes In the early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to stem cell folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to old essays protect them from american essay nurse planters’ bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to witchcraft and to poison in the British and French West Indies, respectively. As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and old essays tumblr encounters with African practices are responsible for these varying definitions of obeah. 9 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” View all notes. Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans’ reports that an obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to quotes blame for old essays tumblr unusual happenings. In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of services mississauga identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the primary powers at work in the world. In the old essays tumblr, British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult – hidden or unknown – causes in order to account for obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. The analysis of preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and divination since the essays macbeth, sixteenth century.

Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of actions by created beings, from humans to angels and devils). In the course of the old essays tumblr, seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were “naturalized”; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only natural or human causes as possibly responsible for the advantages of internet the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes At the same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into the hidden workings of nature. By the tumblr, eighteenth century, philosophers began to argue that their work did not extend to seeking out supernatural causes; one’s focus was more properly restricted to natural causes, those that could be verified by multiple witnesses and tests. The Advantages Of Internet! Preternatural phenomena could be part of such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and analyzed.

Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of old essays discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to locate and decipher them. As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11. See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in locating their natural causes, the discovery of the causes for warming causes essay such events was by no means a straightforward process with an assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to tumblr include non-human as well as human agents.

12 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” View all notes Colonists faced the challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and consequently of american association essay nurse discovering and old essays representing its natural causes in a context in which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. As Katharine Gerbner explains in her contribution to this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in resume services Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries “obea,” a term that he defined as a “Seer,” a seemingly surprising turn given obeah’s connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries’ case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the “frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and medical practice,” a frame that requires us to understand European natural historical and religious practices as encompassed within the category of old essays tumblr obeah. Colonists addressed the challenges of representing obeah by arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeah’s powers to supernatural forces, a natural cause for its effects existed and could be discovered. They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeah’s apparent power to Africans’ allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only quotes macbeth hidden natural causes. Colonists also represented themselves as capable of discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in obeah men’s materials. For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah men’s ability to wield “magic,” such alleged “supernatural powers” were “only the natural operations of some poisonous juice, or preparation.” 13 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416.

View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in “magic spells,” and he called on poetry to: “Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have render’d awful; tell the laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made.” 14 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. View all notes By exposing the old essays tumblr, natural causes behind “wonder-working charms,” colonists would prove obeah to be a phenomena that could be brought into the advantages of internet essay the light, studied, and explained with recourse to natural causes. Such knowledge of tumblr obeah would likewise allow colonists to control its effects – to limit the circulation of and knowledge about buy research papers, “some poisonous juice,” for example. Old Essays! However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners’ materials rarely led them to natural causes. For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the components of warming causes obeah practitioners’ “wonder-working charms,” Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an old essays insistence that obeah is decipherable in stem cell research thesis terms of natural causes and an enumeration of material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in addition to a description of those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16.

For an important reading of old essays obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the “Magical Apparatus” of an “Obeah Doctor”: “two Earthen Basons, a Handful of different Kinds of Leaves, and a Piece of Soap.” 17 17. Hughes, Natural History , 15. The Advantages Essay! View all notes By the end of the eighteenth century, lists of obeah materials had become a trope in tumblr British colonial descriptions of obeah. Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the practice of research “hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds.” 18 18. Old Essays! Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of obeah and that has been central to cell thesis scholarly analyses, including several in this introduction and in tumblr this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that “OBI, for the purposes of resume writing mississauga bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is tumblr made of essays macbeth grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax.” 19 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.

View all notes. Writing in the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the obeah man used his “Magical Apparatus” as a cover for his real strategy of hiding “Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of tumblr Stones” on services mississauga, the woman’s body and pretending to pull them out with the strength of his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to deceive one’s patients; the true source of old essays tumblr obeah’s power was the woman’s mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and the advantages of internet essay second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and old essays Moseley were writing, accounts of the process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the list of the materials in the obeah man’s magical apparatus.

Colonists’ focus on the objects in obeah practitioners’ apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in the world. 21 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to make obeah into something that readers can sense, observe, and thus convert into knowledge, and these lists further suggest that obeah’s causes are available through an observation of its materials. Resume Writing! However, far from demystifying obeah, the tumblr, texts attest to line the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the tumblr, examples above show, the cell, lists do not uncover obeah’s hidden natural causes but instead display something of how obeah’s power works, that is, how the objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts. Considering the “grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax” was unlikely to old essays tumblr lead observers to any conclusions about obeah’s natural causes. 22 22. Global Warming Causes And Solutions! Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. Old Essays! View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the quotes macbeth, process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of their parts and that drew on both natural and tumblr supernatural worlds for their efficacy. Colonists’ representations of obeah, intended to demystify and global causes and solutions essay discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the tumblr, Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in her article, obeah could “infect” colonial minds, texts, and research performances, and these representations of old essays tumblr obeah highlighted concerns about the line, effects of tropical climates on colonial bodies and minds and old essays about the difficulties of global warming causes and solutions essay maintaining order on plantations.

Writers attempted to old essays allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of obeah and indicated obeah’s power over colonists. Colonists’ failure to locate obeah’s natural causes is manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the assemblages out of which obeah was constituted – its collections of natural objects, chants, “jargon,” and ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to macbeth his poetic text, in which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with “frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at least occasion long and troublesome disorders.” 24 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144.

View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the obeah man’s staff to Africans’ “belief in old essays tumblr magic,” thus contradicting his poetic description of buy research papers line obeah as composed of natural and tumblr supernatural elements to support instead the argument that obeah’s powers could be attributed to Africans’ imaginations. Research Thesis! But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could “do good” on plantations as long as they were supervised by old essays, plantation owners. 25 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeah’s usefulness and that attributed it to Africans’ imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeah’s materials and description of their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the debate over obeah’s powers and the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories.

The poetic and scientific forms in writing The Sugar-Cane register colonists’ attempts to discover obeah’s natural causes and to categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists’ recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of mixtures of natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in his 1800 novel Obi: or the History of Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the form of the old essays tumblr, epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to represent multiple explanations of obeah’s powers. The novel depicts the capture and execution of an obeah man, and macbeth Earle inserted 11 pages of footnotes below the obeah man’s story. Tumblr! 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by buy research papers, Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). View all notes These footnotes include a long description of obeah’s qualities copied from the accounts of historians Bryan Edwards and Edward Long. While the old essays tumblr, footnotes allow the narrative of Euro-colonial triumph over obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to categorize obeah or to explain it in terms of natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into the novel.

In Earle’s novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and executed, and obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to essays this issue, obeah appears in colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and forms of social authority it often is invoked to old essays support. Finally, we might see the novels in research thesis which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworth’s gothic novel Belinda (1801) and old essays romances such as Victor Hugo’s Bug-Jargal (1826) and Cynric Williams’s Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists’ failure to line account for obeah in natural or civil histories or legal reports. As Tim Watson has pointed out, the old essays tumblr, “attempt to narrate the Caribbean from the point of view of plausibility, verifiability, and buy research papers line reason – realism, in other words – turns into the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the gothic, the sentimental, and old essays tumblr the melodrama.” 27 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. Buy Research! View all notes As obeah moved from medical treatises and natural histories into gothic novels and old essays tumblr romances, its formal trajectory attested to colonists’ failure to locate natural causes for the forms of power they encountered in the Caribbean.

The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples. For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to research thesis represent the confusing set of practices they confronted in obeah: the old essays tumblr, presence of objects with properties that could be identified in terms of natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Africans’ bodies were central to these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrell’s contribution shows, colonial writers responded to the advantages of internet the material practices and powers of African women’s bodies by imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by developing ever more complex strategies for maintaining control over enslaved women’s bodies. As each text imagines the old essays tumblr, removal of obeah from the Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeah’s immense power and of internet attempts to subordinate it by old essays, exercising control over African bodies. So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the chance to meditate on the vulnerability of white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to confront the conflicted relation between the disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to possess and the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of services those inhabiting the pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of obeah represent and recirculate, for their readers in Europe and for colonists in the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of obeah in the eighteenth- and old essays nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of cell colonial texts. Indeed, for colonists and for tumblr European readers, obeah’s power was located precisely in the assemblage of obeah practices and resume mississauga colonial representations of obeah – at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as “a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation.” 28 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. View all notes.

What, then, does it mean to try to account for obeah’s power in the eighteenth- and old essays tumblr early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at the intersection of social practice and stem cell thesis literary and cultural representation? Like other subaltern formations, obeah’s early history was largely chronicled in print by colonial writers, 29 29. Old Essays Tumblr! Discussions of quotes essays obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the old essays tumblr, basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an the advantages of internet extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. View all notes many of whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to the practices they described. Old Essays Tumblr! 30 30.

While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of of internet obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of old essays herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to association essay nurse panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to access the social practices that colonial observers called “obeah,” then, has to contend with the limits of these source materials, the ways in which their “dense mesh” of practice and representation entangles historical fact in old essays tumblr colonial fantasy. As Palmie puts it, “much of american association nurse what our evidence actually tells us is old essays tumblr that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and workers might believe in of internet such things.” 31 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of obeah in the historical record, in other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the colonial mind and the fears that animated it.

This enmeshment of practice and representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeah’s powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in and practiced obeah did so “in ways that largely escape the documentary record,” 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is “what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about it.” 33 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. View all notes. Tumblr! We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in essays his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeah’s presence in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of obeah practices or the beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that “the figure of the slave could come to complicate what an archive meant.” 34 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in old essays tumblr this special issue.

View all notes As the buy research papers, founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to create and the ones they seek to old essays tumblr make inaccessible. We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits – to turn to this archive for something other than an account of praxis that can stand apart from the essays macbeth, representation that harbors it. If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of obeah’s powers, the ways in which genres such as natural history and romantic and gothic fictions were pushed to old essays tumblr their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only global causes essay dimly understood. Old Essays! 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an nurse epistemology.

See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and American audiences came into relation with obeah and powers like it. As they read about obeah in tumblr medical treatises, newspaper articles, and chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeah’s unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the cell research thesis, medium that brought obeah to them. Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in tumblr their hands, or joining the audience of one of the pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to experiencing obeah as part of the material world in which they read and writing services that they shared with others. 36 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . Old Essays Tumblr! On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to which they turned for practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in association essay each of these cases coming to know it meant enacting the habits and postures and old essays tumblr behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into their worlds. If these sources can never give us obeah practices in pure, unadulterated form – obeah in its own right, in its intimate connection to the historical actors who used it, revised it, and believed in the advantages it – what they may offer us is old essays a portrait of how those practices and beliefs registered within the Atlantic World, of the entanglements and affiliations that grew up around them.

We can find in these sources, in of internet other words, the outlines of the assemblages they sought to generate – the old essays, felt texture of the common world into which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and obeah practices and practitioners. American Essay! 37 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and tumblr forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for stem instance, Reassembling the Social ). View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about obeah and powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in these questions. 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and tumblr both of the editors of papers this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in this direction is old essays motivated, at cell research thesis, least in part, by the by now well-recognized asymmetries between historians’ and literary scholars’ treatment of each other's’ work.

Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and historians – and, in recent years, the willingness of literary scholars to cite historians compared to the general paucity of citations from tumblr historians to literary scholars, a differential he terms the “trade gap” – depend at least in part on a differing approach to source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that what’s really at global causes and solutions essay, play here is “a large area of noncoincidence between the aims and desires of literary studies and historical studies,” one that focuses literary scholars’ attention on “an essential aspect of the community generated by the advent of an Atlantic World: namely a set of signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the world we inhabit today.” 39 39. Old Essays Tumblr! Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes Dillon’s insistence on the primary concern of american essay literary scholars with aesthetics – in particular, with “the analysis of form and old essays genre” – registers her insistence on two twinned principles: that the political realm in which we come to live together is strongly shaped by signifying practices, and that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices’ power and significance. 40 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. Warming And Solutions Essay! View all notes For Dillon, as for old essays tumblr many other literary scholars, the quotes, structures and patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on which people sensed and perceived the world they shared in common, the sites at which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and old essays tumblr Chris Looby put it: “ aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the discipline of a careful attention to quotes macbeth surfaces and appearances, to the sensible textures of things, and its history also preserves the old essays, conviction that social and political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension.” 41 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. View all notes. We are interested, then, in the ways in which these archives record how colonial writers sought to causes and solutions make obeah sensible – to weave it into the Atlantic World readers and practitioners shared. Take again, for instance, one of the most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseley’s description of obeah in his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . 42 42.

In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of old essays longer works published in the advantages essay London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in tumblr Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. Line! ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and old essays Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseley’s account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeah’s powers confound empiricist modes of observation. Moseley’s text also , and paradoxically, opens up the possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing – the way that the global warming causes and solutions, tenuous project of old essays tumblr making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to teach audiences how to understand how obeah figured into the world in which they lived. Here is the full passage in american nurse which Moseley’s list of an obeah’s contents appears: OBI, for old essays tumblr the purposes of resume bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the tumblr, hearts of birds, and american some potent roots, weeds, and bushes, of which Europeans are at this time ignorant; but which were known, for the same purposes, to the ancients. Certain mixtures of these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the old essays tumblr, threshold of the quotes essays macbeth, door of the party, to old essays tumblr suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at quotes macbeth, midnight, regarding the old essays, aspects of the moon … A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by OBI, will apply to quotes an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for cure. […] I saw the old essays tumblr, OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Jamaica in 1780 and 1781. Line! […] His OBI consisted of the end of old essays a goat’s horn, filled with a compound of grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and human fat; all mixed into a kind of paste. A black cat’s foot, a dried toad, a pig’s tail, a slip of parchment of kid’s skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. 43 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173. Of Internet Essay! View all notes. In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of relations to tumblr which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts’ aesthetic properties shows how they seek to invest their audiences in what is, at its heart, an orienting project: one in which the powers that these texts struggle and sometimes fail to trace back to the natural world are still brought into their readers’ everyday lives in cell thesis some form.

When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to see the single objects he has extracted from it – a slip of old essays parchment, an eggshell, a feather – as individual representatives of larger categories of familiar objects. As he makes the obeah’s disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in some senses, ordinary – part of the causes and solutions, background of objects one encounters in one’s everyday life. Yet mixed into these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the old essays tumblr, senses: one has no way to know that what Moseley describes as “the blood of a black cat” came from a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at global causes, all. These are the tumblr, moments at which, as we’ve noted above, the text veers toward the romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the moments in which obeah’s recognizability as a part of the material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on the familiarity of material objects and the legibility of resume particular genres and tropes: the mythical powers of grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat. Reading obeah, in tumblr other words, meant knowing it as a part of causes other stories, as something that could be recognized in the fictions and narratives that circulated in one’s culture.

As they cross-pollinated obeah with the old essays tumblr, gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in fictive texts, become at once part of how the world might be and something that might be imaginary, unreal. Causes Essay! In other words, they teach readers to adopt an attitude of provisionality, to perceive obeah as something of interest that may or may not be real. Old Essays Tumblr! At first glance, this provisionality might appear to be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for buy research granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of recognition and orientation Moseley’s text chronicles had to be brought into being. And this, we think, is part of old essays tumblr what a distinctively literary take on writing mississauga, obeah may offer scholars interested in the legacy of these and other powers – a better understanding of the tumblr, social formation and cell research thesis embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to try to integrate them into tumblr the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that “the ‘other powers’ wielded by the subaltern other do not easily yield to ‘objective knowledge,’ unless the observer herself … agrees to come under its influence,” then one way we might begin to apprehend those powers is within the web of influences, literary and otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past.

45 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. View all notes To do so may be to recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeah’s past may be a particularly entangled history – one in which praxis and representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the editors of Atlantic Studies for fostering and supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and Daniel Walden for their feedback on this introduction. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Toni Wall Jaudon is an of internet essay assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and American Literary History . Currently, she is at work on a study of the tumblr, liveliness of religious objects in the nineteenth-century Americas. Resume Writing Services Mississauga! Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. She is the old essays, author of Medical Encounters: Knowledge and essays macbeth Identity in old essays Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and the editor of “Good News from New England” by Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). 1. On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of essay nurse Nature.” 2. Old Essays! See, for mississauga a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . 3. Old Essays Tumblr! See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and buy research Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. 4. See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery.

These scholars, to tumblr varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from quotes macbeth “religion,” to old essays “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the essay, Early Use” and old essays tumblr “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of global warming causes colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and tumblr legal aims. Buy Research! See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. Tumblr! 8. Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 11.

See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” 13. Long, History of Jamaica , 416. 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. 15. Research! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387–392. 16. For an important reading of obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” 17.

Hughes, Natural History , 15. 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. Old Essays Tumblr! 19. Essay! Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. 20. Tumblr! Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” 22. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.

23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. Of Internet! 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. Old Essays Tumblr! 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. Essays Macbeth! See Earle, Obi , 72.

The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by old essays tumblr, Earle and Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in buy research excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the tumblr, basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in of internet the colonies. Old Essays Tumblr! Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. 30.

While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from american association essay nurse knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into old essays the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. American Essay Nurse! 32. Old Essays! Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. 34.

Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and american essay Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in old essays this special issue. Essays! 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” 37. Our thinking on tumblr, this point has been spurred by the advantages, the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by old essays tumblr, Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour.

This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of global warming causes essay many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of tumblr associations (see, for writing mississauga instance, Reassembling the tumblr, Social ). 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of this special issue, among others. 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 40. Warming Causes Essay! Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. 42. Tumblr! In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of warming causes and solutions Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173.

44. Writing about the minkisi used among the BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from deliberate processes of assemblage. See “African Objects,” especially 126, and “Fetishism Revisited,” 173. Old Essays Tumblr! For an quotes account of the cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, “ Minkisi ”. Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about attempts to divine the African origins of the diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the introduction to Africas of the Americas ). What is clear from Moseley’s account is how deeply invested he was in disassembly as a way of working against the power that the obeah seemed to bear. Old Essays! 45.

Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. Registered in global warming and solutions essay England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the old essays, best experience on our website.

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Added /drawsize @ w h that sets the old essays tumblr bitmap size for picture windows. For a more detailed list of recent changes, please see the whatsnew.txt file. What is new in version 7.47? (January 18 th 2017) This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: Fixed treeview display of text being chopped with certain fonts. Fixed URL hotlink and catcher bugs that prevented extraction of essay nurse short URLs. Updated to OpenSSL 1.0.2j library. Extended /drawpic and old essays other features to support .jpeg extension. Reverted changes to $calc() decimal digits in floating point calculations. Updated About dialog to use Windows theme.

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Fixed $com().result not trimming trailing zeros in float values. Essays! Fixed $wrap() not updating wrapped text if case has changed. Fixed hash table bug that resulted in intermittent gpfs. For a more detailed list of recent changes, please see the whatsnew.txt file. What is old essays tumblr new in essays macbeth, version 7.46? (August 1 st 2016) This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by old essays tumblr users since the last release.

It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: Updated to OpenSSL 1.0.2h and PCRE 8.39 libraries. Fixed /timer -h high resolution timer bug. Extended $calc() to return more digits in floating point calculations. Fixed Clear History bug that incorrectly cleared channels list settings. Changed the way files are updated to decrease the potential for file loss. Extended URL hotlink/extract feature to handle IPv6 addresses. Fixed $base() bug with floating point precision. Fixed script error not showing line number for single-line event definitions. Added resize grip to macbeth, bottom right of resizable dialogs.

Fixed regex bug when K is used in some regex patterns. Fixed /drawline -p when used with text that contains tab characters. For a more detailed list of recent changes, please see the whatsnew.txt file. What is new in old essays, version 7.45? (April 25 th 2016) This is a small update that fixes an issue with the way BAN/UNBAN events are handled. This issue was introduced in a recent change to mIRC and we decided it was important enough, and affected enough users, to release a small update to of internet, fix it. This update includes the following improvements, changes and tumblr fixes: Fixed on BAN/UNBAN event bug that caused it to not be triggered on mode +b/-b events.

Updated channels /list feature to send *matchtext* to server in LIST request on Undernet and Quakenet. Fixed DCC Send file dialog nickname combobox being incorrectly sized. Fixed $sdir() new file dialogs not handling invalid path names. Fixed $sfile() new file dialogs not filling in filename editbox. Fixed tray tips bug that caused gpf triggered by right-click on quotes essays, tray tip. Old Essays! Fixed tray tips and speech bug in formatting of text for buy research papers line, multiple mode changes. Old Essays Tumblr! Updated installer to resume writing mississauga, re-use default NSIS uninstall executable. Old Essays! Updated CA root certificates cacert.pem file. For a more detailed list of recent changes, please see the whatsnew.txt file. What is new in resume writing, version 7.44? (March 25 th 2016) This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release.

It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: Updated to OpenSSL 1.0.2g, PCRE 8.38, and old essays tumblr TagLib 1.11 libraries. American Essay Nurse! Extended $regex() to allow unlimited backreferences. Updated all file dialogs, including the old essays tumblr send file dialog, to use modern file dialogs. Updated to NSIS 2.50 installer and related plugins. Fixed mode +q event being processed as on OWNER/DEOWNER event on american, networks that use +q as a channel mode. Old Essays! Fixed if/while bracket parsing bug that caused mIRC to resume writing, freeze with a certain combination of separators and brackets.

Added check for servers that include MONITOR in numeric 005 but do not actually support it. mIRC reverts back to ISON in this case. Added Certficate menu item to status window system menu that allows viewing of the SSL certificate for an SSL connection. Tumblr! Added $regmlex(name,M,N) that returns array of matches in the case of a /g global match. Extended $url to the advantages, work with browsers that do not support DDE, like Microsoft Edge and tumblr Google Chrome. Updated $os and manifest files for Windows 10 compatibility. Added support for extended numeric 338 reply with IPv6 address. Added /sockopen -46 switches to specify the IPv4/IPv6 context when resolving named addresses. Changed /server to base its IPv4/IPv6 context on association essay nurse, the IP address if one is used. Fixed $msgtags not being reset immediately after an event. Fixed $eval() bug that caused over-evaluation in some cases. Old Essays! Fixed log view dialog file size bug with large log files.

Extended $com() to allow passing parameters in global essay, from and results out to binary variables. Updated code signing certificate to SHA-256. Binaries are now dual code-signed with SHA-1 and SHA-256. Other changes and old essays bug fixes. In total there have been around 50 changes since the last release and although most of them are only small fixes and buy research papers line tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and old essays stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0.

What is new in version 7.43? (August 3 rd 2015) This is a small update that fixes an issue with the way windows are activated and receive focus when using the Control+Tab key combination, switchbar, treebar, and other methods for switching windows. This issue was introduced in a recent change to mIRC and warming we decided it was important enough, and affected enough users, to tumblr, release a small update to fix it. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.42? (July 17 th 2015)

This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: Fixed tokenization bug related to strtok()'s use of an internal static varible. Fixed script error line number bug that was causing line number not to be reported in some contexts. Of Internet Essay! Updated libraries to PCRE v8.37 and OpenSSL 1.0.1p. Fixed SSL certificate change warning bug that caused warnings to be displayed for valid certificates. Fixed /filter output to nul not working. Updated voice command support to work with newer versions of Windows. Old Essays! Extended /server to causes and solutions essay, handle passwords with spaces.

Changed drag-drop to only set focus on a window once a file has been dropped onto it. Fixed /play dialog not allowing long filenames to be typed into filename editbox. Old Essays Tumblr! Fixed file dialog bug that prevented typing a folder name into the filename editbox to change into that folder. Fixed /exit bug that caused settings to be saved incorrectly when used in some contexts. Added $encode()/$decode() 'a' switch for base32 encoding. Added $hmac(text|binvar|filename, key, hash, 0|1|2) identifier. Essay Nurse! Added $hotp(key, count, hash, digits) identifier. Added support for IRCv3 message tags and $msgtags(tag|N) identifier.

Added on PARSELINE event that allows scripts to tumblr, modify incoming/outgoing server messages. Fixed Event Beeps beep value not being applied resulting in repeated beeping during a flash event. Other changes and bug fixes. In total there have been around 30 changes since the last release and of internet essay although most of them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in tumblr, version 7.41? (February 28 th 2015) This is american association a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the old essays last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of warming and solutions features, including:

Added $calc() // floor divide operator. Fixed MDI window transparency bug under Windows 8. Fixed file handling bug that would have caused settings to old essays tumblr, be reset if there was a drive error. Fixed connection timeout not being applied while a STARTTLS handshake is in progress. Reverted Channels List window change so that modes are included in the listing again. Fixed MDI windows not maximizing fully to the right in some situations. Fixed Log and Buffer submenus in window system menus not being set correctly.

Fixed confirm exit dialog bug that was not detecting if DCC gets were in progress. Extended SSL support to allow connecting to SNI servers. Fixed log reload bug that caused logs not to association essay nurse, be reloaded before the start of old essays a new year. Fixed while loop bugs relating to multiple nested while loop combinations. Fixed log viewer bug that caused it to freeze during a search. American Association Nurse! Other changes and tumblr bug fixes. In total there have been around 40 changes since the last release and although most of them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0.

What is new in version 7.38? (November 27 th 2014) This is causes essay a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to old essays, a number of features, including: Added STARTTLS support using the CAP tls protocol. Fixed switchbar/treebar display bug that caused windows to be displayed in the wrong order.

Added Shift-F3 key support in Scripts Editor to search backwards through text. Fixed timezone/daylight savings bug that was affecting timestamping and time/date identifiers. Changed $sound() to use the TagLib library for improved reading of MP3 and other media file formats. Updated the default DCC accept and ignore file types lists. Changed $input() to allow entering of longer text and limiting text entry to global essay, maximum length. Old Essays Tumblr! Fixed DCC Get window not being updated when a resume begins. Fixed DCC Chat speech bug that caused text in a DCC Chat window not to be spoken.

Added $envvar(N/name) identifier with .name and .value properties to return environment variables. Changed /server to search servers list using combination of server address, group, and description. Updated libraries to PCRE v8.36 and OpenSSL 1.0.1j. Global Causes Essay! Other changes and bug fixes. In total there have been around 50 changes since the last release and although most of them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the old essays list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in warming and solutions, version 7.36? (August 14 th 2014) This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to old essays tumblr, a number of resume mississauga features, including: Fixed slow mark/copy text in old essays, windows that contain long lines. Fixed listbox lines in Options dialog and other windows being chopped when DPI settings are set to a high value.

Reverted change to alias/identifiers that caused a script to be halted with a recursion error warning. Fixed listbox with checkboxes bug that caused checkboxes to be checked if you scrolled through them with the up/down keys. Changed channel folder dialog so that it can now be resized. Changed online timer dialog to display information more clearly. Fixed Shift+Tab beeping when switching to listbox in channel window.

Fixed $fullscreen not working on essay, a non-primary monitor. Tumblr! Updated the find/replace dialogs in the script editor to remember their positions for the current mIRC session. Updated mIRC to include OpenSSL support without needing external DLLS. Fixed lock dialog bug that caused mIRC to the advantages essay, ask for a password if the on startup option was enabled without setting a password. Fixed $input() 'b' switch so that the dialog window close button is also temporarily disabled. Fixed isignore only accepting types, now also accepts switches. Fixed CAP server-time time value not being used when timestamping an old essays tumblr, event in the log file. Other changes and bug fixes.

In total there have been around 25 changes since the last release and although most of them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in stem, a more useful and tumblr stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.34? (June 18 th 2014) This is resume services a small update that addresses a number of old essays tumblr issues reported by services mississauga users since the old essays last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including:

Added a Switchbar font option that allows you to change the style and size of font used by the switchbar buttons to improve visibility.buf3 Fixed SSL certificate password dialog box being displayed multiple times when multiple SSL connections are in progress.buf3 Added a number of math identifiers such as $atan2(), $hypot() and $intersect() that returns the writing point at which two lines/rays intersect.buf3 Changed the display size of the toolbar and switchbar buttons to make them more usable on tablet touch screens. The small and large button size now also apply to the toolbar.buf3 Added CAP support for the userhost-in-names and server-time server features.buf3 Extended SendMessage() support in a number of ways, including the tumblr ability to disable SendMessage() support in the Lock dialog.buf3 Changed Clear History feature to retain non-privacy related settings, such as interface settings for the treebar, switchbar, toolbar and script editor.buf3 Extended mouse wheel support to work in interface elements, such as list boxes in dialogs, under the cursor even if they are not active.buf3 Added a $servertarget identifier to return the original address specified in the /server command.buf3 Improved the way server passwords are stored in servers.ini and channels list lock passwords are stored in cell research, mirc.ini.buf3 Added a $input() 'f' switch that forces the return of $no/$cancel for edit/combo boxes.buf3 Other changes and bug fixes. In total there have been around 80 changes since the last release and although most of them are only small fixes and old essays tumblr tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of stem cell research mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.32? (May 23 rd 2013) This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release.

It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of old essays tumblr features, including: Added DPI awareness support to prevent Windows applying display scaling to mIRC. Papers Line! This should resolve the blurry interface and old essays tumblr font issues when non-standard DPI display settings are used, such as on tablets.buf3 Added MONITOR protocol support for the notify list. mIRC will use MONITOR automatically if it is listed in the server's 005 numeric.buf3 Improved the papers way the window buffer is trimmed when it reaches the maximum number of lines set in the Options/Other dialog.buf3 Fixed SSL caching bug that may have required repeat acceptance of old essays certficates on some networks. Global Warming Causes And Solutions! The cache now stores the IP address of the associated certificate.buf3 Fixed editbox buffer bug that was not storing an old essays, edited line if you pressed the up key.buf3 Fixed incremental search not working correctly in channels list window.buf3 Fixed mIRC not handling mouse buttons correctly in some situations if the user's system is configured to swap mouse buttons.buf3 Added logging dialog option to enable/disable automatic logging of status windows.buf3 Fixed drag-drop bug that may have caused a gpf when switching windows between MDI/desktop mode.buf3 Fixed $ indentation bug in american association essay, scripts editor dialog.buf3 Other changes and bug fixes. In total there have been around 30 changes since the old essays last release and although most of quotes macbeth them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the old essays list of changes starting with v7.0.

What is new in version 7.29? (January 16 th 2013) This is of internet a small update that addresses a number of old essays issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: SSL certificate hashes are now stored in the servers.ini file for essays, all certificates and tumblr a warning is displayed if a certificate has changed since the last connection.buf3 An issue with the of internet essay /help command not displaying the correct location of a search term has been fixed.buf3 The /run command has been changed to improve backward compatibility with older scripts.buf3 The way the Escape key works has been changed so that it clears the contents of the current editbox if the tumblr Escape key minimizes window option is not enabled.buf3 A /hotlink bug that prevented hotlink popup menus from being displayed has been fixed.buf3 The maximized window position is now saved correctly when the on startup minimize mIRC to tray option is enabled.buf3 Urls in your own messages are now once again saved to the urls list.buf3 An issue with the Hide tips when locked option, that caused tips to services, flicker briefly in view, has been fixed.buf3 The editbox buffer feature has been improved and should now work more reliably in different contexts.buf3 The /vol -v command now correctly sets the master volume on newer versions of Windows.buf3 Other changes and bug fixes. In total there have been around 21 changes to this version and although most of them are only small fixes and old essays tumblr tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for mississauga, you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0.

What is new in version 7.27? (October 20 th 2012) This is a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and old essays fixes to a number of features, including: A Mark As Read option has been added to the treebar, switchbar, toolbar and MDI popup menus to allow you to clear all flashing/highlighted windows.buf3 The $hfind() identifier has been extended to allow results to be saved to a @window listbox or passed to a command.buf3 An SSL connection issue has been fixed that prevented mIRC from of internet, connecting to servers with certificates that used unrecognized date formats.buf3 A hotlink display issue has been fixed that caused text to tumblr, flicker when hovering the mouse over a link.buf3 SSL support for Subject Alternative Names (SAN) has been added when verifying whether a certificate is global warming causes essay valid for the connection.buf3 A number of issues with the reload logs feature have been fixed, including incorrect line indentation and missing lines at the end of a log in some situations.buf3 An issue with the split long messages feature has been fixed which occurred when handling color formats in some contexts.buf3 An Address Book bug that prevented removal of an existing timed unignore has been fixed.buf3 The way incremental search works in channel nickname listboxes has been changed so that it behaves more like Windows explorer.buf3 The /localinfo -p option has been changed to use a random UPnP port outside the first 1056 services port range as some routers block these ports.buf3 An $inellipse() bug caused by a compiler optimization issue has been fixed.buf3 Other changes and old essays tumblr bug fixes. In total there have been around 27 changes to of internet essay, this version and although most of them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in old essays tumblr, a more useful and stable mIRC for you.

For a full version history of cell mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.25? (June 13 th 2012) This is old essays a small update that addresses a number of issues reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: Portable support has been improved for buy research papers line, when mIRC is used on more than one computer through file hosting services like dropbox.buf3 A Treebar option has been added that allows you to choose a different font using the right-click popup menu.buf3 The editbox now beeps at most ten times when the old essays maximum message length is resume writing reached and respects the enable sounds option in old essays tumblr, the sounds dialog.buf3 The log view window now allows you to set the default ontop state through the stem research system menu as well as save the window position.buf3 The SSL warning dialog has been improved and now includes SHA1 fingerprint and Bubble-babble text.buf3 Incremental search has been added to listboxes that matches against start of text in listbox lines.buf3 The Control+Break key issue that caused it to stick in some situations should now be resolved.buf3 A display scrolling bug that occurred in tumblr, windows that contained a large numbers of lines has been fixed.buf3 A 10053 connection issue has been fixed that occurred when connecting to the advantages of internet, a server that closed the connection immediately.buf3 Changed /timer handling so that it is now more precise/reliable.buf3 Other changes and old essays tumblr bug fixes. In total there have been over 60 changes to this version and although most of them are only small fixes and tweaks, we hope that they result in a more useful and stable mIRC for macbeth, you. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the old essays tumblr list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.22? (October 13 th 2011) This version of mIRC is primarily a security release. mIRC users are advised to upgrade due to a security issue related to outgoing messages being chopped in a specific context that could lead to a subsequent message being leaked. Global Warming Causes And Solutions! This update also includes changes and old essays fixes to a number of features:

The Alt/AltGr keys should now work correctly for stem research, users with different keyboard layouts.buf3 The Minimize to tray option now defaults to off under Windows 7 due to the way Windows 7 hides all tray icons by default.buf3 The Channel Central dialog has been changed so that it can now be resized.buf3 The /list command issue with min/max values not working on some networks has been fixed.buf3 Added Use compatibility mode option to SSL dialog, which defaults to on. If turned off, OpenSSL will use the empty fragment feature which may make your connection more secure at the expense of less compatibility with some SSL servers.buf3 The /dns command issue with results not being shown when a non-existent nickname is specified has been fixed.buf3 The tray icon issue with mouse clicks not working in some situations has been fixedbuf3 The /timer -h recursion issue should now be resolved.buf3 Other changes and old essays tumblr bug fixes. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.19? (March 7 th 2011) This is a small update that addresses a number of important issues that have been reported by users since the resume last release. Tumblr! It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: The identd server issue that prevented identd from working correctly in global warming causes and solutions essay, some situations has been fixed.buf3 The /window -a command now correctly sets the focus for old essays tumblr, maximized windows.buf3 The time-out check that monitors the server connection has been changed so as to decrease the number of 10053 disconnection errors.buf3 The $findfilen/$finddirn identifiers now return the correct results for macbeth, large numbers of files and folders.buf3 The SSL certificate validation issue that resulted in validation errors when connecting to a secure server should now be resolved.buf3 Other changes and bug fixes. This update builds on tumblr, and improves the stability of the new Unicode version of mIRC (see the global causes and solutions previous v7.1 release announcement for details). For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the old essays list of changes starting with v7.0.

What is warming causes and solutions essay new in version 7.17? (December 17 th 2010) This is a small update that addresses a number of important issues that have been reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including: The active window now correctly receives the focus when maximized windows are switched or closed.buf3 Hash table commands hadd/hinc/hdec when used with the -cuNz switches no longer cause data corruption in hash tables.buf3 Custom DLLs that perform window/message hooking no longer cause mIRC to crash on exit.buf3 The Alt+Minus key combination has been changed to allow the use of Alt+NumberPadMinus for zooming in screen readers.buf3 The socket identifier $sock() now returns the old essays tumblr correct saddr/sport values for UDP connections.buf3 The Server and DCC connection issue that resulted in the Address already in use message should now be resolved.buf3 Other changes and quotes essays macbeth bug fixes. This update builds on old essays, and improves the stability of the new Unicode version of mIRC (see the previous v7.1 release announcement for details). For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is stem thesis new in old essays tumblr, version 7.15? (November 8 th 2010) This is a small update that addresses a number of important issues that have been reported by users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of features, including:

The editbox in services mississauga, the active window now correctly receives the focus when mIRC is restored from a minimized state.buf3 File dialogs now correctly return file extensions when Hide file extensions is enabled in Explorer in Windows 7.buf3 The switchbar now displays scrollbar buttons, when needed, to old essays, scroll through the buy research list of open windows.buf3 The hash table commands hadd/hinc/hdec should now work more like their set/inc/dec counterparts when using the -cuNz switches.buf3 The socket command /sockwrite now sends data immediately which should speed up transfers.buf3 Other changes and bug fixes. This update builds on and improves the tumblr stability of the new Unicode version of mIRC (see the previous v7.1 release announcement for research thesis, details). For a full version history of tumblr mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.14? (October 13 th 2010) This is the the advantages essay second stable release of the old essays new Unicode version of mIRC and addresses a number of issues that have been reported by american essay users since the last release. It includes improvements, changes and fixes to a number of tumblr features, including: A new and improved Log Files dialog has been added that allows you to search log files and to view them in a window in american essay, mIRC.buf3 A Clear History dialog has been added to old essays, the Tools menu that allows you to clear the history of a number of features.buf3 File transfers now display progress bars in stem, different colors to indicate transfer status.buf3 DCC Send transfer speed has been improved.buf3 A UTF-8 encode/decode messages option has been added to the Messages dialog to old essays, enable or disable UTF-8 encoding/decoding of server messages.buf3 The DNS routines have been changed to only request IPv6 if you are using features that require it, which should speed up connections for some users.buf3 Other changes and bug fixes.

In total there have been almost 80 changes to this version. A significant number of changes were needed to convert mIRC into a Unicode application (see the previous v7.1 release announcement for details) and resume writing mississauga this version builds on that to create a more stable and reliable mIRC. We should now be able to old essays tumblr, focus on adding some new and american association essay interesting features to old essays, the next version :-) For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. What is new in version 7.1? (July 30 th 2010) This is the first stable release of the new Unicode version of mIRC. The project to convert mIRC to Unicode has taken almost two years of development and testing and has required tens of thousands of changes to 150,000+ lines of essay source code. This has been the old essays tumblr most complex and time-consuming update to global warming causes and solutions essay, mIRC since it was created in old essays tumblr, 1995, when it started out of internet as a non-Unicode, 16-bit, Windows 3.1 application. Many areas of mIRC have had to old essays, be updated or re-written, from file handling to text processing, from display to memory allocation, from server communications to file transfers.

mIRC should now be faster, more stable, and more compatible with the latest versions of quotes macbeth Windows, and should be able to old essays, better handle the display and input of warming causes a variety of tumblr languages. In addition to being converted to Unicode, there are a few other notable changes: Improved Windows 7 compatibility More reliable INI file handling Faster text display/scrolling Speech support Improved interface design for a number of features Automatic text color correction Menubar ALT key show/hide feature Support for italic text and other font styles Optimized SSL routines Status window SSL connection icon IPv6 support Improved portable support Persistent channel history Digitally signed executables Automatic splitting of long channel/private messages Full screen display with F11 function key UPnP support Many bug fixes And more. For a full version history of mIRC v7.x development, please see the list of changes starting with v7.0. 3 What do I need to run mIRC? Where do I get it? How to register? Requirements - Besides running MS-Windows you need to have an Internet account and a properly installed Winsock.

If you can use FTP, Email, News or other Internet programs from within Windows already, you can safely assume you have both. If you do not have your Internet access properly configured on your PC you should deal with that first. Distribution - mIRC is spread over association nurse, the world by advanced distribution schemes of primary and mirror FTP sites, which makes it available from tumblr, hundreds of places all over the world. The most up-to-date list of places where you can get mIRC is the download page on the mIRC Homepages. You could also join the IRC channel #mIRC to get the latest version or to ask all remaining questions. (But: be very sure this FAQ doesn't answer your question) Registration - mIRC is a shareware program. This system of buy research line distributing programs, as shareware, shows the true spirit of the Internet. You can download mIRC for free and give it a try.

If during or after the evalution period you decide to continue to use mIRC, you're asked to pay a small registration fee. This will allow us to go on developing and supporting mIRC. Once you have registered one version of old essays tumblr mIRC, you're allowed to use all future versions for free! The mIRC help file and the registration page give you all information needed to register mIRC. (Read more in the IRC Intro file included in mIRC (!) and available on the mIRC www pages) What is IRC - IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat. It was originally written by Jarkko Oikarinen in 1988. Since starting in Finland, it has been used in over 60 countries around the essays macbeth world.

IRC is old essays tumblr a multi-user chat system, where people meet on channels to talk in groups, or privately. There is no restriction to the number of people that can participate in a given discussion, or the number of channels that can be formed on IRC. All servers are interconnected and pass messages from global warming causes essay, user to user over the IRC network. One server can be connected to several other servers and up to hundreds of clients. Several larger and smaller IRC networks exist. On IRC several people can join the same channel and see each other. Depending on old essays tumblr, its topic and time of the day a channel can be VERY crowded. Channels can also be quite chaotic, or calm. Channels can be open to everyone but also closed and writing services mississauga private and only open to friends.

On the large IRC networks (EFnet) as many as 20000 channels can exist, on smaller networks there will be fewer channels. Channels on IRC are dynamic in the sense that anyone can create a new channel, and a channel disappears when the last person on it leaves. Language - The most widely understood and spoken language on IRC is English. However, as IRC is used in many different countries, English is by no means the only language. Old Essays Tumblr! If you want to macbeth, speak some language other than English, (for example with your friends), go to a separate channel and set the topic to indicate that. Similarly, you should check the topic when you join a channel to see if there are any restrictions about language. On a non-restricted channel, please speak a language everybody can understand.

If you want to old essays tumblr, do otherwise, change channels and writing services set the topic accordingly. Greeting - It is not necessary to greet everybody on a channel personally. Usually one Hello! or equivalent is enough. Tumblr! Also, don't expect anybody to greet you back. On a channel with 20 people that would mean one screenful of papers hellos. It makes sense not to greet everyone, in order not to be rude to the rest of the channel. If you must say hello to somebody you know, do it with a private message. The same applies to good-byes.

Also note that using your client's facilities to automatically say hello or good-bye to people is extremely poor etiquette. Old Essays Tumblr! Nobody wants to receive autogreets. They are not only obviously automatic, but while you may think you are being polite, you are actually conveying yourself as insincere. If some body wants to of internet, be autogreeted when they join a channel, they will autogreet themselves. Behaviour - Remember, people on IRC form their opinions about old essays you only by your actions, writings and comments, so think before you type. If you use offensive words, you'll be frowned upon. Do not dump (send large amounts of unwanted information) to a channel or user. This is global warming and solutions likely to get you kicked off the channel or killed from IRC. Dumping causes network burps, causing connections to go down because servers cannot handle the large amount of traffic. Other prohibited actions include: * Harassing another user. Harassment is tumblr defined as behavior towards another user with the purpose of annoying them.

* Annoying a channel with constant beeping. (Therefore most clients cannot beep at papers all) * Any behavior reducing the functionality of IRC as a CHAT medium. How to old essays, join IRC - The first time you run mIRC you have to quotes, fill in some information about old essays yourself (your real name, email address, nickname, IP address and Local Host name) under File/Setup/IRC_Servers and Local_Info, as well as the IRC server with which you want to connect. It's usually best to connect to a geographically close server. When you're new to IRC just pick a server from the prefab list. On IRC you are known to others by resume writing services a nickname. You are free to old essays, choose any nickname you like, up to 9 characters long. Do not use spaces and avoid unusual ASCII characters in your nickname. It is possible you find people that use the writing services same nickname and you may be asked to tumblr, switch nicknames to avoid confusion. Getting started - To join conversations, send private messages, and to handle and control mIRC you need to american nurse, learn some simple commands. All commands start with a forward slash, the /. Anything that does not begin with / is assumed to be a message to someone and will be sent to your current channel, or to the person you are chatting with in old essays tumblr, a private chat (see below).

A list with the most used commands on IRC is given in the mIRC help file. Finding your way on IRC - To join a channel, type /join #channelname. Association Essay! Try /join #irchelp or /join #mirc to give it a try. That's it! Once you get to the channel, you will see people talking.

It will probably look like this: Hello Pat, are you new to IRC too ? I dont agree there :-( Can sb give me that too ?? I couldnt find it before. Nope, I just have a simple question. I think. Note that you will often come in during the *middle* of a conversation.

Unless you're familiar with the channel you may want to sit and watch it for a minute or two to see what the conversation is about. Often the channel name (for instance, #Twilight_Zone) has nothing to do with what conversation goes on on the old essays tumblr channel (#Twilight_Zone does *not* have discussion about the TV show Twilight Zone). So if you join #baseball, don't be surprised if you hear about the SuperBowl picks or even the Rock-n-Roll Hall of Fame Museum! To start talking, just type! And when you're done saying what you have to say, just hit the [return] key. Macbeth! You can start with something simple like hello!. You don't have to type nickname hello! because IRC will insert nickname before all of old essays tumblr your channel messages. Global Causes And Solutions Essay! In the channel's title bar you will see the channel's name and perhaps its topic. If you choose to leave a channel, just type /part #channelname. In the channel window that opens once you join a channel you'll see an alphabetical list of people that are on the channel on the right side of the tumblr window.

Some of the advantages them have a @ in front of their name to old essays, indicate they are the global and solutions essay channel operators. A Channel Operator is someone who has control over old essays tumblr, a specific channel. A Channel Operator can also decide if control is cell shared or not. The first person to join the channel automatically receives Channel Operator status. Channel operators are the 'rulers' of a particular channel. This means they can kick you out of their channel for tumblr, any reason.

If you don't like this, you complain to them or start your own channel and become a channel operator there yourself. Read the help - As soon as you joined your first channels and spent some time on IRC you will see there are a lot more commands and papers line possibilities for you to discover on IRC. You might want to old essays tumblr, read the full version of this IRC Intro on the mIRC www pages. Almost all specific capabilities of mIRC are explained in resume, the help file that came with the package. You just have to do the old essays reading. :-) 5 Some short Notes and global warming and solutions essay Tips on mIRC. 1. Protect yourself from old essays tumblr, viral infections on IRC by never ever accepting files from strangers, and by quotes essays never ever opening executables, scripts or other files that could contain macro's. And use a good virus scanner for tumblr, every file people sent to you! 2. The Channels List dialog has improved a lot.

Full Channel Name and Topic search is supported in an easily understood dialog and you can now make mIRC filter away all unwanted channels by simply setting search and suppress keys. Parents can easily filter away offensive channel list items and american essay nurse password protect their filtering! 3. The /uwho nickname command provides you with an improved interface with information on old essays tumblr, the person. You can store and fetch user info and addresses and resume services mississauga view all kinds of ctcp information in it. 4. The help menu has been made dynamic to display all .hlp files in mIRC's directory, as well as the text files like the readme.txt, versions.txt, and update.txt files, for quick access.

Also internal aliases are added that match the help filenames, so if you have the tumblr file ircintro.hlp in the advantages of internet essay, mIRC's directory you can type /ircintro topic ! (like /help topic) You can add whatever help files you like to mIRC's help menu! Besides the old essays mIRC FAQ, the IRC Intro file is also available in windows help file format from the mIRC www pages. 5. Essay! You can protect yourself against people who are flooding you with the new automatic anti-flood system. Old Essays Tumblr! Look under File/Options/Flood/. A server usually disconnects you for sending too much data to the advantages, it in a certain period of time, *or* if you try to send it data when it hasn't finished processing your previous data. The new flood protect makes sure -others- cant make you to send tooo much data to old essays tumblr, the server.

Usually a server has a buffer of about 512 bytes. mIRC therefore counts the number of quotes bytes you've sent to a server and if this exceeds a certain number, mIRC waits for the server to be ready again, before it continues sending data. In the tumblr mean time it nicely buffers unsend lines. This should protect you properly from all sorts of ctcp floods and so on. You set the amount of quotes essays bytes mIRC may safely send (for instance 450 bytes), the tumblr amount of lines it may buffer (like 20), the amount of lines it may store maximal per services, user (like 3) and how long the flooder should be ignored (like 15 secs) by the command /flood 450 20 3 15 This flood control method *only* works for messages being triggered by other users. So you can still flood *yourself* off the server. (like with the /list command)

In the next part of the FAQ you will find the actual mIRC FAQ with features, tips and answers to questions about old essays mIRC. Copyright mIRC Co. Ltd. 1995-2017. All Rights Reserved.

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The Mill on the Floss Essay Questions. Compare and contrast Maggie’s love for Philip, Stephen, and Tom. Maggie’s love for each of tumblr these characters is very different. Her love for Tom seems most passionate when they are children and grows into something more complicated as they age. It is a love that is symbolic of her deep and often constricting and painful ties to her past, her family, and her community - for though she loves him, he often tries to control her, and he does not truly understand her. Contrasting with that for Tom, Maggie’s love for Philip is built largely on the advantages of internet essay, similarities between them. His love for music, art, and literature, and his significant intelligence, mean she can converse with him in a way she cannot with any of her family members. This love, though, lacks any physical passion.

The only physical aspect of tumblr her affections is and solutions essay, that of sympathy for his deformity. Their bond is old essays tumblr, one of the mind. Finally, Maggie’s love for Stephen seems almost purely physical. He has admirable characteristics, certainly - he is quotes essays macbeth, witty, charming, and his admiration for old essays Dr. Kenn reflects well on him - but we never see what specifically in his character draws Maggie to him. Rather there is a sense of a strong physical passion which leads her into essays a kind of mental disengagement or trance.

Through Stephen's eyes, Maggie sees herself as a desirable lady for old essays the first time - someone who is acceptable to society. Ironically, their passion causes great scandal for global Maggie. Critique the ending of The Mill on the Floss . Does Maggie’s death enrich or detract from the novel’s themes? The ending of The Mill on the Floss , though dissatisfying in a few ways, enriches the novel’s themes. Not long before Maggie was swept away by a current that was moving her towards satisfying her individual desires by eloping with Stephen.

Instead, she fought to come back to St. Ogg’s, and she finds herself again driven by a current, but this time towards family, community, and old essays the annihilation of the individual. The hyper-idealized imagery of Maggie and Tom’s death scene reinforces this idea of how powerful the past’s hold can be, although in this case it is a simplified version of the quotes essays past, one that ignores its pitfalls and suffocations, which are ultimately symbolically expressed in the drowning of the two main characters. Where do Maggie and Tom each fall in the distinction between the Dodsons and the Tullivers? Explain. Although in the first half of The Mill on old essays tumblr, the Floss , Maggie is stem research, often explicitly associated with the (darker) Tullivers and old essays Tom with the american association essay (fairer) Dodsons, by old essays, the end of the novel it is clear that the dichotomy is much more complicated than that, and has shifted over time.

Certainly, Maggie is warming, physically more like a Tulliver and old essays tumblr Tom more like a Dodson. With Maggie’s intelligence and individuality, and Tom’s practicality and global warming and solutions sense of justice, it would at tumblr, first glance seem that the breakdown of their characteristics follows that of their looks. Yet after their loss of innocence, they each move to the other side of the american association essay nurse divide. Maggie becomes fixated with renunciation, much like obsessively frugal Mrs. Glegg, and old essays tumblr Tom becomes more and more self-reliant and insistent on the advantages essay, doing things his own way, much like Mr. Tulliver. In the end, Maggie chooses the ties of family and the community - the true core of the Dodson philosophy - over individual desire, while Tom remains largely alone.

The switch is represented in the fact that, though Mr. Old Essays Tumblr? Tulliver seemed to favor Maggie her whole life, on his deathbed he is much more focused on Tom, while Mrs. The Advantages Essay? Tulliver, who greatly favored Tom in old essays his youth, chooses to move out with Maggie after her shame. Even Mrs. Glegg, so critical and cautious of Maggie as a girl, becomes a true champion for her after her scandal. Describe the thematic import of Maggie’s decision to relinquish Stephen. Maggie chooses not to marry Stephen even though to do so would give her both emotional happiness and economic comfort and security. In addition to her own pain, her relinquishment comes too late to save Philip and Lucy the pain her marriage to Stephen would cause, and she will have to pay a significant price socially. Thus the fact that Maggie still chooses not to marry him shows how strongly she values keeping her ties to family, community, and tradition over individual freedom, expression, and happiness. In addition, it shows the heavy weight of the american association essay nurse responsibility of old essays tumblr choice - her first choice, to go with him, hurts those she loves and does intense damage to her reputation, and her second choice, to essays, leave him, does nothing to rectify this, and causes both her and Stephen significant pain.

Also, Maggie bears the brunt of old essays tumblr criticism for her role in essay nurse the thwarted elopement, despite Stephen's letter absolving her of blame. As a woman with low social standing, Maggie is painted as a harpy who preyed on Stephen, the son of a prominent businessman. Tumblr? Again Eliot illustrates the disparity between the thesis genders endemic of Maggie's time. Choose one of old essays Maggie’s childhood conflicts and explain how it foreshadows her greater troubles in adult life. When Maggie reacts to her family members discussing her hair and resume writing its unfortunate nature by old essays tumblr, cutting it off, it is not because she thinks it will make her pretty, but because of two desires - she wants to not be noticed for it anymore, a “deliverance from her teasing hair and teasing remarks about it,” and she wants everyone to association, think she is “clever” for this solution. Almost instantly after the act is done, though, she regrets it: ”she could see clearly enough, now the thing was done, that it was very foolish” but she had “rushed to her deeds with passionate impulse” (55). This foreshadows Maggie’s adult troubles in many ways. First, it shows the conflicting drives she feels between her individual desire and the community’s desires, as she is spurred to old essays, action by a wanting to blend into the community, but also by wanting to be singled out for her cleverness.

And it certainly foreshadows the regret she frequently feels after almost every choice she makes, since her choices are so often between satisfying those two desires and so she must always sacrifice one. Most significantly, of course, it foreshadows the regret she feels after staying in cell research thesis the boat with Stephen, and just like she can’t uncut her hair, she cannot undo the hurt that that decision caused, even though she comes back to St. Ogg’s unmarried. Many of Maggie's childhood actions follow a pattern of her indulging a whim followed by recrimination and regret: Maggie running away to stay with the gypsies, Maggie spilling Tom's wine by old essays tumblr, rushing towards him unaware, Maggie forgetting to feed Tom's rabbits (though her forgetting stems from american nurse, childish self-absorption rather than whim), Maggie pushing Lucy into the mud to get back at Tom for spiting her, etc. Compare and contrast Tom and Maggie.

How much are their respective successes and failures a function of gender and tumblr how much a function of papers line their distinct characteristics? The defining difference between Tom and Maggie’s characters seems to be decisiveness. Tom makes all his decisions deliberately and never looks back. This relates both to his willfulness and inflexibility, and his near obsession with justice - he can’t understand anyone else making a mistake, because he doesn’t ever believe he has himself. Maggie, on the other hand, is completely indecisive. She will either feel so desperately torn between two alternatives that when she does make a choice, it seems random and she almost always immediately regrets it. Or she acts out of a moment of high passion with little understanding of the consequences, and again almost always immediately regrets it. She cannot reconcile her cravings for individual expression with the places open for her in the community, so her emotions and old essays desires are constantly in flux.

Tom, on the other hand, has both more options and warming and solutions more opportunity for positive action, so he is able to old essays tumblr, act decisively because he has a clear path. Even though Tom is not as bright as Maggie, his determination and the opportunities available to him as a man engender success. Quotes Macbeth? It is old essays tumblr, not difficult to imagine that in a world that offered her gender more freedoms and ambitions, Maggie could have used her intellectual curiosity and emotional energy towards a greater purpose. Do a close reading of Book Fourth, Chapter I, and explain its thematic importance in the novel. This chapter, using ruins on of internet essay, the Rhine and the Rhone, illustrates the dichotomy between the collective, suffocating world of the older generation in tumblr St. Ogg’s, and the striving for essay individuality in Maggie and Tom’s generation, and particularly in Maggie. In doing so, it yokes this striving with progress - with “the onward tendency of old essays human things” - and shows how that tendency combined with the emotional ties to the earlier generation creates tragedies “by hundreds of obscure hearths” (223), universalizing Maggie’s experience and showing how it is critical to the progress of society.

Compare and buy research line contrast Maggie and Lucy, as children and as adults. In childhood, Lucy is presented as the model for how the St. Ogg’s community believes a female child should behave - quiet, pretty, submissive, good, light-complexioned - while Maggie constantly struggles to tumblr, be pleasing to the community, and almost constantly fails, with her dark, straight hair, her curiosity and eager intelligence, her high spirit and the advantages essay emotionalism. By juxtaposing these two characters, we see just how difficult it would be for Maggie to fit into the female paradigm of her time. As they age, Maggie continues to face struggle after struggle, some caused by outside circumstances, some by her internal conflicts, while, excepting her mother’s death, Lucy never faces any real hardship until Maggie runs off with Stephen.

Though Lucy’s kindness and generosity, for Maggie particularly, is tumblr, vast and she is impossible to dislike, we see through this contrast that Maggie’s struggles have added to her vitality - to both the reader and to research, Stephen she is old essays tumblr, a starkly more interesting character than Lucy. What does The Mill on the Floss show are the benefits of hardship? In Stephen Guest’s first scene in the novel, he says that he and Lucy “are Adam and the advantages essay Eve unfallen, in old essays paradise” (297), which, combined with Eliot’s early yoking together of the fall with Maggie and Tom’s loss of innocence, shows that they have known little hardship. American Association Essay? This puts them in contrast with Maggie and Tom, and old essays tumblr though they are certainly an easy pair to be around, this does seem to provide a brittle cast to their characters - it is unclear how they would handle hardship - and the advantages of internet certainly they are not as interesting as the tumblr Tulliver children. But hardship does not just make characters more interesting - it makes them human, it gives others the chance to quotes essays, support them, as when Mrs. Stelling rises above herself to show the children kindness, and it helps them grow. In childhood, Maggie frequently makes excuses for her behavior, but after going through the old essays hardships that make her an adult, when she has run off with Stephen she never once tries to excuse herself, taking full responsibility for american association nurse the wrong she has done and actively seeking the justice she believes she deserves. Compare and contrast Tom and tumblr Mr.

Tulliver. Why does Tom succeed where Mr. Tulliver failed? Both Tom and Mr. Tulliver are driven, independent, prideful, and often obsessive, especially towards the idea of justice. Yet Mr. Tulliver loses all of his property and self-worth, while Tom is able to work to get it all back and essays even restores himself and his mother to his home. Mr. Tulliver’s problem comes largely from where his personality is more like Maggie’s. Both are impetuous and emotional, and make decisions far more out of emotion than out of cold rationality - thus Mr.

Tulliver insists on paying back Mrs. Glegg’s loan after she has offended him; thus he won’t insist on repayment from tumblr, his brother-in-law because of his love for his sister and his daughter; and thus he attacks Mr. Wakem, bringing on writing services mississauga, his own death before he can see his home back in Tulliver hands. Tom, on the other hand, is ruled by his sense of justice before all else, so that he is rarely overtaken by tumblr, emotion and is able to focus on accumulating the essays money and honor that his father lost. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-mill-on-the-floss/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Mill on the Floss The Mill on old essays, the Floss Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Book I - Boy and Girl Book II - School-Time Book III - The Downfall Book IV - The Valley of Humiliation Book V - Wheat and Tares Book VI - The Great Temptation Book VII - The Final Rescue George Eliot’s Own Words about The Mill on of internet, the Floss Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store George Eliot Biography. The Mill on the Floss Questions and Answers. The Question and tumblr Answer section for The Mill on the Floss is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. As Maggie grows up, she regularly feels conflicted between acting how her extended family and community would want her to, and following her own desires. The strong pull of both means she is often indecisive, and though she tries to find peace in.

Phillip is Maggie's first real friend, and of internet the first person who will talk to old essays tumblr, her on equal footing. Phillip also becomes Maggie's first love. Tom is the only student in stem research Mr. Stelling's class. Study Guide for The Mill on the Floss. The Mill on the Floss study guide contains a biography of George Eliot, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

The Mill on the Floss essays are academic essays for citation. Tumblr? These papers were written primarily by papers, students and old essays provide critical analysis of The Mill on the Floss by George Eliot. The Mill on of internet essay, the Floss e-text contains the full text of The Mill on the Floss by George Eliot.

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11 Best Free Online Resume Builder Sites to old essays tumblr Create Creative Resume CV [Curriculum Vitae] Resume or CV (curriculum vitae) is a vital part of each one’s professional life. To simply describe, CV or resume is a mere hard or soft document containing specific information like education, hobbies, achievements etc. about an individual. But the importance of a good CV can’t be neglected especially if you are appearing for a crucial job interview. However when it comes to an attractive and efficient resume or CV, most of us fail at creating one. Resume Writing Mississauga! One of the major reason is the lack of probable resources. Tumblr! Fortunately, there are some of the best free online resume builder sites having packed with resources and tools to help you create creative resume online. Of Internet! But finding such resume builder sites which are really free, is old essays tumblr, tough. Quotes Essays! So keeping #8216;the importance of an effective resume#8217; in mind, we have compiled a list of best free online resume or CV builders to create creative resumes or CVs. 11 Best Free Online Resume Builder Sites to tumblr Create Creative Resume CV [Curriculum Vitae] CeeVee is one of the best free online creative resume builder which is actually preferred by quotes professionals. It has a very simple and friendly user interface.

Creating a resume online with CeeVee is so easy. It provides a professional look to tumblr your online built resume or CV. With CeeVee, to build a resume is as simple as creating a Google+ or Facebook profile; and since all of us have social networking profiles, it is essay, not a difficult task to create free resume (online) with CeeVee. Online CV is old essays tumblr, a free resume builder that can create effective resumes or CVs without taking much time, however maintaining with it#8217;s commitment i.e. professionalism . Moreover, it is quite easy to cell create a resume CV with OnlineCV. So even if you are a newbie, OnlineCV will help you make your resume attractive and tumblr, complete for the advantages of internet, absolutely free. With OnlineCV Generator, drafting a resume is quite simple.

To build the best resume for old essays, free, the user is required to enter specific details correctly and upload a simple yet professional looking photograph of him/her. After completion, the desired as well as free CV or the resume can be downloaded in PDF format by the user. The Advantages Of Internet! As the name suggests, Free Resume Creator is yet another free online resume or CV builder site. Old Essays Tumblr! If you want to create distinct CVs for specific or distinct occasions and warming causes and solutions, purposes, then this free online resume creator can help you. Unlike most of the old essays online resume builder sites that requires the user to essay register, it does not require registration. But the old essays only downside of this resume builder available online is that it does not let you have your photograph on essays the CV. Old Essays! However if the user feels like editing his/her resume, registration is required. Then the resume CV can be downloaded in HTML/PDF/Text format. CV maker is the advantages of internet, among one of the best resume builders available online for free. As far as features are concerned, it is tumblr, much more versatile.

Not only creating a resume is free, but also the modification of that resume is easy. Simply enter the required details in the concerned text field/text area/tab. This free resume builder site also comes with the feature to global warming synchronize your resume with your Facebook and LinkedIn social profiles and obtains details automatically. Like most of the free resume or CV available online, My Resume Online also requires you to tumblr register with it in order to create an online resume (free one). The user has the choice to select from various templates, though limited in number. Papers! But the user cannot download/print the resume. The online resume or CV contains basic details like experience, achievements, and education etc. along with a photograph of the user. Old Essays! However if the user feels like adding any other attachment, he/she has the macbeth full autonomy to do so. The only downside is the various annoying advertisements.

But if you do not mind a few advertisements scattered on your resume, then give this free resume builder site a chance to serve you. Visual CV is the best free online resume builder that lets you to tumblr be unique and global warming and solutions, stand out of the crowd. Tumblr! In today’s era, when everything is going online and graphically, you need to keep your resume or CV up-to-date too. Just like most of the other online resume builders available for free, Visual CV also comes with the basic features education, achievements, hobbies etc. But unlike most of the other free and paid resume builders, Visual CV gives you the facility to attach multimedia files like photographs, video clips, links, graphs etc. So if you don’t want your resume to look boring and simple, build an attractive resume CV for free with Visual CV. How To Write A Resume.NET is a very good free resume building online resource. Global Causes Essay! The users have a lot to choose from. If you are a newbie and creating your first resume, there is no place for old essays, any kind of risk with this free online resume building tool. Before actually starting, the user can refer to tutorials, guidelines and even sample resumes for absolutely free of cost.

After you have gained enough knowledge, you may start building your own. Quotes! Still, if you don’t want yourself to old essays get tangled, select any sample resume and edit your details within it; as simple as that. ConnectCV is another very powerful online resume building tool for free. Like the global essay ones mentioned above, ConnectCV too helps you to build attractive and efficient resumes or CVs with it’s guides and tumblr, a hell lot of sample resumes, but it has something even more than that. ConnectCV, being among best free resume builders available online, comes with some customization features that only few resume building tools offer. Apart from creating a resume, the american association essay nurse users have the old essays choice to change the font, style, colour, size, shade etc. to highlight some or all of the details. Ultimately, these features increase the candidate#8217;s chances of being selected. Though ResumUP seems to be like most of the macbeth other free online CV builders but it has many more features than its name. Most of us have come across infographics at some stage of our lives and now we know how appealing and convincing an infographic can be, if built effectively and same is the case with resumes and CVs as well.

So what if you get a chance to build an info-resume or simply infographic resume ? Though visual resume outshines all other resumes, but infographic resume is the most unique and trending type of resume. So if you want to old essays tumblr make your resume CV stand out of quotes essays macbeth crowd with creativity, build a powerful infographic resume with ResumeUP. Resumizer is yet another free online resume building wizard. Attractive resumes can be built with or without having a membership on its website. The process of old essays creating a resume is quite simple and straight-forward. You only need to follow a few easy steps and then, you have built your resume or CV for free and essay nurse, online. The desired resume can be downloaded in PDF/HTML/text format. Also the privacy of the users is maintained as it does not store any of the user’s data on its servers. However only registered users have the facility to edit their resume or CV. Last but not the least, SpongResume is another free online tool to build attractive resumes and old essays, CVs. American! With its simple, interactive and friendly user interface the registration process is quite simple and tumblr, so is the process of nurse building a resume.

Once you are a registered user on SpongResume, your free online resume or CV can be created in almost no time. Customize your CV from the various available options and use it for the desired purpose. The Pro Review from TechReviewPro. So here concludes the collection of best free online resume builder sites that help you make your CV or resume shine out tumblr, of the american association crowd. Since all the tools mentioned above are equally magnificent, we do not lay emphasis on any particular one. Hopefully, these creative resume builder tools will help you creative attractive resume CV to stand out of crowd during the process of getting hired, thus helping you win the highest paying jobs. Let us know about your favorite free online resume builder sites using the comment box below. TRP Guides: How to Fix ERR_CONNECTION_TIMED_OUT Error? How to Fix ERR_INTERNET_DISCONNECTED in Chrome? 20 Cool Skype Commands and old essays tumblr, Tricks You Should Know. Abhishek Dubey is a tech geek who fell in love with technology world at an early age of 14 years.

He is co-founder of global warming causes TechReviewPro.com. At 16, Abhishek is pursuing Bachelor's degree in Computer Applications from Nilambar Pitambar University. He enjoys writing about latest gadgets, apps, software and various useful interesting tips tricks of the internet world. Search Useful Resources. Old Essays Tumblr! Latest in of internet, Android. Latest in Apple. Latest in Windows. Latest in Internet.

Latest in Gadgets. TechReviewPro is a Pro Review technology blog which continuously publishes useful and quality stuff for Internet geeks. TechReviewPro serves free tips-tricks, tutorials reviews related to Software, Apps, Gadgets and old essays tumblr, Blogging world. Visit our About Us Page.

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How to Craft a Resume That Recruiters Will Love. Posted March 5, 2012, 2:40 pm CST. This ABA Journal podcast is brought to old essays tumblr, you by WestlawNext, the most advanced technology combined with market-leading content and West’s history of trusted editorial excellence. Association Essay. Helping legal professionals save time is old essays, what they’ve been doing for over 125 years. Learn more at WestlawNext.com. Stephanie Francis Ward : Resume writing. It’s something few people enjoy but many want to know how to quotes essays, do it better.

I’m Stephanie Francis Ward of the ABA Journal, and today I’m discussing the tumblr dos and don’ts of resume writing with Joe Ankus and Valerie Fontaine, two legal search consultants. I have a question for both of essay, you. Do you find that candidates often undersell themselves on their resumes? Valerie, what do you think? Valerie Fontaine : I think the issue is more people overselling themselves on resumes. Tumblr. We don’t want people puffing. What’s most important is people be absolutely honest about everything they put on their resume and stem cell research thesis not try to exaggerate or puff.

Sometimes we see people undersell. I think the old essays tumblr case also is people not being clear about presenting all of quotes essays macbeth, their qualifications in old essays, the best light. Stephanie Francis Ward : Valerie, can you give me some examples of you seeing where people over-puff on their resume? Valerie Fontaine : Well, one of the resume writing mississauga things that I see is–and we may get into this a little bit later about grade point average when they’re putting down, last semester of old essays tumblr, first year, top 10 percent, you know, to give the impression they were top 10 percent. I also have similarly one of my friends from law school put she was in global warming causes and solutions, the top 99 percent.

And it gave the impression she was in old essays tumblr, the top 1 percent, but truthfully she was in the bottom of the class. [Laughs] Stephanie Francis Ward : [Laughs] All right. And Joe, what do you think about that question? Joe Ankus : Yeah, I think–yeah, underselling is really unfortunately never been a problem. As Valerie said, it’s the macbeth overselling which creates most of the issues. You know, kind of a corollary example is the candidate that will say to you as a recruiter, “Well, which version of the tumblr resume would you like? Would you like the one that shows my litigation experience, my corporate experience or my real estate experience?” And I get a little nervous because I’m like, “Well, what are you?” And what you find is, is that generally speaking candidates, to promote themselves–and I understand why they do it–they may tend to exaggerate by buy research line, using vague kind of ambiguous phrases to old essays, imply that they’ve done more than they’ve really done.

For example– Stephanie Francis Ward : Like what? Joe Ankus : –for example, a litigator may say, “extensive pretrial and motion experience.” And when you probe a little deeper with the candidate their motion experiences really weren’t substantive motions. Resume Writing. They were motions for extension of time, motions to old essays tumblr, compel. Thesis. Very rudimentary, basic type things. Their pretrial experience was limited to going to a calendar call. And an experienced recruiter is going to ferret through that and you’ll find that we might consider that kind of a puffery, as Valerie said, or an overstatement. Valerie Fontaine : What I love is old essays tumblr, “participated in depositions”. And that meant they listened, they watched. Joe Ankus : You’ve gotta be careful of the ambiguities in a resume.

And a good recruiter is going to cell research thesis, drill down and ask the tough questions to figure out old essays tumblr whether their skill set is reflective of research thesis, what the client needs. Stephanie Francis Ward : So if you see someone that puts in their resume “extensive pretrial experience,” in other words what that tells you is this person has never tried a case. Joe Ankus : Well, we don’t know. What it tells us is, is we need to ask more questions, because invariably clients of old essays tumblr, Valerie’s or clients of mine are going to quotes macbeth, ask us as the old essays intermediary, “Joe, we told you this is a fairly trial-intensive position. The candidate seems to indicate it.” We, as recruiters, are going to try to the advantages of internet, vet that from the candidate when we speak to them and say, “Tell me exactly how many trials have you sat first chair on? How many trials have you sat second chair on, etc.?”

Valerie Fontaine : And how many depositions have you taken, have you defended? Have you argued dispositive motions? Please tell me about that. Tumblr. Have you handled mediations and writing services mississauga arbitrations on old essays tumblr, your own? How many? That sort of thing. Joe Ankus : Yeah, we drill down basically. That’s our job, is to drill down.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, I’m curious. Say you’re a younger lawyer who wants to get more into litigation, that you have this experience, as you mentioned. Would you be better off to put in your objective statement what you’d like to do and couple that with what you have done, but be more honest about what you have done? Valerie Fontaine : Well, we can talk about objectives. Quotes Essays. I am not a huge fan of objective statements. First of all, in old essays, the hiring process it’s what a candidate can do for global essay the client. It’s not what the candidate wants from the tumblr client or wants from the resume services employer.

So you’re trying to sell what you can do for the client. So it’s not “I want to be a litigator.” So objective statements often are so vague as to old essays tumblr, be completely meaningless or they’re written obviously to resume services, mirror the tumblr requirements o f a particular job. Thesis. And that’s just a little ingenuous, I would say–or disingenuous, I’m sorry, I would say. Tumblr. So I’m not a great fan of objective statements. I think it’s a waste of american association essay nurse, valuable real estate on a resume. Old Essays Tumblr. What I’d rather see is papers line, a summary, especially for tumblr a more senior lawyer, to put down “experienced trial lawyer with significant first chair trial experience,” that sort of essay, thing. Or if they’re an IP lawyer, “IP lawyer with X number of old essays tumblr, years of quotes essays, actual industry experience,” or something like that. Joe Ankus : I’ll jump in. I agree with Valerie. I don’t think in 20 years of recruiting I’ve ever seen an tumblr, effective objective statement.

The summary, if appropriate, is the global causes and solutions way to old essays, go. Many times candidates will use outdated, outmoded resume formats that they get from cell research thesis, one only knows where. Valerie Fontaine : A book, the internet, heaven knows. Joe Ankus : And they’ll have on their objective statement–you generally–lawyer resumes are slightly different creatures than a middle-level management kind of mainstream managerial-type level positioning statements. Old Essays. It’s different. You don’t see too many lawyers having objective statements. And I’ve never seen–like I said, I’ve never–I can’t recall seeing one that wasn’t vague and really, just as Valerie said, takes away from valuable real estate on a resume.

Valerie Fontaine : Right. I mean, it’s very clear when someone looks at a lawyer resume, this is a lawyer resume because if you’re a junior person you’re putting your education at the top, it starts with JD. American Nurse. If you’re a senior person, you’re starting with your experience and tumblr it shows “partner at X Law Firm” or “of-counsel”, “senior associate litigation”, whatever. It’s clear immediately. It’s not like some sort of executive position that they want to know, are you going to be doing sales or–I don’t–product development or whatever. Cell Thesis. It’s clear you’re a lawyer. Stephanie Francis Ward : All right. Old Essays Tumblr. Besides the objective statements what are some things you see on lawyer resumes that perhaps it’d be better left off? Joe Ankus : Well, there’s just certain core things that I certainly recommend leaving off a resume, because I think they’re kind of anachronistic which is–the old format of resumes used to american essay, have things like “health: excellent,” “marital status: married.” Things that were just simply–even photographs of the candidate, things which just in this day and age simply just–not only old essays tumblr, are they, in my opinion, unacceptable, they detract and actually can probably damage a candidate’s candidacy.

It just doesn’t make sense. That’s something I would leave off. Valerie Fontaine : And they’re not legal to be asked about services mississauga, anyway, and they shouldn’t be relevant. [Crosstalk] Joe Ankus : Yeah, it should be off the old essays resume and– [Crosstalk] Stephanie Francis Ward : Do you find people that still submit things like that, though? Valerie Fontaine : Yes. Joe Ankus : You do but again it’s because they’re misguided. It’s not that they’re bad people. Thesis. They’re misguided.

And again, they’re using outdated, outmoded archaic forms that they dredged up from somewhere. Tumblr. The more weighty question about things to leave off are, ironically, things like hobbies and interests, where you can actually strike a raw chord or build a positive rapport. Quotes Essays Macbeth. And this is old essays, one of buy research, matter of personal choice. By way of example, I enjoy metal detecting, which is kind of an esoteric hobby. And in an interview many years ago, I had people ask me about it with genuine curiosity and interest. And I had one particular interview with a large firm where the person didn’t even bother to look at anything except my interest, jumped on old essays tumblr, it and resume services said, “My spouse is a historic preservationist. And my understanding is you folks go into historical sites and loot all the relics.” Needless to say, I disputed that, but the interview did not go very well after that. [Laughs] And despite having a good resume that interest caught–that was what the focal point of the meeting was. So if you have even something as innocuous as a hobby, it could get you in more hot water than one would led to be believed. Political affiliations, things like that can really be hot buttons which can help or significantly hurt you. Valerie Fontaine : I’m sorry. Tumblr. I wanted to talk about some specific things in addition, unless you have a follow-up question that–

Stephanie Francis Ward : Have at it, Valerie. Valerie Fontaine : Okay. Cell Thesis. Some of the tumblr other things I would like to of internet essay, see left off resumes is words like “I” or “mine” or whatever–or “Mr. Jones is responsible for”. I mean, the resume is about you so you don’t have to use personal pronouns. Old Essays Tumblr. You don’t have to resume writing services mississauga, have full sentences.

Just state what it is you need to state. Like “handle business litigation from inception through settlement, trial or appeal,” something like that. Also excessive abbreviations or acronyms. You can use the ones that are widely understood, like JD. You don’t have to old essays, use a lot of space saying Juris Doctorate. You can say LLM or state abbreviations, ABA, stuff like that. We can talk a little bit about papers, unrelated college or law school jobs or other jobs.

We can talk about that a little bit later, I think, when we talk about format. But also, I would say unexceptionable honors. You know, the “Who’s Who” books, I don’t think that impresses anybody. And that is a waste of old essays tumblr, real estate. American Association Essay Nurse. If you were on the Dean’s list six semesters, that’s fine if that’s the old essays only honor you had in college or law school. But if you were [inaudible] for cell research magna cum laude or summa cum laude, that’s just assumed you’re on old essays, the Dean’s list. So don’t waste precious real estate saying things that are kind of redundant or unimpressive. And high school–sometimes people put their high school on there and that’s ancient history, even if you’re a brand new law student.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, if you are a young lawyer, to what extent should you talk about undergraduate achievements? Valerie Fontaine : No, undergraduate achievements are fine if they’re something that show academic excellence or leadership, that sort of thing. Stephanie Francis Ward : Those scholarships or awards perhaps? Valerie Fontaine : Right, right. American Association Nurse. And as you get more senior and old essays tumblr you have more things to of internet essay, put on your resume, those things will fall off. Sometimes–and I’m in two minds about old essays tumblr, honors like super lawyer because I haven’t seen that make a difference in getting a job. But if you have other things you can put there, it’s kind of you have to macbeth, make a value judgment over what’s most important to tumblr, present, what’s going to be most impressive or be of more interest to the particular employer you’re approaching. Joe Ankus : And I’ll add a couple points to that. Global Warming And Solutions Essay. One thing which is really critical for the audience to understand is about GPA: when to put the GPA on and when to leave the GPA off.

And I have been surprised sometimes to old essays, get a resume and there will be no GPA for either undergrad or law school. And kind of the presumption among recruiters is if a GPA is american association nurse, left off, the presumption is it’s below a 3.0. And obviously if it’s above a 3.0 you should put it on the resume kind of as a kind of bright-line test. And many times I have had candidates with GPA of old essays, 3.5, 3.6 in both law school and undergraduate that have left it off the resume. Papers. And they said, “Well, I just thought they wanted to knows where I got my JD from.” And I’m like, “No, no, no, no. I mean, you’ve just put a presumption up that it’s below a 3.0.” So I hope the tumblr audience understands, if you’ve got above a 3.0 my recommendation is get that on the resume for essays sure. Old Essays Tumblr. Because otherwise people are going to be thinking that you have a GPA below the 3.0.

Valerie Fontaine : Or a [inaudible], something like that, I mean, if talking ranks. Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, what about for lawyers of the advantages essay, more experience? I mean, if you’re 15 years out, should you really put your GPA if it’s above a 3.0? Joe Ankus : I would. Valerie Fontaine : It never goes away. Joe Ankus : Yeah, I would. I would. Tumblr. I think there’s absolutely no reason if you have done well to leave it off. I can’t see any reason to leave it off, no.

Valerie Fontaine : I mean, as you get more senior you can maybe take off some of stem research thesis, your scholarships perhaps, unless you’re like–I mean, if you have things like Rhodes Scholar or a Fulbright Scholar, those things belong on old essays tumblr, forever. Stephanie Francis Ward : Of course. Valerie Fontaine : The thing about lawyer resumes that are very different than I would say business resumes is papers, that lawyers are snooty and tumblr snobby about global warming causes and solutions essay, education. They’re credential conscious and it doesn’t go away. It follows you throughout your career. Joe Ankus : There’s a couple observations I’ll make about this point. Old Essays. Many times clients have actually said to me, “I wouldn’t hire myself now,” which goes to Valerie’s point about being credential conscious. I’ve heard that many times. Macbeth. But two things that some of the audience should consider, two points. Old Essays. Number one is quotes, if they worked through college or worked through law school full or part time, I think that is old essays, something which should go on the resume. I think it shows that they were able to balance both professional and academic obligations at the same time.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Oh, that’s interesting. How would you characterize that on the resume? Joe Ankus : I think it could be almost parenthetical and I think Valerie had touched on–Valerie and I had spoken about writing mississauga, that and tumblr Valerie did elaborate on that. Before we get to quotes essays macbeth, that point, let me just add one more thing which I’m thinking about. For a new lawyer, one of the most overlooked things that I see, and I would love to see on resumes, is if a lawyer has had multiple summer clerkships, I would love to know, and they should put on the resume, “offer extended to come back” or “permanent offer extended.” Valerie Fontaine : Absolutely. Joe Ankus : So that the recruiter does not have to tumblr, ask.

Because just like there’s a presumption if you don’t have a GPA that it’s below a 3.0, there is a presumption if you don’t have something indicating that an offer was extended on a summer clerkship, that you didn’t get an offer. And that’s a red flag that a recruiter needs to delve into. So those two points I think should be brought home to the audience as well. Valerie Fontaine : Well, obviously if you were working–or your first job was where you had your summer associateship, what I’d like to see is the global causes essay name of the firm and then put “summer associate” and the year and then “associate: X date to old essays, X date”. Essay Nurse. It shows that you got that offer. If you clerked at a top, top firm but then you went to work for a different top firm that does leave the question. So that’s where offer extended, that’s all you have to old essays, say, makes all the association difference in the world. Joe Ankus : It makes all the difference for us as recruiters and for employers. It just avoids us having to old essays, ask the causes essay question and tumblr it just makes it a cleaner resume.

Valerie Fontaine : Yes. Now going back to the law school or college jobs, I’m a person who put herself through college and law school, so this is an stem cell research thesis, issue near and dear to my heart. You don’t have to write down exactly what your jobs were if they’re not related to what you’re doing now. So in other words, if you worked, say, in some sort of environmental position and you are–during college and law school and you’re going to be an old essays tumblr, environmental lawyer then that is particularly relevant and you can put some details down. But if, like me, you worked at Sears catalog pickup–that dates me–or the phone company, what you put down is you can say “financed X percent of quotes macbeth, college or law school expenses through concurrent employment” under your college or law school entry.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, could you see–and maybe this would be something that would be better to tumblr, come up in research, an interview than on a resume–but say you had a modern day job, Valerie, of what you mentioned. I would say if somebody was going like to an insurance defense firm or any litigation defense firm, having that experience on the floor in tumblr, a blue-collar job like that might give you some very good insight for depositions or witnesses or whatever. Valerie Fontaine : Well, the thing is, it shows that you had some sort of job. Of Internet Essay. And if the old essays employer is interested in that, they might ask about causes and solutions essay, it. I would say that if you worked in a medical office and you’re going for an insurance defense position or a med-mal position or something like that, put the details down. Joe Ankus : Absolutely. Valerie Fontaine : So it depends on what you are going for.

We’ve actually had positions where employers have said to us, “Sales experience would be really great here.” And so we ask our candidates, “Do you have any sales experience?” And they say, “Yeah, I worked for, you know, just sold shoes during college.” So we’ll have them put that on the resume. And that goes into tailoring the resume for the particular position you’re going after. And we can talk about old essays, that a little later. Stephanie Francis Ward : I suppose some employers would think it’d be great to stem cell research, hire someone who sold shoes and old essays tumblr other might be kind of snobbish about papers, it so– Valerie Fontaine : That’s correct. Stephanie Francis Ward : [Laughs]

Joe Ankus : And that comes back to knowing your client and old essays tumblr knowing your candidate, you know. Stephanie Francis Ward : Yeah. I’m curious, typically how long do you think a resume should be? As long as it needs to be or have you seen some that there are just way too many pages? Valerie Fontaine : We’ve seen way too many pages. Joe Ankus : Back in the day–and Valerie may appreciate this–back in the day, when we did not have email but when we only had a fax machine, the definition of my worst nightmare was getting a five-page resume followed up with a 40-page unsolicited writing sample on my fax machine, where it would chew up the ribbon, the paper and everything else. Yes. So the buy research answer is there are many times when they’re just too darn long. Valerie Fontaine : So what we would like to old essays tumblr, see is for a junior person, it shouldn’t go longer than one page. For a more senior experienced person, two pages.

If there’s other material you want to present, you can put it as an addendum, such as a deal sheet showing representative matters that you’ve worked on, or representative cases, especially if they were published opinions. Writing, if you have done a lot of publishing, a list of the publishing can be an addendum. Or if you’ve done a lot of american, speaking that can be on an addendum. So you can see that there’s just a couple of pages and you might say “extensive publishing in the legal press”. And then you’ve got that backup material if the employer wants to old essays, look at it. Stephanie Francis Ward : Okay.

Now if you’ve been out of work for a while, how should you handle that on your resume? Joe Ankus : I think the answer is–this kind of blends in with another topic we’ll talk about. The answer is, I think you need to warming causes and solutions, handle it honestly, which is–many times a good employer or a skilled recruiter is going to figure it out. Because unless the candidate is going to blatantly lie on the resume, which does happen, is that they’re going to old essays tumblr, use just dates without months. Resume Writing. So a candidate may say “worked at one place from old essays tumblr, 2001 to 2004”. But unbeknownst to you, they started the job in July of warming causes essay, 2001 and were out of tumblr, their previous job for the last six months. So the writing short answer is, I like resumes that have months and years. And if there are gaps, the candidate should be able to old essays tumblr, explain them up front to the client or the and solutions law firm or the employer.

It’s something which I don’t ever advocate hiding because it’s just going to come back to old essays, bite the candidate later. Invariably it will be discovered in research thesis, some of the most bizarre ways. But generally, upfront and just be prepared to deal with it and discuss it on the resume and/or in tumblr, the interview. Valerie Fontaine : I’ve also seen people put “2001 to 2004: full-time parent” or “caregiver for ill family member” or whatever it is. The Advantages. You’ve got–if there are gaps on the resume it makes one wonder what was happening.

One of the things I do when I’m interested in a candidate and I look at a resume, if I go through and I see if there are any gaps, I go, “Okay, they were here there, they were there there” and whatever. And I see if there are any gaps. And then I say, “What were you doing in that period of time?” And if they were unemployed, they were unemployed. So often with lawyers during that period of old essays, time they may be doing project work.

And so you put down that you were doing project work. Joe Ankus : There’s no shame in it. And then even if you’re unemployed, it’s–our point is, I think we like to err on essay, the side of disclosure rather than nondisclosure. Resumes aren’t the time to gloss over certain things because it’s just going to create an awkward situation in an interview. Valerie Fontaine : And you also don’t want your resume to old essays tumblr, leave questions unanswered, because a prospective employer might answer it in their own heads to the negative. And I like to have the obvious questions answered. Association. And I think as a recruiter, that’s our job to make sure that the prospective employer understands exactly who the candidate is and what they’re doing and what they can offer.

Joe Ankus : A helpful tip for the audience would be to literally take your own resume and start literally from the beginning and work your way forward. And if there are any gaps, whether they’re real or perceived, you want to old essays, address them now. Literally start from the beginning and resume mississauga work your way to old essays tumblr, present day. Writing. That should help you alleviate this problem. It’s not a hard problem to alleviate. Valerie Fontaine : And I think prospective employers want all times from the date of your JD to present accounted for. So if you are a second career lawyer and old essays tumblr you have a degree that’s 20 years ago and you did something else, just a statement of association essay, “prelaw career in insurance sales”.

And you can go into tumblr, detail if it’s relevant to what you’re doing now. If it’s not, good enough. Valerie Fontaine : You don’t have to buy research papers line, go into great detail on something that’s completely unrelated, but you don’t want to leave questions unanswered. Joe Ankus : I might call that category on a resume, for example, “other professional experience” or “related professional experience”, “prior professional experience”. Tumblr. And, as Valerie said, if it’s relevant elaborate on resume services, it. Old Essays Tumblr. Otherwise just account for it.

Stephanie Francis Ward : All right. Now we’ve talked about how the resume actually looks, but what I have noticed is it seems like now when people apply for a job, if they know someone at the employer they always want to use that connection if they can to perhaps have that person hand the resume off as well as applying online. The Advantages. What are your thoughts on that, in terms of how connections fall in with getting your resume to the right person and getting it attention? Joe Ankus : I feel very, very strongly that the resume is–if you’ve got a good connection, the old essays tumblr resume is global causes and solutions essay, going to be secondary. It’s the tumblr old familiar adage, “it’s not what you know but who you know.” And I don’t think it’s any more aptly demonstrated than in the recruiting field.

Many times, I’m sure Valerie’s experienced just like I have, it’s our relationships with clients and candidates that get things done. It’s not the format of the resume per american, se or what’s even on the resume. Old Essays Tumblr. It’s the fact that the relationship is solid enough and the trust factor is solid enough that we can make–convince employers and stem cell research candidates to tumblr, get together. And that’s where the global warming magic happens. So, connections clearly are important. I think they’re fundamental.

I know that’s not the tumblr fundamental purpose of the podcast today, but it would be remiss not to at least touch on line, that. And there’s no question that if you’ve got connections and they’re good, use them. Stephanie Francis Ward : And if you’re a young lawyer and old essays say you’re at a bar association event and essays you just–you meet someone and then you apply for a job, would that be enough of old essays tumblr, a connection if you exchanged business cards and maybe you sent them an the advantages of internet, email and said, “Hey, nice to meet you?” Valerie Fontaine : Absolutely. “Great to meet you the other night. Interested in tumblr, hearing about cell research thesis, your practice or whatever it is old essays tumblr, you talked about.

As we discussed I am in the market. Here is the advantages of internet essay, my resume in case you have any ideas for me.” You don’t ask for old essays a job unless you know they’re hiring. If you always ask for buy research papers line “in case you have any ideas I’d love to hear your suggestions”. Joe Ankus : You know, Wayne Gretzky said you miss 100 percent of the tumblr shots you don’t take. And the essay answer is, take your shot. And I agree with what Valerie said, you’re not asking them for a job. You’re basically just following up and old essays tumblr seeing what’s going–making the connection. Essay. No reason not to do it.

Valerie Fontaine : I wanted to old essays, expand on something that Joe said a little earlier about how relationships are paramount. I totally agree, but you have to american association, have at least the modicum of experience and old essays qualifications for american association nurse the prospective employer. So the relationship is key on old essays tumblr, getting their attention, but the resume is a tool for presenting what it is you can do for them. Joe Ankus : And along those lines many times I have seen this happens a lot with the large law firms–and it’s a source of agita for them–which is, one of the firm’s biggest clients, you know, the CEO’s son or daughter just became a lawyer. And frankly their credentials aren’t that good but it’s a huge client of the resume mississauga firm and it’s a big firm and they only hire, you know, stellar candidates. And now they’re like stuck. They’re like, how do we tell the tumblr CEO of writing services, our biggest client that we’re not going to hire their son or daughter because they were–

Valerie Fontaine : – they’re not good enough. Joe Ankus : – they were in tumblr, the bottom 10 percent of the class? It creates for the advantages of internet essay some awkward situations where the old essays connections are great but, as Valerie said, the resume’s not going to save them. Valerie Fontaine : You gotta back it up. Joe Ankus : You gotta back it up.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Sometimes people in the bottom 10 percent of their class are the world’s best lawyers. Joe Ankus : Well, there’s a saying about that. Stephanie Francis Ward : [Laughs] And on that note, that’s everything that I have for the both of papers, you. Did either of you want to add anything else? Joe Ankus : I just want to thank you for old essays tumblr including me today.

I appreciate it and I hope our listeners take some valuable tips away. Stephanie Francis Ward : All right. Well, I want to writing services mississauga, thank you both so much for your time. This ABA Journal podcast was brought to you by WestlawNext, the most advanced technology combined with market-leading content and tumblr West’s history of trusted editorial excellence. Helping legal professionals save time is what they’ve been doing for over 125 years. Learn more at WestlawNext.com. Never include your head shot or hobbies in a resume, but do mention your GPA, providing it’s a good one. What else should you include?

Hear veteran legal recruiters discuss their likes and dislikes with ABA Journal podcast moderator Stephanie Francis Ward in this month’s podcast. Joe Ankus is a legal search consultant based in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Essays Macbeth. The former large law firm associate also serves as executive director of the National Association of old essays, Legal Search Consultants. Valerie Fontaine is papers line, a partner in Seltzer Fontaine Beckwith, a Los Angeles legal search firm. Tumblr. Fontaine is a lawyer and the author of The Right Moves: Job Search and Career Development for Lawyers.

We welcome your comments, but please adhere to our comment policy and the ABA Code of warming, Conduct.

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If you want to settle to old essays the problem quickly, ask any six-year-old and you'll learn that no bird is wiser than the essay owl. The Owl. Old Essays! This name alone conjures a variety of feelings and opinions, even among South Carolinians who know little about birds. Folks who can't tell a sparrow from a chickadee can recognize owls, and essays macbeth, most people recall something interesting about owl natural history. Unfortunately, there's probably as much misinformation about owls as there is hard fact. Ornithologists agree that owls--intelligent or not--are among the most poorly studied birds, in part because they are nocturnal and humans are day creatures. Old Essays Tumblr! Owls are more numerous than people think; some experts estimate there's at least one owl living within a mile of every U.S. Global Warming Causes And Solutions Essay! resident. However, since most owl sightings are chance views of midnight birds gliding past headlights on lonesome country roads, only avid owl watchers and chronic insomniacs can expect to spot more than a few species.

Even if owls weren't so elusive and mysterious, they'd still be fascinating to study, and the truth about tumblr, them is the advantages almost as unbelievable as the myth. Although it's impossible to prove, owls probably have had mythic roles as long as humans have existed. Imagine Cro-Magnon families huddled fearfully around a campfire, listening in the darkness to a distant chorus of owl hoots. Or think what must have gone through Neanderthal minds when a rabbit struck by old essays tumblr owl talons shrieked to of internet shatter the nighttime silence. Such fearful moments are the stuff of modern day horror films, so it's reasonable that primitive humans associated owls with evil, pain, and death. According to Paul Johnsgard ( North American Owls: Biology and Natural History , Smithsonian Institution Press), Mesopotamian tablets from 2,300 B.C. depict the goddess Lilith as winged, bird-footed, and typically accompanied by tumblr owls, a significant association because Lilith was Sumeria's goddess of death. Pallas Athene--Greek goddess of fertility and buy research line, power--was also affiliated with the old essays owl, possibly because of the resume writing mississauga nocturnal (and especially the old essays tumblr lunar) . . . associations between female fertility goddesses and the cycles of the moon. In Rome, owls were respected for prophetic abilities. Johnsgard reports Pliny's description of fear and confusion when an owl entered the Forum, Virgil wrote of an owl that foretold Dido's suicide, and association, Horace associated owls with witchcraft. Until recent times, nailing up of a dead owl or its wings has been widely believed in Europe to tumblr help ward off such dangers as pestilence, lightning, and line, hail. Native American tribes also have stories about owls--many of which are so similar to Oriental myth that they support the tumblr theory of an Asian origin for Amerindian peoples.

Oral traditions in most American tribes associate owls with death soon-to-come, and american association essay, an owl is typically the bearer of the tumblr deceased's soul as it passes from this world to buy research line the next. Old Essays Tumblr! In the Carolinas, Cherokee women bathed their children's eyes in water containing owl feathers, believing it would help them stay awake. Quotes Essays! Johnsgard provides this Cherokee tale that explains why owls are nocturnal: When the animals and plants were first made-we do not know by whom-they were told to watch and keep awake for seven nights, just as young men now fast and keep awake when they pray to their medicine. They tried to do this, and nearly all were awake through the old essays tumblr first night, but the of internet essay next night several dropped off to sleep, and the third night others were asleep, and then others, until on the seventh night, of all the animals only the owl, the panther and old essays tumblr, one or two more were still awake. To these were given the power to see and to go about in the dark, and to writing mississauga make prey of the birds and old essays tumblr, animals which must sleep at night. SOUTH CAROLINA'S OWLS. Only four owl species breed in South Carolina, but five others show up in migration or during occasional winter visits.

The most widespread year-round residents are Barred Owl, Great Horned Owl, and Eastern Screech-Owl, with Common Barn-Owls breeding less frequently in quotes macbeth, the state. Old Essays! Short-eared Owls occur most winters in research thesis, South Carolina, but the tumblr remaining species--Snowy Owl, Burrowing Owl, Long-eared Owl, and stem research, Northern Saw-whet Owl--are quite rare. Of all owls found in old essays, the state, the Barred Owl ( Strix varia ) is seen most often because it is crepuscular. This means it is active in the advantages, twilight hours of tumblr dusk and dawn, and sometimes in broad daylight. Named for services mississauga its breast markings, this large owl is the only Carolina species with dark eyes; all the rest have yellow irises. Barred Owls also have the most recognizable call, a who-who-who-who, who-who-who-whoowha that most people translate into who-cooks-for-you, who-cooks-for-you-all. Barred Owls are especially vocal during courtship when, in the words of Allen Eckert ( The Owls of North America , Weathervane Books), there are specialized calls made with relative infrequency which virtually defy written description. Old Essays! Some are coarse, guttural, and, to human ears, almost uncouth in character. Others are much like the fierce, hair-raising shrieks of global warming and solutions mating alley cats. There are deep chucklings, harsh laughing sounds, maniacal gibberings and gabblings, disconsolate mutterings, howls, and yells.

Occasionally there will even be a decidedly disconcerting humanlike scream of old essays pure agony. Such vivid description explains why my friend Russ Rogers Jr. barely slept for the three months it took a Barred Owl pair in causes and solutions essay, his Fort Mill backyard to court and then raise offspring. Barred Owls are most common in wooded bottomlands and swamps. Great Horned Owl. The Great Horned Owl is tumblr South Carolina's largest breeding owl, with a five-foot wing span. This species is sometimes observed at a roost in the advantages of internet essay, daylight, when its piercing yellow eyes and ear tufts are easily seen.

Located on top of the owl's head, these feathery tufts are not near the lateral ear openings but may serve to make the species look more ferocious to predators. Tumblr! Many birds--especially crows--don't seem to like any kinds of owls and the advantages of internet, mob them at roosts. Frequently I've tracked the source of the incredible din that occurs when crows have an owl cornered, and I often end at a tree in which a bewildered Great Horned Owl sits--swiveling its head and blinking while its tormenters swoop as close as they dare. Upon my approach the owl usually departs with a hoot and is followed by the still-aggressive crows. Under less-beleaguering conditions, the Great Horned Owl communicates across its dry woodland haunts with a deep hoo-hoo-hoowha, a sound almost an octave lower than the Barred Owl's call. Our smallest breeding owl, the Eastern Screech-Owl ( Otus asio ), is scarcely larger than a Blue Jay and is named for two distinctive calls that carry great distances in still night air. One call is a high-pitched descending whinny that would fit right into the soundtrack of a Hollywood horror flick; the other is a constant warbling tone that can be reproduced, albeit indelicately, by tilting back your head and whistling with just the right amount of tumblr saliva on your tongue.

Experienced birders carry a tape of this call or learn to american association essay imitate it because it seems irresistible to songbirds that come to old essays tumblr investigate. Screech-Owls live in coniferous woods and occur in two color phases; in writing mississauga, the Piedmont and mountains they tend to have rusty plumage, while eastern birds are most often gray. Their yellow eyes and ear tufts make them look like miniature versions of the Great Horned Owl. Common Barn-Owls ( Tyto alba ) are the most urbanized Carolina owls. Pairs typically nest in barn lofts, church steeples, and abandoned buildings--hence their association with haunted houses. They don't hoot but make a shrill raspy hiss or snoring that's just as scary. Barn-Owls, with long legs, heart-shaped faces, white breasts, and tan backs, look very different from our other owls and are in a separate family, the Tytonidae; the old essays rest of the species are in Family Strigidae, the so-called typical owls. Barn-Owls, which occur on most land masses, are the world's most widely-distributed nocturnal birds. OTHER SOUTH CAROLINA OWLS. Five non-breeding owl species have been seen in South Carolina. Resume! Short-eared Owls ( Asio flammeus ) are uncommon winter visitors to our coastal marshes and have become very rare in the Piedmont with the loss of old essays tumblr inland marshes and old fields.

This species--named for its short, dark ear tufts--is more common in the prairie states or Canadian tundra. The crow-sized Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus ) is a rarely-reported winter visitor across the resume writing services mississauga state, but because it is usually silent and inhabits dense evergreen woods, it may occur more frequently than is believed. With its long ear tufts, it superficially resembles the larger Great Horned Owl. Burrowing Owls ( Athene cunicularia ) have been sighted only four times in old essays tumblr, South Carolina, always in winter from the coast. Buy Research! One was photographed at old essays tumblr Huntington Beach, where it may have been reminded of its regular habitats--rolling prairies of the West or dunes on Florida's Gulf Coast. The Snowy Owl ( Nyctea scandiaca ), the stem cell research thesis largest North American owl species with its six-foot wingspan, is our only all-white owl. Common year-round in northern Canada and on old essays Great Lakes ice floes in winter, this bird very rarely wanders into the Palmetto State. There are only 17 records, seven from the Piedmont and ten from the coastal plain. Snowy Owls seem to show up when there is writing mississauga a crash in old essays tumblr, tundra populations of lemmings, voles, and other prey. The tiniest owl in South Carolina--the Northern Saw-Whet Owl ( Aegolius acadicus )--is also a rare winter visitor, although its call has been reported in late spring from I'On Swamp near Charleston. The Advantages Of Internet! The call, reminiscent of a handsaw blade being sharpened, is distinctive among owls but may have been confused with frog vocalizations.

This robin-sized species breeds at high elevations in North Carolina's mountains. (NOTE: In 1999, seven Northern Saw-whet Owls were captured and tumblr, banded at Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History. Mississauga! See Owl Research.) OWL BREEDING BIOLOGY. Owls are probably the first birds to breed each year in South Carolina. Old Essays! Great Horned Owls are often on eggs by early January, and there is resume evidence that Barn-Owls will start laying during any month of the year. Owl courtship typically begins in autumn when a newly-mated pair begins to tumblr mark off a territory and line, protect it by old essays tumblr hooting. Macbeth! Owls seldom fight physically, but they raise a vocal ruckus at common territorial boundaries.

A Barred Owl pair will defend up to 640 acres--a square mile of territory--needed to old essays tumblr produce enough prey for two adults and american association nurse, their nestlings. Surprisingly, many owls are cavity nesters. Screech-Owls, for example, occupy old woodpecker holes and Wood Duck boxes, while much larger Barred Owls lay eggs in hollow trees. (The Barn-Owl, as its name implies, often nests in an enormous cavity as big as a stable!) Some owls recycle abandoned nests of old essays tumblr hawks or crows, and there's even a record of nest sharing by warming causes essay a Red-shouldered Hawk that sat on a mixed clutch of old essays tumblr eggs at night while a Barred Owl incubated the same nest by day. Owl eggs, spherical or slightly oblong, are produced sparingly by nurse most species. Great Horned Owls have one to three eggs per clutch, but Barn-Owls lay as many as 11. Unlike songbirds, which complete a clutch before incubating, owls begin setting shortly after the first egg. This yields an asynchronous hatch in which the first chick may be two weeks older than its youngest sibling. Old Essays Tumblr! Sometimes this results in quotes, cannibalism; more often late hatchers simply can't compete with older brethren and die.

The male owl usually feeds the female while she incubates, but it takes both adults to keep up with the voracious appetites of their nestlings. FEEDING HABITS OF OWLS. As carnivores, Carolina owls dine solely on old essays tumblr animals-from grasshoppers to cotton rats to songbirds. Great Horned Owls appear to have a special preference for skunks and are also known to take housecats that should have been kept in at global warming causes and solutions night--or by day, for that matter. Barn-Owls eat large moths, frogs, snakes, lizards, and crayfish, but a mated pair may require as many as 40 rats or mice each night to old essays tumblr feed a growing family. The Advantages! Since Barn-Owl chicks are tended to for up to three months after hatching, a pair and its offspring will require up to 3,600 mice and rats for just one brood! Statistics like these quickly dispel any notion that owls have insignificant effects on potentially destructive rodent populations. Owls tear larger prey into sizeable chunks and swallow small food items whole.

Food goes to the crop and then the gizzard, where digestion begins on usable parts. Old Essays Tumblr! Hair, feathers, and bone compact into dry clumps expelled by the owl as pellets that litter the research thesis ground beneath a nest or roost and become wonderful story-telling tools. Tumblr! Nothing illustrates the quotes food chain concept better than dissecting an owl pellet to deduce from skull fragments just how efficient a predator the owl really is. SPECIAL OWL ADAPTATIONS. An owl's success at capturing prey is enhanced by all sorts of amazing adaptations. Owls have very large eyes, exceptionally acute vision, and the ability to tumblr see well in low-light situations. Causes Essay! They cannot see in tumblr, total darkness, however, so owls rely exclusively on their ears to locate prey on moonless nights. Essays Macbeth! The ear openings of an owl are of old essays slightly different sizes, and they are situated asymmetrically; this causes sound to american reach each eardrum at different times, providing binaural hearing that is enhanced by the owl's ability to rotate its head right or left for 270 degrees. These auditory adaptations allow a Barn-Owl to old essays tumblr find its prey in complete darkness with a deviation of less than one degree in vertical and horizontal planes.

The wings of most birds make rustling or whistling sounds, but because of comb-like feather edgings, owls can glide in silence. As an owl reaches its unsuspecting prey, it extends its legs and pivots back one front toe on each foot for a stronger two-in-front, two-behind toe configuration. On impact, hind talons pierce the prey and front claws swing into cell research thesis a powerful fistlike grip that seldom loosens from old essays tumblr a squirming rabbit, rat, or squirrel. THE FUTURE OF OWLS. Compared to day-active hawks, South Carolina's nocturnal owls are seldom shot by writing accident or out of malice. Still, their numbers have declined steadily over the past century, mostly because of habitat loss and widespread pesticide use. Trucks and cars also take heavy tolls as owls forage along highway shoulders, hunting for rats that are attracted to food waste in roadside litter.

For owls to tumblr survive in the Palmetto State it is essential that we realize how our actions impact on wildlife populations. Owls need mature forests and undrained swamps in which to breed and old fields in which they can hunt. Dead-standing trees or snags are required not only by nesting owls but also by woodpeckers, Wood Ducks, bluebirds, bats, and flying squirrels. Global Warming Causes And Solutions! Some owls nest in artificial boxes, but for old essays the most part we are far more effective in attracting owls when we set aside sizeable tracts of natural habitat. And, as with other animals that rank high on the food chain, pesticides from prey accumulate in resume services mississauga, and kill predatory owls, so it is critical that we learn to farm without so many toxic chemicals. All owls are protected by strict state and federal laws. These marvelous creatures are worth protecting merely because they are so fascinating to study and observe, but they also play a vital role in the balance of nature. Owls, regardless of whether they are the smartest birds, are perfectly adapted for a predatory role, and it's our responsibility to old essays help these mythical, mystical creatures play out their role each night in South Carolina's wild places. Bill Hilton Jr. is a science education consultant, writer, naturalist, and Macintosh computer enthusiast who lives in writing mississauga, York, South Carolina. This Week at Hilton Pond.

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The Piedmont Naturalist. Search Engine for. Hilton Pond Center. Hilton Pond Center for buy research papers line Piedmont Natural History is old essays a non-profit research education organization in York, South Carolina USA; phone (803) 684-5852. Directed by Bill Hilton Jr. , aka The Piedmont Naturalist, it is the papers parent organization for Operation RubyThroat . Old Essays Tumblr! Contents of this website--including articles and photos--may NOT be duplicated, modified, or used in any way except with the express written permission of Hilton Pond Center.

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