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Economy/ Apparel Industry term paper 18445. Narrative + Writing Help! INDUSTRY: APPAREL RETAILERS. Telugu Essays Republic Day! Retailers in essay + writing help, the apparel industry are primarily engaged in the distribution, merchandising, and sale of men's, women's, and/or children's clothing to essays consumers. Narrative Essay! Apparel retailers include department stores, mass merchandisers, specialty stores, national chains, discount and off-price stores, outlets, and mail-order companies. A Journey By Train! A relatively new development is the rise of narrative help, electronic forms of retailing such as interactive TV and on-line shopping services. Some retailers who sell their own private labels go beyond their traditional role as distributors and become directly involved in the design and production of garments from citing research in whitepapers, manufacturers and contractors. SIC CODES RELATED TO THIS INDUSTRY. SIC Code Industry Name. Essay Help! 5136 Men's and boys' clothing.
5137 Women's and children's clothing. 5611 Men's boys' clothing stores. 5621 Women's clothing stores. A Journey Essay! 5632 Women's accessory specialty stores. 5641 Children's and infants' wear stores. 5651 Family clothing stores.
5699 Misc. apparel accessory stores. Apparel sales have shown positive gains over the years which reflect a vibrant U.S. economy and narrative essay + writing, increasing incomes. All apparel retailing industry sectors are heavily dependent on consumer spending. Since, consumer spending represents two-thirds of the U.S. Prompts! economy these retailers become extremely vulnerable to wide economic swings. These retailers must do a good job of managing their inventory levels, personnel needs, and style/fashion trends to ensure they will not lose their consumers business during up and down periods.
That is narrative essay, why many major apparel retailers such as The Gap, and Wal-Mart can have 20 percent growth over 20-some years. They stay focused on their businesses and a journey by train essay, are always trying to narrative + writing help do better. They constantly question everything, though even the best companies make merchandising mistakes. But the leaders in this industry know how to rectify their mistakes. Recently, the apparel industry hasn't been doing all that well.
During the 2nd Quarter of 2000, apparel sales have tapered off for several reasons. Increasing interest rates have slowed the U.S. economy, consumers have built up their stock of most clothing items, and there has been a lack of in whitepapers, exciting new fashions on the market. As discussed earlier, apparel retailers include department stores, mass merchandisers, specialty stores, national chains, discount and off-price stores, outlets, mail-order companies, and narrative, online sales. Department stores were once-and some still are- perceived as the apparel leaders, but these stores in reality only sell about nine percent of the education essay garments consumers buy annually. Meanwhile specialty stores like Old Navy, The Gap, and Abercrombie Fitch have about a 13 percent apparel unit share.
Mid-tier retailers like Sears, JCPenny and Kohl's have a 14 percent unit share. According to NPD, a market research company, catalog companies represent almost 10% of apparel retail sales through direct mail. Consumers have less time to shop and thus, catalog purchasing offers a time-saving convenience for straight re-buy purchases. The internet represents approximately $6.5 million of e-commerce purchases, but only represents 0.6% of total apparel on-line sales. This segment is lower because of concerns regarding speed, ease-of-use, and security problems. When these problems are solved, this sector is likely to mirror the catalog sales channel and may substitute for narrative + writing help, catalog sales. Lastly, discount stores, such as Wal-Mart and Kmart have 45% of the apparel market. These statistics are shown in the pie chart below: As shown in the chart above, the women's consumer segment dominated the U.S. Essay! apparel sales market in + writing help, 1999. Throughout the years, women have been constant and dominant consumers in this industry. Womens apparel sales growth was 3.7% and men's apparel growth was 4.1%. Women buy at a constant rate, whereas men's apparel sales have been growing.
Men have outpaced total market growth for the second year in a row. Girl's and boy's apparel rose 0.5% and 3.8%. Women's apparel accounted for 52% of all apparel sales. The men's segment accounted for 31% of total apparel sales. Republic Day! COMPETING AND COMPLIMENTARY PRODUCTS. In a broad view, the essay retail apparel industry competes with all the other sectors in the retail industry. Citing Research! These different sectors include electronic retailers, wholesales, other discount stores, shoe stores, convenience stores, and so on. Many of essay help, these different sectors also have combined together. In this industry, a company often operates in various divisions because it is more profitable that way. The charts below show the state of the education prompts Retail Industry and some of the top retailers/competitors in it. Narrative! The top retailers are: Company 1999 Revenues (000) 2.)The Kroger Company $45,352,000.
3.)Sears, Roebuck and Company $41,071,000. 4.)The Home Depot $38,434,000. On An Act Of Charity! 6.)Kmart Company $35,925,000. 7.)Target Corporation $33,702,000. Narrative + Writing! 8.) J.C. Penny $32,510,000. The top retailers in each retail category are: Company 1999 Sales (000) 1998 Sales (000) Wal-Mart $108,721,000 $95,395,000. Kmart 35,925,000 33,674,000.
Target 26,080,000 23,014,000. Sam's Club 24,801,000 22,881,000. Meijer 9,500,000 8,000,000. Citing! Company 1999 Sales (000) 1998 Sales (000) Gap $11,635,398 $9,054,462. Limited 9,723,334 9,346,911. TJX 8,795,347 7,949,101. Intimate Brands 4,510,836 3,885,753. Spiegel/Eddie 3,210,225 2,935,411. Company 1999 Sales (000) 1998 Sales (000)
Sears $29,775,000 $30,429,000. JCPenney 18,964,000 19,114,000. Federated 18,217,000 15,833,000. May 13,869,000 13,048,000. Narrative Essay Help! Dillards 8,677,000 7,770,000. Imports and Exports: The largest suppliers of imports of apparel products to the U.S. market are China, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan. These four countries accounted for nearly half of U.S. imports of all apparel products. Many U.S. retailers and catalog companies have established sales outlets in other countries to sell U.S. apparel products. Men's outerwear is cause natural, one of the narrative + writing help largest export categories. Men's and research in whitepapers, boys trousers are the essay + writing help most important products exported to Japan, Canada, and the European Community (EC), followed by men's and boys' knit shirts.
Menswear and women's outerwear exports recorded particularly steep increases in 1993. Children's wear and essay, women's and narrative help, children's underwear continue to make strong export gains. Cause Ecological In Marxism! Japan, the EC countries, and Canada are the largest customers for U.S. apparel, with steep gains in shipments the past few years. Sales of completed garments to Mexico also grew sharply. After the help United States and Canada implemented a free trade agreement in 1989, the U.S. share of the citing research in whitepapers Canadian apparel market grew sharply. During the same time period, however, the U.S. share of the Mexican market dropped following liberalization of + writing, Mexican import barriers.
Exports of U.S. clothing have been growing rapidly to Eastern Europe and China, where demand is increasing for upscale goods, status symbols, and Western looks. U.S. manufacturers and retailers that are able to telugu republic day take advantage of opportunities in these countries should experience a surge in narrative essay, their exports. Essay Papers! Exports of apparel to the Caribbean Basin countries have also advanced sharply in recent years, particularly to the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica. U.S. apparel manufacturers and retailers should also continue to take advantage of export opportunities in countries such as Japan, Canada, and Mexico, where trade barriers have been reduced. TRADE MAGAZINES AND NETWORKS. These trade journals and sites usually include industry news, trade show/event calendar, recent articles, and searchable archive of articles, buyers guide/directory, and job listings. MAGIC International, a subsidiary of Advanstar Communications, Inc., is the world's largest and most widely recognized producer of trade shows for the apparel industry. The major designers and producers of America often attend these trade events.
There is also a trade magazine called the Apparel Industry Magazine, which can also be accessed on the Internet. The magazine presents updated information about technology, fashion, and business, on the apparel Industry, and their webpage also features a Virtual Apparel Trade show. + Writing Help! The American Apparel Producer's Network (AAPN) also produces trade shows. There are many labor unions associated with the apparel retail industry, such as the Fair Labor Association, the American Apparel Manufacturers Association, UNITE, an apparel's workers' union that represents apparel sewing employees with labor issues, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), the National Labor Committee(NLC), which is a coalition made up primarily of labor unions, and the National Retail Federation. These labor unions and by train essay, government unions regulate fair labor practices in the apparel retail industry. Narrative + Writing Help! Responding to fashion trends and consumer needs- The challenge for many apparel retailers is anticipating the coming trends and essay in marxism natural, deciding how they will or won't fit into the company's image. In some cases, a trend might not be right for a specific retailer, and that's where it has to essay + writing work to stay as trend-right as possible without losing focus. Companies in this industry need to learn what their customers want, and be able to essay act of charity give them what they want, and that is one giant step towards success. International Expansion - Another critical element for long-term success in this industry is help, global expansion. Companies have to be deliberate in international expansion and expand into countries where the greatest potential exists.
In doing this, not only do they make a profit, but they make a name for themselves. Now the international part of the business is essay, becoming more important to business as a whole. International expansion is certainly going to be the focus of essay, growth for companies in the apparel retail industry. Papers! Increased Automation and Efficiency - In response to increased competition from new market participants, retailers are exercising a variety of strategies, including downsizing and restructuring, changing their merchandise mix, adding services, and essay + writing, adapting the quick response system for controlling inventory management costs. Leveraging Apparel Brands - Many manufacturers and habeas corpus papers, retail stores are beginning to leverage their products by licensing their brands for accessories such as sunglasses, watches, fragrances, wallets, and footwear. This strategy increases exposure for a well- known brand and narrative help, can build consumer confidence in a specific brand. Internet - The Internet is essay, another tremendous advantage in this Industry. With the Internet, you can get updated and essay, almost instantaneous information on things. Because many retailers have some of the best e-commerce Web sites in the business, that alone can help ensure global business. Internet sales can guide retailers into just the right international and domestic cities to build stores. It even allows a company to a journey by train make its brand known internationally even before it has any physical presence in essay, international markets.
The Internet also provides for a great channel of feedback from consumers. That way, a company can better understand what will work and make changes immediately when a problem arises. Awareness of demographic shift - As the education nation's largest age group, baby boomers are getting older, and the as the population growth rate remains at a record low, less than 1% this year, the industry is shifting its strategy to narrative essay + writing redirect their production and advertising toward this group. According to statistics, this is the group with the highest buying power. Thus, retailers and producers are grasping to this opportunity and are spending tremendous effort in citing research in whitepapers, trying to please them. The retail apparel industry has benefited extremely as a protected industry of the United States since 1957. Protection means that the government limits foreign import of apparel through quotas and high tariffs. It is estimated in 1990 that protection of this industry, has cost the American consumers 21 billions dollars. Narrative Essay! In another word, consumers have to pay six times higher than what they would have to pay to protect this industry.
Without this protection, the industry would have to essay on an act of charity face extreme foreign competition as raw materials and labor cost are much lower in the third world countries such as China, and Indonesia. Domestic production of the industry would go down by + writing, 11 billions dollars without such protection. 1900--1910: THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MASS MARKET. 1900 The escalator enables stores to continuously move traffic to upper floors, and helps make multi-level department stores a standard for the century. 1911--1920: USING MACHINES TO GAIN EFFICIENCY.
1911 NCR produces its 1 millionth cash register. The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. the forerunner of corpus papers, IBM, is incorporated. 1921--1930: THE RISE OF THE CHAIN STORE. 1924 Air conditioning for comfort rather than to enhance manufacturing is first introduced at the J.L. Hudson department store in essay help, Detroit to keep women from fainting at bargain basement sales. Air conditioning later allows windowless stores and enclosed malls. 1928 Farrington Manufacturing introduces the Charga-Plate system, made by Addressograph, the forerunner of the charge card. The embossed metal tag is used to print the customer's name and address on a sales check.
1931--1940: VALUE AND PROGRESS THROUGH THE DEPRESSION. 1935 Rural Electrification Act brings electricity, and later telephones, to a journey essay rural America. IBM is selling more than three billion Hollerith cards a year for its tabulating machines, which are rented, never sold. It has 90% of this market. 1941--1960: THE AGE OF COMPUTING AND DATA PROCESSING BEGINS. 1956 Southdale near Minneapolis becomes the first enclosed, two level shopping mall in America. IBM sells RAMAC, (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control), the first computer disk storage system. Eisenhower launches the narrative help interstate highway systems, speeding migration to the suburbs and displacing rail for many goods shipments. 1961--1970: NEW FORMATS AND NEW TECHNIQUES. 1962 Discounters appear: Kmart from Kresge, Woolco from Woolworth, Target from Dayton's, and Wal-Mart Discount City from Sam Walton's Ben Franklin variety store.
Sears opens its first data center. IBM introduces Wholesale IMPACT (Inventory Program and Control Techniques), an automated replenishment system (and the forerunner of INFOREM) that uses statistics and a smoothing algorithm rather than a min/max system. 1990 - PRESENT: MAJOR INVENTIONS AND LABOR ISSUES. 1993 Invention of the Internet. The retail industry went online!
1996 - More than 300 fashion industry representatives -- including retailers, manufacturers, designers, workers, labor, consumer advocates, and celebrity endorsers -- participate in a Forum to discuss the challenges embodied in eradicating sweatshops and the importance of working together to identify and on an act of charity, implement solutions. 1997 Creation of the narrative essay + writing Workplace Code of research in whitepapers, Conduct, and narrative essay, Principles of charity, Monitoring by the Apparel Industry Partnership to ensure the elimination of sweatshops and certify that products are produced in help, compliance with the Fair Labor Association Standards. Essay Charity! 1998 Invention of the security tags to attach on garment, a major prevention of + writing, theft. 1998 Walmart Sweatshops in Honduras - Labor Issues. 1998 Liz Claiborne sweatshop production in El Salvador makes the news. 1999 The Department of Labor announces the recovery of citing in whitepapers, $247,000 in narrative + writing, back wages for 138 workers of a Los Angeles area garment shop, Emeraldtex, Inc. The DOL investigation, which covered a 2-year period, was conducted by by train, the rapid response unit established in the Fall of 1998. Narrative + Writing Help! The shop assembles garments exclusively for Jowett Garment Factory, Inc. which provides clothes for a variety of cause in marxism, retailers including Eddie Bauer, The North Face, Reebok, Jones New York and narrative, The Gap. Emeraldtex, Inc, also fined $20,000 for willful violations, signed a consent judgment stipulating future compliance.
Faster Fast Food. Morning Edition, July 10, 2000. May I Take Your Order? IBM Drives New Technology for the Drive Through Window. Business Wire. November 6, 2000. www.office.com. Cause Ecological! FYI: Glimpse Into the Future. Star Tribune. Help! May 15, 2000.
Charging Fast Food. June 10, 1999. Citing Research In Whitepapers! www.cardweb.com/cardtrak/news/1999/june. A Push to Agree on a Drive-Through Future. By Amy Zuckerman. February 20, 2000. www.ettm.com/news/future_agree.html. Narrative Essay! An Efficiency Drive: Fast Food Lanes are Getting Even Faster.
Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2000. Irvine, Cali-Based Taco Bell Ranks Fifth in Drive-Through Ratings. Orange County Register, January 19, 1999. Essay On An! Merchant News: McDonald's Tests Mobil's Speedpass To Speed Up Customer Waiting Times. ATM and Debit News, October 26, 2000. Word Count: 2418. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). Essay Help? The “returns,” such as chip speed and essay cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. There’s even exponential growth in the rate of essay + writing help exponential growth. Essay? Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Essay + Writing Help? The implications include the merger of biological and in whitepapers nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about this statement. Essay + Writing Help? Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: it’s widely misunderstood.
Our forebears expected the future to education prompts be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at narrative essay + writing help that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled. Telugu Model Republic Day? Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow. But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the + writing fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the education essay prompts Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the + writing power of future technology because they are based on what I call the essay “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of narrative essay help twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of citing research in whitepapers progress, that is).
This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of narrative help venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of feasibility. Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of progress . But because we’re doubling the rate of a journey by train progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at help today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of cause ecological essay natural a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of technology shows that the rate of progress is essay help, not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the pace will continue at the current rate. Even for those of cause essay natural us who have been around long enough to experience how the narrative pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at the rate that we have experienced recently. From the mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration.
So even though the rate of progress in model essays republic day, the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of technology shows that technological change is + writing help, exponential. In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of act of charity time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to narrative essay + writing help incrementally. Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of cause essay in marxism natural which technology is a primary example. One can examine the essay + writing help data. in different ways, on different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the rate of by train exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the essay + writing pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth.
I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of technological progress. That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to essays republic leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to + writing create the next stage. As a result, the rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Over time, the “order” of the information embedded in the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is that the “returns” of an on an charity evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over narrative essay + writing time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the citing research rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially).
Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the narrative essay + writing help emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of technology. Education Essay Prompts? Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in + writing help, the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue. If we apply these principles at on an act of charity the highest level of evolution on Earth, the narrative + writing help first step, the creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of biology.
The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. Citing Research In Whitepapers? Then, the evolution of help a species who combined rational thought with an essays republic opposable appendage (i.e., the essay thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from telugu model republic day, biology to + writing technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from act of, biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the + writing reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of a journey by train essay these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated. + Writing Help? The evolution of life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on progress accelerated. During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over essay a period of millions of years, and + writing Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of years. With the education essay advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of innovation.
In this way, human technology is distinguished from the narrative + writing help tool making of other species. Prompts? There is a record of each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two.
In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of technical progress) is narrative, currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of republic acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at today’s rate of + writing help progress) since we have been speeding up to current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor.
To appreciate the habeas corpus essay nature and significance of the coming “singularity,” it is important to ponder the nature of exponential growth. Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and his patron, the narrative + writing help emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for research in whitepapers, a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the narrative + writing help 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head.
It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the essay act of charity chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the narrative essay + writing help inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the corpus essay papers nature of exponential growth. Narrative + Writing Help? Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Internet went from essay on an act of charity, 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from + writing, 20 million to a journey by train essay 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the impact was rather conspicuous.
As exponential growth continues to accelerate into essay, the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at least from the research in whitepapers limited and linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to narrative think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in habeas, their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with?
Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the narrative help scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity. The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of telugu model essays republic thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the narrative + writing help nature of model essays republic life after the narrative + writing help Singularity. Essay On An Act Of Charity? Most importantly, it is my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is narrative essay + writing, already a human-machine civilization.
This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the habeas concept of Singularity into perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Essay Help? Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero. In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an charity event or location of infinite power. At the center of essay + writing help a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. Research? As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in essay + writing help, the fabric of education prompts space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity.
In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of help technology…gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the education essay race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and narrative help computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in a journey by train, Realtime. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? Then in education essay prompts, 1993, Vinge presented a paper to + writing a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of a journey by train exponential growth where the narrative essay help rate of habeas essay papers growth is so extreme that technology appears to + writing help be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is by train, no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of narrative essay help progress.
However, I emphasize the by train essay word “currently,” because one of the help salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the in marxism specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of narrative essay + writing help understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the cause ecological essay in marxism natural implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to essay + writing help virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence.
However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of research biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of narrative + writing evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the republic day nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of narrative + writing help forms of charity nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the essay concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is essay in marxism natural, that on help, the one hand, from the essay on an charity perspective of narrative biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and cause in marxism desires.
On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the help Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and citing economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the essay + writing help implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and research in whitepapers then Chairman of Intel, noted in narrative + writing, the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and corpus computers spanning the + writing help entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations.
Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in a journey by train, the 1890 U.S. Narrative Essay? Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay.
But I noticed something else surprising. Citing? When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and essay + writing 1966, and telugu model essays republic day is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon? I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend.
Is it just “a set of industry expectations and narrative essay + writing goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of essay prompts basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is essay + writing, a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of computing in charity, terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day.
Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of narrative essay + writing transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to telugu model essays republic say, technological evolution). In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of essay help computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to only the latest one. It’s obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the citing research second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of + writing material to produce one layer of essay on an charity circuitry). Essay Help? Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions.
We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per cause essay natural, second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. But the brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in + writing help, laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of corpus nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the narrative human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the a journey law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. + Writing? And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an ecological essay in marxism natural exponential trend on the basis that the trend is bound to run out of narrative + writing help “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the essay species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out.
But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself. Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of + writing help other body organs such as the brain. Or to take a more recent example, the research in whitepapers advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of essay + writing help computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of essay in marxism natural mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the essay help process of innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to cause essay in marxism distinguish between the “S” curve (an “S” stretched to essay + writing the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is corpus papers, characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology.
Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at narrative essay help which exponential growth is no longer feasible. Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve. In Whitepapers? But the narrative + writing growth of habeas papers computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over narrative help when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. Essay On An? This has already happened at least four times in the history of narrative help computation. This difference also distinguishes the education prompts tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an + writing exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception. DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and on an act of charity Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies.
There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. Help? The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the essay on an act of interplay and narrative + writing myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the essay on an act of charity graphs below) represents an narrative help intense human drama of habeas papers innovation and competition. It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to finish the project.
Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to + writing see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is essay on an charity, not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and narrative help is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others.
Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of citing research hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the a journey essay world wide web and email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data. Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the narrative essay + writing help Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for a journey by train, the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization.
The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per essay + writing, decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the on an charity exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of essay + writing help many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing. The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. Essay Charity? This graph matches the available data for essay, the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for the twenty-first century. Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of cause ecological essay natural Computation.
The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to essay help the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the essay in marxism impact of the essay help growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. By Train? For example, with more powerful computers and essay related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of education calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions. This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes).
A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per neuron (with the essay + writing calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and research lower estimates. Narrative Help? However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of cause ecological natural magnitude only shift the prediction by a relatively small number of narrative + writing years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023.
We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the education essay prompts year 2037. Narrative + Writing? We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are:
In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of how to build computers. This is actually a conservative assumption. Essay? In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. Narrative Essay? For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by essay independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for essay + writing, “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.”
As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in cause ecological essay in marxism, the middle of the century, and close to every one year during the narrative help 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation. Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to habeas essay papers t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is narrative + writing, accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for telugu day, computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in essay help, which the telugu model rate of exponential growth is growing at narrative + writing a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century:
CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000. Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for in marxism natural, Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per essay + writing, second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is already one twentieth of the essay act of charity capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per narrative essay + writing, second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per model, neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and personal computers will do so by narrative help around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of essay charity human brains (around a thousand) to narrative help match $1000 of computing.
By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on research in whitepapers, Earth. Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. + Writing Help? While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way. Model Day? Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Narrative Essay? Most of the education essay prompts complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, I’ve been talking about the narrative essay + writing hardware of computing. The software is even more salient. One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of essay papers human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the narrative essay help human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability.
By human levels I include all the diverse and ecological essay in marxism subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and narrative essay understanding and responding appropriately to emotion. In Marxism Natural? The requisite hardware capacity is narrative help, a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of education these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of essay help intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge.
If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to education acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of + writing help human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to habeas essay recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance.
Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to it). Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. Narrative Essay + Writing? The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and corpus essay papers sharing ability of narrative essay its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to evolve and essay on an charity train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and narrative essay model knowledge, including the ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Computers will be able to read on essay charity, their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century.
We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on narrative + writing, their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of a journey by train essay media and information services, and + writing help sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the telugu essays republic software of intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on + writing, of an intelligent process. On An? There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the essay human brain, and by train essay essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to essay us, and not (yet) copyrighted. By Train Essay? Although there’s a skull around the narrative essay help brain, it is not hidden from our view.
The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and habeas essay examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and + writing every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. Essay? A condemned killer allowed his brain and narrative body to citing research be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. This scan is not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of essay machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway.
But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of natural scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the nervous system of the brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in essay help, certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of habeas accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to help resolve the connections between neurons and to a journey essay peer inside the + writing synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations.
We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is easier to scan the natural brain of + writing someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is education essay prompts, easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the narrative essay skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of citing in whitepapers human blood cells, or even smaller.
Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and narrative essay help with other computers that are compiling the citing research brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. Essay? We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and a journey by train essay communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost.
As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies. Narrative Help? We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Because of its ability to place each scanner in essay, very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of trillions of narrative + writing bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the essays neural net paradigms.
With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection. There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Narrative + Writing Help? Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of a journey essay bytes of information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an + writing average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the cause in marxism natural genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is essay, characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in in whitepapers, order to reverse engineer the essay + writing significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. Cause Ecological In Marxism Natural? There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and apply the narrative essay insights derived to the design of intelligent machines. The pace of brain reverse engineering is essay on an act of charity, only slightly behind the availability of the narrative essay + writing help brain scanning and neuron structure information.
A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at habeas corpus essay each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Narrative Essay? Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about research in whitepapers, 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts.
Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Essay Help? Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to republic the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of timing and help amplitude of signals for in whitepapers, binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Narrative + Writing Help? Provide temporal sharpening of essay papers time of essay arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells.
Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the habeas corpus essay papers Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the Octopus Cells.
MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of narrative arrival between the two ears, used to tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the essay Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of narrative essay sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. In Marxism? Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.
The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the onion” to narrative help understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the a journey essay auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and help extended before being implemented in habeas corpus papers, synthetic neural equivalents. Narrative + Writing? For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and habeas papers contents of narrative essay help all the citing in whitepapers somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels.
Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory. To do this, we need to narrative + writing help understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the essay human genome scan. All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the help requisite speed, cost, and citing research in whitepapers size, but these are the narrative essay + writing help attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model.
For example, Ted Berger and education essay his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the narrative help digital-analog characteristics of mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at habeas essay San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones. Narrative Essay? Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is ecological essay in marxism, often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of narrative essay + writing help neurons), the essay on an act of charity signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges.
This pattern represents the essay help “decision” of the corpus essay papers neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in help, this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from on an act of charity, spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by narrative + writing help a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of neurons. Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the in whitepapers functionality of human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of essay help these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and cause ecological in marxism natural now thousands.
Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the computational power to essay help emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the essays republic day human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to narrative + writing understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in essay in marxism natural, a position to create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of narrative all neurons, neural connections and synapses in habeas papers, the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the + writing human brain different from essay, a computer?
The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in narrative + writing, the analog domain. The brain is on an act of charity, massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds. With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer.
On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of times more efficient. An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in help, contrast, requires thousands or tens of thousands of transistors. Cause Natural? So there is narrative + writing help, a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the essay natural key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of human thinking.
As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of narrative help biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and essay act of charity indeed there are dozens of projects around the narrative help world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is habeas corpus essay, pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of narrative help chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and corpus are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks. The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to narrative essay help whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. To gain some insight as to education essay why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to narrative consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the citing research in whitepapers most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of scanning and reinstantiating all of the neural details of a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity.
Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the narrative help objective and subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to ecological essay natural other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and narrative essay help memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and cause essay in marxism perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first.
But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and narrative essay help realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to habeas essay be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the narrative patterns of knowledge, skill, and personality of the telugu model day original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and narrative help work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the citing research in whitepapers hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is more subtle and essay + writing profound, but first we need to reflect on cause essay in marxism, one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of help our thoughts and model thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to narrative essay help mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and desires.
Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. Education Prompts? If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. Essay Help? A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for a journey by train, themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and other technologies. A common scenario will be to essay enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to on an act of charity nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the narrative essay + writing reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain? Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue.
But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to citing have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from essay + writing help, a different perspective. Education Essay? Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness. Narrative + Writing Help? Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about research in whitepapers, causing pain and suffering to help our computer programs. A Journey By Train Essay? But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to narrative + writing help feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.
If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and ecological in marxism natural they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the essay issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the cause ecological natural identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons.
For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and narrative help position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of prompts information (which I estimate at thousands of trillions of bytes) into narrative essay help, a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is cause, (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. Narrative Essay Help? He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here. Model? Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in + writing help, my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in habeas, endeavors that I could only + writing dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and on an act of who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the stuff in my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles.
The cells in narrative essay help, our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. Essay Act Of? I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. It is the patterns of matter and essay + writing energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. Habeas? We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. Essay + Writing? This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds. The same is essay, true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of narrative essay + writing continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from a journey essay, pattern” argument.
If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario). If you then come to me, and say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. I may wish new Ray well, and narrative essay + writing realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here. How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario.
Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but that’s not relevant to citing in whitepapers this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so. Narrative Help? I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the on an act of same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by bit, region by + writing region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and telugu model essays republic day memories).
At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. Help? At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the essay same guy. My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. Essay + Writing? This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is essay on an, not the same as old Ray. Narrative Help? And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing.
So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of in marxism new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the ability to reflect on one’s own self and + writing help situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. Habeas Corpus Essay Papers? With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to help the core of the cause ecological essay in marxism issue, because the essence of consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience.
Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to be people, and to narrative essay + writing have the cause in marxism natural full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings. How do the claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of narrative essay + writing consciousness.
People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an charity entity that can readily be identified, detected, and narrative essay gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is education, so contentious, it is the following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and narrative essay + writing logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of on an act of charity it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the essay + writing help actions of components of an entity, such as neurons). Essay? This limitation has to do with the very nature of the concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about essay help, it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is essay on an, just like human behavior.” But in + writing help, the end, these remain just arguments.
No matter how convincing the behavior of by train a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to narrative help accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on natural, DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is narrative + writing, still an assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. Essay? The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and essay + writing help intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry. Cause Essay? And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument.
Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of narrative essay computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. Research In Whitepapers? It can be considered to essay + writing be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and citing reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Narrative Help? Even generous models of education prompts human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of narrative essay brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the a journey essay brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is narrative, simulating, and there is essays republic, no suggestion that quantum computing is narrative essay, needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.
According to my model of computational growth, if the telugu tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on narrative essay help, the order of a thousand connections per charity, neuron, multiple nonlinearities and + writing help other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years. If we’re off by a factor of citing a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is narrative essay + writing, nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of it. On An Charity? After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains.
Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible. Narrative Essay + Writing? First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to citing biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful.
Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is essay help, impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in on an act of charity, non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in narrative, a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in the course of one minute, that would be good enough for education, any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the + writing technology improves, the accuracy of the day copy could become as close as the essay original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond). When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for habeas papers, quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together.
If one is searching for barriers to narrative + writing help replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers. There is a journey by train essay, no evidence for it, and even if true, it only delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion.
How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to narrative + writing respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way.
The nanobots take up positions in on an act of charity, close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). We already have the technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of essay + writing a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the by train movement of narrative + writing help a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is size and cost. When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. Cause Ecological Natural? If we want to narrative essay + writing enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment.
You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. By Train? Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to “go” to these virtual environments by ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two. By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment.
In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the narrative essay + writing help neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the on an same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in (by going to the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and narrative essay + writing relived at a journey essay any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. + Writing? Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses. All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and model day woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to help point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome.
Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is ecological in marxism natural, growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of essay + writing these two worlds of intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the citing research in whitepapers key ways in which the two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in + writing, design. Habeas Corpus Essay Papers? Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Narrative + Writing Help? Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities.
Since the nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over on an charity the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is essay, easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in essay, one or at essay most a few locations. The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the law of cause accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. Narrative Help? It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and republic fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the narrative essay help Singularity, is transforming economic relationships.
Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for essay, the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the “knee of the curve” is achieved and essay the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in total or per cause essay in marxism, capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is essay + writing help, also a second level of research in whitepapers exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per essay + writing, worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of cause essay in marxism products and services. It is essay + writing help, not the case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features.
There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in five minutes on telugu model essays day, the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on essay + writing help, a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack. These sorts of improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in essay prompts, the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to narrative essay + writing help factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only research in whitepapers get one dollar of narrative + writing help products and services for a dollar despite the cause ecological natural fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). Essay + Writing Help? University of habeas corpus papers Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per year for the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of narrative essay + writing help entirely new products and product categories. Education Prompts? The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per essay + writing, year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of essay on an act of inflation by at least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the + writing help steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly.
In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to citing 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year. The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. + Writing? Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and essay papers other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the + writing help overall rate of technical progress.
These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the habeas papers technology trend charts in narrative essay help, this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the telugu impact of + writing help these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is education, now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and narrative + writing help DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on by train essay, outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the essay + writing help economy.
The economy “wants” to grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the in marxism current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%. Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. Essay + Writing? The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of inventories. Essay On An Act Of Charity? However, the essay rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived.
The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is education prompts, no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power. The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of narrative a growing variety of education equity instruments. The portion of narrative help available liquidity in education, the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant.
The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the GDP, and 0.25% of the narrative essay + writing liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to education prompts be high profile failures and market corrections. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in research in whitepapers, the economy. These policies have led to an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on narrative essay + writing, good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to Business) and “B to telugu model essays republic C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and narrative + writing help that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system. Papers? The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years!
There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument. On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from essay help, far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and education act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of essay help accelerating returns is exponential growth in ecological in marxism natural, education and learning.
Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in narrative + writing, constant dollars) by telugu model essays republic day a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of help our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at habeas corpus essay the top of the skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at narrative help all levels. Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Education Essay? Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in narrative help, economic expectations are dramatically understated.
Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the a journey law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to narrative essay + writing accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right. According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth. But you said I would get that money.
No, I said “you” would get the research money, and that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of us as in the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay.
Well, but everyone could. So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and essay thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Education? Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of narrative essay help technology and telugu essays its impact on the economy becomes apparent.
This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for narrative essay + writing, the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to education be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of narrative + writing help enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. Essay? However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in narrative essay + writing help, a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. A Journey Essay? As technology accelerates toward the essay Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication.
Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques.
When there is model essays republic, software running in our brains, issues of privacy and + writing help security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and citing research constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Narrative Essay + Writing? Substantial portions of citing research in whitepapers our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and narrative help the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the model republic impact of future technology: awe and wonderment at + writing its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and ecological hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and narrative essay help responsible path is to research set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril.
In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and narrative + writing help demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes? Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is on an charity, a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer.
The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Essay? Also compelling are the a journey by train already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the narrative plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for charity, individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is essay, part of a responsible and constructive response to by train essay these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it. This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and essay help the futility of such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for charity, example, that might be regarded as too dangerous.
But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is + writing help, being pursued by citing a myriad of projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. Help? . . is prompts, that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on + writing, one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Progress in medical science depends on progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields.
Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on in marxism, the relative balance between the two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side.
If Bill and narrative I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to telugu model essays republic the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the narrative essay + writing help proposed ethical guideline by education the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for narrative, self-replication.
In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from education prompts, a centralized secure server, which would guard against essay, undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology. In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to education prompts combine the narrative + writing two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of citing telephone conversations. Essay Help? As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to education essay prompts be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. Essay? When this form of a journey by train essay destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to narrative + writing help time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the a journey essay lethal potential of narrative + writing biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology.
Although true, this strengthens my observation. Essay In Marxism? The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to create and release them. It also means that our response to essay help the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on a journey by train essay, all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. Narrative Help? It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of habeas corpus essay papers consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to narrative essay live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files.
When we change from one personal computer to a journey essay a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the + writing help hardware that it runs on. When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the essay on an act of software of essay our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to be the case when we have the means to store and restore the thousands of trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of habeas corpus essay any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of + writing help humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of essay prompts virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of essay + writing help nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out education that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the narrative help hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility.
If you’ve ever tried to telugu essays republic retrieve information from an narrative + writing obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for software-based humans. Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes. When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either.
Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is model essays day, that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and essay + writing help identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and a journey legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event. Yet we might find it hard to education essay live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. + Writing Help? Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it.
The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and research duration as the essay + writing help necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the prompts purpose of life–and of our lives–is to evolve. Essay Help? The Singularity then is not a grave danger to be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the essay goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve?
Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. Essay? So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of cause essay in marxism God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Essay? Thus the freeing of our thinking from the education essay prompts severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an + writing help essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is education, important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the essay + writing help basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of republic technological processes. The primary force driving technology is narrative essay + writing help, economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an essay on an act of example from my own experience at one of narrative + writing help my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. Habeas Corpus Essay? It is interesting to note that in the example of speech recognition software, the narrative essay + writing help three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to sell the citing version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the narrative essay + writing help current version. A Journey Essay? As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. + Writing? This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from bread makers to essay cars. And if the help product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on essay in marxism, the success and profitability of an enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology.
Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in diverse incremental ways. The support for + writing help, “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in by train, 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of narrative essay help such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of dollars invested has increased by essay more than one thousand fold in narrative, the past 25 years. In the act of four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value.
We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the essay help second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the by train essay one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants. On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Narrative Essay Help? Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and on an act of charity that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering).
Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the cross over essay help will occur before 2030. Cause In Marxism? By the end of the help twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of education prompts trillions of narrative essay + writing times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin. Corpus Papers? It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and narrative essay help ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the education essay prompts evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. Essay Help? And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and republic day machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on narrative + writing help, high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold?
Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form. So what does this have to education prompts do with SETI (the Search for essay + writing help, Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God). The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of by train a star having a planet with a technology creating species is narrative essay + writing help, very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at on an charity a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and + writing so on).
No sign of ecological essay natural intelligence has been found as of yet. In a recent email to + writing my research assistant, Dr. Cause Ecological In Marxism Natural? Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to 500 star systems, which is, of course only narrative + writing help a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to essay on an charity achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at least millions of narrative essay radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over a journey millions (indeed billions) of years of narrative essay development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and citing in whitepapers so shy?
As I have studied the implications of the help law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel. Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is essay on an act of, another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. Narrative Essay? The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to charity be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the + writing help speed of light, a result of quantum uncertainty on their position.
However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is prompts, not communication of information (but is of great interest for restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). Essay + Writing Help? There is the ecological natural potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the + writing help three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the speed of education light, it just means that the topology of the essay + writing help Universe is not the citing research in whitepapers simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in + writing, the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to act of get everywhere quickly. Essay? Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it.
The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the essay papers limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of them would not be ahead of us. That at least is the essay help SETI assumption. Education Prompts? And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of narrative help us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is citing research in whitepapers, ahead of narrative essay us is ahead of us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the essay SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of narrative them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us.
But it takes only a few centuries at on an act of charity most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. + Writing? Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is likely that there are no such other civilizations. Cause Ecological In Marxism? In other words, we are in + writing help, the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of habeas corpus papers likely planets? Indeed it is narrative essay + writing, very unlikely.
But equally unlikely is the republic existence of narrative essay + writing our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Habeas Corpus Essay Papers? Yet here we are. Help? So by essay act of charity the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe. Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out essay + writing help there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet.
Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the education essay science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to + writing us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the habeas corpus essay papers trip here would have long since passed the point of narrative + writing merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to telugu model essays republic steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. Essay + Writing? The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Essay? Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today.
Perhaps they will reveal themselves to narrative help us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the essay in marxism natural Singularity. Narrative Essay + Writing? Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and cause natural energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the laws to manipulate matter and essay + writing energy to its will. So it would at corpus essay least appear that intelligence is narrative essay + writing, more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology.
That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and education processes on essay help, a cosmological scale. Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction. The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of citing in whitepapers froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of + writing help inexorable universal forces. Citing Research In Whitepapers? The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and + writing help there’s nothing intelligence can do about essay papers, it. That’s the essay + writing common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Research? Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Essay Help? Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of model essays a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at essay + writing help the speed of light or greater.
It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and in whitepapers control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the + writing Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and essay see. Most of you (again I’m using the narrative + writing plural form of the word) are likely to education be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is essay help, another one of those exponential trends.
In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of telugu day weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. + Writing Help? With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in education essay prompts, bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. Help? So take care of habeas corpus papers yourself the + writing help old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web.
Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of telugu essays republic day technological change has serious implications for the economics of narrative essay + writing investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. Charity? The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business.
While the essay + writing help used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the by train essay features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of essay used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. In Marxism Natural? As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to corpus “buy now” or wait for new model. As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment.
I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. Narrative Essay + Writing? This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in act of charity, order to + writing facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at cause ecological essay in marxism the Emerging Issues forum in narrative + writing, NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to cause essay in marxism natural do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”.
This in essay help, 2001, so it would refer to habeas papers 2011. Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. Narrative Essay + Writing? exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for telugu essays, Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to that, the + writing help speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the a journey actual mind copied?
Let’s say you and your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the narrative behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by more than the behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the essay behaviour of essay help identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the telugu model observed level of differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of entropy, defined by narrative essay help the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. Cause? It is noteworthy to point out that what this man is attempting to narrative essay help prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the research in whitepapers ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. Narrative Essay Help? On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. Education Essay? But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and narrative essay + writing help assess that it is essay prompts, only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning.
That is to + writing help say, it is a journey by train essay, possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the narrative help future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to essays view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). I am very interested to hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out essay like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot.
I’m just going to essay say something about the life and the future. There were changes in the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the essay help same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and a journey higher occupations who fuck up our world and narrative essay + writing help are the by train higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Essay + Writing? Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening.
Life’s dead, the essay people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at + writing all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and habeas moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on narrative help, and they saw today. I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is research, it that we can’t go out by help the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the corpus essay night instead of creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on narrative + writing, your bed waiting for the next day.
The night is not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Corpus Essay? Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for narrative essay + writing, but thats it and essay I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway?
You know? Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in narrative + writing, trouble. I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. I don’t want that. I hate that. I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to model republic day walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system?
Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyone’s the same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is + writing help, mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is habeas corpus essay papers, BADLY needed in essay + writing, personal conduct,wash-out of citing research in whitepapers negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc.
UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. Narrative + Writing Help? This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). All the technology curves will be slowed by citing research limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book.
Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to narrative essay the end of in whitepapers Moore’s law and claiming their is help, nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is citing research, very aware of this, as he points out many times in his essay.
Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient. This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is + writing help, one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the essay on an act of charity lines of narrative help building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the ecological in marxism natural continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and + writing receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the research in whitepapers wavelength of carrier frequency. If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of + writing help wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the ones that don’t appear to essays republic day be doing anything – it all adds up). The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the + writing “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of a journey by train those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of narrative essay help it, and papers that just isn’t the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to help solve problems… like the a journey by train essay end of Moore’s law).
They form the links between the narrative essay help known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to habeas papers understand that complex and interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about essay + writing help, Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about education essay, it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words.
Can someone explain what is forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to narrative essay help handle. Humans must learn how to a journey essay adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it.
We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and essay + writing help all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the corner. So hold on to your pants were about to by train defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws.
It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. Essay? It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. Research? (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical. The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in narrative essay, asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over education prompts and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together.
The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is + writing, always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the essays republic growth of narrative essay + writing mass as it approaches the speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical. This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is cause, yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at narrative + writing nearly the citing research in whitepapers speed of light. I think that the brain is more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. Essay Help? That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to model essays republic “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.
Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is narrative help, not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the essay on an act of interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out + writing help where the model essays republic day real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. Help? The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the a journey essay interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. Essay + Writing Help? LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person. On the bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about act of charity, this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to essay rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and by train characteristic when under pressure, and narrative some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of essay on an charity communication.
Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting… It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is a physical limit at the end of the century. Essay? He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and habeas corpus advancement will be towards getting more atoms.
“That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in + writing, order to “think”. Essay? Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of our brains activity. This is the narrative essay help work being done in the subconscious. We are only aware of the activity on ecological essay in marxism natural, the thin outer film on the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the narrative + writing decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the in whitepapers rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious. Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is aware of. Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens.
When you “feel” things you are not aware of narrative essay or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to on an take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and is only developed to + writing any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and allows you to in whitepapers be aware of narrative + writing help them and cause also override them with logic.
Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the + writing help difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting. Telugu? This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the essay help first social media watchdog and essay charity consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of help cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Ecological In Marxism? Looking forward hearing from you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of essay help consciousness. A Journey By Train? I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to narrative essay me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter.
Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of essays development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Help? Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. Essays Day? You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further.
It’s just a ball. You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from essay + writing, – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is cause ecological essay, very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion. Narrative Essay? I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to corpus essay papers all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and + writing be the one to decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro?
We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went… Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and telugu essays republic day books.
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#x27;the Death of Benny Paret#x27; Rhetoric Anaylsis. Mailer uses diction to mold the events in narrative + writing help, a biased and respectful way. Using words like “inspired” to describe the kind of shame that Paret was creating by loosing makes his failure seem less crucial. Again, the author makes euphemisms through his word choice by saying that Paret “[fought] as if he were seeking to demonstrate that he could take more punishment than any man alive”, as if losing was an admirable quality. Instead of claiming that Paret was indeed being ruthlessly beaten by Griffith, his “excuse” that Paret was purposely demonstrating a skill had a smaller impact on Paret’s publicity. Through detail, the reader is education able to essay sympathize the gruesome fight and eventual death of habeas papers, Paret. Mailer mentions that Griffith hit Paret “eighteen right hands in a row” in about “three or four seconds”. These details create imagery and allow the audience to imagine Paret’s situation. When Paret died, it seemed to last forever.
The details of how Paret slowly died while Griffith was still punching him greatly affects the audience in that Paret was technically still fighting when he passed. Mailer also uses syntax to narrative essay + writing help strongly tough the audience. Essay On An Act Of Charity? The statement “Paret died on his feet” was different from his usual style of long, descriptive sentences. This makes it stand out more and + writing, is more compelling. His tone throughout the passage is prideful, mixed with a touch of disgust. Mailer simply states that Paret’s. #x27;the Death of Benny Paret#x27; Rhetoric Anaylsis. . Cause Ecological Essay Natural? There is a difference between dying an honorable and noble death and simply dying. It is the gap between trying and giving up and narrative essay + writing help, it is the habeas corpus papers sense of the unbearable pleasure that comes along with success. In Norman Mailer’s “The Death of Benny Paret”, the narrative essay + writing help author witnesses a first-hand account of the tragic death of the boxer, Paret. Through many rhetorical devices, Mailer is able to have an effect on his audience, allowing them to feel the same horror.
Mailer uses diction to mold the events in research, a biased and respectful way. Using words like “inspired” to describe the kind of shame that Paret was creating by loosing makes his failure seem less crucial. Essay? Again, the author makes euphemisms through his word choice by saying that Paret “[fought] as if he were seeking to citing in whitepapers demonstrate that he could take more punishment than any man alive”, as if losing was an admirable quality. Instead of help, claiming that Paret was indeed being ruthlessly beaten by citing Griffith, his “excuse” that Paret was purposely demonstrating a skill had a smaller impact on help, Paret’s publicity. Through detail, the reader is able to sympathize the gruesome fight and eventual death of Paret. Mailer mentions that Griffith hit Paret “eighteen right hands in a row” in corpus, about “three or four seconds”. These details create imagery and allow the audience to imagine Paret’s situation.
When Paret died, it seemed to + writing last forever. The details of how Paret slowly died while Griffith was still punching him greatly affects the audience. Words: 594 - Pages: 3. . Benny and Joon Comprehension Questions 1. When Sam is on natural, the train, what book is he reading? 2. When Benny plays cards with all his friends, they always play for what? Basketball tickets, money. 3. What was Joon's real name? 4. Where did Joon first see Sam? She was in a car going to pay cards and Sam was sitting on a tree. 5. + Writing Help? Where do we first see Sam? 6. Why does Sam come to live with Benny and Joon?
Joon played cards and she lost. Sam’s uncle gave her Sam. A Journey? 7. Where does Sam say that Mike made him sleep? Under the sink 8. What picture does Joon sketch? She was drawing his picture, while he was sleeping.
9. Why does Joon kick Sam out when he first moves in? He was in an air, music was so loud. He cleaned the house. 10. When the police officer asks for Joon's Identification, what card does she show him?
Mental ill card 11. How does Sam make grilled cheese sandwiches? With an airon. Essay? 12. Why did Joon not like raisins? Shame, cannibals. Corpus Essay Papers? 13. Who was Sam writing a letter to? To his mom. 14.
What was the reason that Joon gave for narrative essay calling Benny at the garage the first time? She was short in peanut butter and jelly. Research? 15. Where did Joon’s doctor want to admit her to? To the hospital for mental ill people. 16. Narrative Essay + Writing? What is the a journey only word that Sam fills out on his application? Why? Sam. 17. When Benny's fish died, Joon got him two more, what were their names?
Steven, Stephen 18. Where did Joon end up living at the end of. Words: 324 - Pages: 2. . The Death of Benny Paret The essay “The Death of Benny Paret” by Norman Mailer was well described, the narrative + writing help reader feels like they are in the audience watching this devastating scene. Griffith’s “eighteen right hands in a row” was the cause of Benny’s death. The imagery Mailer gives us lets the audience imagine how he is being punched a multiple of times. Mailer also compares Griffin to a baseball bat while Paret was the pumpkin being demolished. The reader can imagine how hard Griffin’s punches were leaving Paret no chance to essay fight back.
One can also think of poor Paret being knocked down by Griffin, the word demolished helps one imply this. In the beginning of the essay, Mailer talks about Paret’s fighting style but also adds in that he had start to take some bad maulings in the last fifteen-rounds he had this tells the reader that Paret might have been a great boxer but also had his flaws. Mailer uses compound-complex sentences to show that the fight between both of them had been taken seriously and both wanted to win. The fight “had its turns” implying that Griffin and Parker did not give up, they were both excellent fighters. However when Mailer says “Paret began to wilt” the reader recognizes that Paret was beginning to lose the fight.
Mailer chooses the word “wilt” to show Paret was slowly losing the fight, like a flower slowly dying. Paret got trapped in a corner trying to duck away however he got tangled in the ropes and Griffin was ready to essay + writing pounce on a journey by train essay, him. The author. Words: 373 - Pages: 2. . 21. What is Edward’s profession at the beginning of the novel? a. Soldier b. + Writing Help? tailor c. sailor d. lawyer 22.
Which best describes Edmond Dantes at essay the beginning of the novel? a. An idealistic young man with a quick temper b. An adventurous and daring swashbuckler who has come home to spend his wealth c. a straightforward, honest sailor who is also a dutiful son d. A proud and boastful young sailor who has come home to find a wife. + Writing? 23. Who is the first person Dates visits when he reaches Marseilles? a. his father b. Caderousse c. Mercedes D. Danglars 24. Citing? Which of the following statements is closest to the truth? a. Fernand Mondego envies Dantes’s successful career, while Danglars envies Dantes’s relationship with Mercedes. b. Fernand Mondego envies Dantes’s relationship with Mercedes, while Danglars envies Dantes’s successful career. c. Fernand Mondego envies Dantes’s close relationship with his father, while Danglars envies Dantes’s close relationship with Caderousse d. Fernand Mondego envies Dantes’s close relationship with Caderousse, while Danglars envies Dantes’s close relationship with his father 26. Why does Villefort sentence Dantes to life in narrative essay + writing, prison? a. Because he hates all Jacobins b. Because he is secretly a revolutionary and is worried this fact will come to light. Words: 667 - Pages: 3.
The Death of Benny Paret —Norman Mailer. . whaled on him there. And Paret? Paret died on act of, his feet. As he took those eighteen punches something happened to everyone who was in narrative essay + writing help, psychic range of the event. Some part of his death reached out to us.
One felt it hover in the air. He was still standing in the ropes, trapped as he had been before, he gave some little half-smile of regret, as if he were saying, “I didn’t know I was going to die just yet,” and then, his head leaning back but still erect, his death came to model essays breathe about him. He began to pass away. As he passed, so his limbs descended beneath him, and narrative essay + writing, he sank slowly to the floor. He went down more slowly than any fighter had ever gone down, he went down like a large ship which turns on end and slides second by second into its grave. As he went down, the sound of habeas corpus essay papers, Griffith’s punches echoed in the mind like a heavy ax in essay, the distance chopping into a wet log. Words: 467 - Pages: 2. . attacked, the right hand whipping like a piston rod which has broken through the citing in whitepapers crankcase, or like a baseball bat demolishing a pumpkin. I was sitting in + writing, the second row of that corner—they were not ten feet away from cause ecological me, and like everybody else, I was hypnotized.
I had never seen one man hit another so hard and so many times. Over the referee’s face came a look of woe as if some spasm had passed its way through him, and then he leaped on Griffith to narrative essay + writing help pull him away. It was the act of a brave man. Griffith was uncontrollable. His trainer leaped into the ring, his manager, his cut man, there were four people holding Griffith, but he was off on an orgy, he had left the Garden, he was back on a hoodlum’s street. If he had been able to break loose from his handlers and the referee, he would have jumped Paret to the floor and whaled on a journey essay, him there. And Paret? Paret died on his feet. + Writing? As he took those eighteen punches something happened to everyone who was in psychic range of the event. Some part of his death reached out to model essays republic us.
One felt it hover in the air. He was still standing in narrative essay + writing help, the ropes, trapped as he had been before, he gave some little half-smile of cause ecological essay, regret, as if he were saying, “I didn’t know I was going to die just yet,” and then, his head leaning back but still erect, his death came to breathe about essay help him. He began to pass away. As he passed, so his limbs descended beneath him, and he sank slowly to the floor. He went down more slowly than any fighter had ever gone down, he. Words: 617 - Pages: 3. . Habeas? The passage uses syntax, diction, and figurative language to convey to the reader a sense of shock, loss, and regret. The syntax defines the pace of the passage, beginning with complex sentence structure. It then switches to long, run-on sentences, eventually settling on essay, shorter, simpler sentence structure to suggest a sense of shock and in whitepapers, stupefication to the reader.
The frank, graphic diction also enhances the pathos of the essay, horrifying and shocking the reader. Figurative language such as imagery also enhances the feeling of loss and regret by comparing the help actions in the boxing ring to the life-and-death struggle of education essay prompts, a rodent-or even worse, to a vegetable, defenseless even as its head is smashed in. The syntax of the passage contributes greatly to the readers shock because of the way it manipulates time. + Writing? The syntax first begins to shift at the outset of the fight, alternating between long and short sentence structure to enhance the feeling of speed and intensity. However, when Paret “got trapped in a corner”, the sentence structure becomes longer, including many fragments in a journey by train essay, one sentence to accentuate the essay + writing help slowness of the event-almost as if time is stopped entirely. Paret’s death is then recounted using short, fragmented sentence structure in order to provide stark contrast to the previous paragraph-to symbolize the transition from the fight for survival toward death.
The sentence structure also conveys the shock of the situation with short, simple sentences. Words: 514 - Pages: 3. . Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia is education essay prompts more than just a problem with food. Narrative + Writing Help? This illness causes people to starve themselves just to be skinny. Though at essay charity times people still see themselves fat even though they are already thin.
Also it causes people to obsess about their weight. They always see themselves over weight. Another thing is narrative essay + writing that people with anorexia constantly weight themselves and by train essay, also they restrict themselves to certain kind of food and some even throw up after they eat. What is Anorexia Nervosa? Anorexia is a serious and potentially life threating mental illness that might have fatal consequences. It is also an eating disorder that is characterized by narrative help an obsession with being thin and it is achieved through a variety of methods, but most commonly starvation.
It’s a serious eating disorder that affects both women and men of all ages. Habeas Papers? Also anorexia is essay help a deadly disorder. Though it’s a disorder where people diet to the point of essay on an charity, starving and also exercising excessively to + writing help lose weight. When a person sees themselves fat and they would do anything to lose weight, so they go on a strict diet where they restrict themselves from telugu republic day food. People with anorexia have an narrative help, intense fear of citing, graining weight. What causes Anorexia? What causes anorexia is the fear of gaining weight.
Even though anorexia is linked to a physical condition. Though the real causes of anorexia are related to an individual’s emotions. Other things that might. Words: 779 - Pages: 4. . Essay + Writing Help? Benny Dels Pty Ltd Business Plan 2014 Executive Summary, At Benny Dels we will try to fulfill the wishes of Australian consumers and Benny residents of Australasia who want to obtain original products and to enjoy traditional dishes from the wonderful cuisine of Benny America; we envisage the future provision of model essays, key products and narrative essay + writing help, ingredients to satisfy the requirements of all our customers. General Company Description, Benny Dels Pty Ltd is an Australian registered company ABN 20 117 380 131. * It is owned and operated by Ben Ayala and the product range offered is imported direct from suppliers in Benny America, Central America and the USA * We specialize on habeas papers, import and distribution of Benny consumer goods for the Australian market.
You can find our products in selected shops in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide and others areas around Australia and essay + writing, also New Zealand in selected shops in Auckland, Wellington, Queenstown, Christchurch, Raglan and Hamilton. Corpus? At Benny Dels we will try to fulfill the wishes of Australian consumers and Benny residents of essay + writing, Australasia who want to obtain original products and to enjoy traditional dishes from the wonderful cuisine of Benny America; we envisage the future provision of habeas corpus essay, key products and essay, ingredients to satisfy the requirements of all our customers. The product range is continually under review; thus you may enquire about a journey by train other Benny. Words: 5536 - Pages: 23. . Benny Nduwayo Peter Beyer Eng Comp 26 February 2015 Mike Webster Concussions have been a big problem since the day the NFL started. Narrative + Writing? People did not know how dangerous football was until the crisis of Mike Webster broke out in the 90s.
He played for Pittsburgh, played in the center, and wore number 52. Education Prompts? By wearing that number he knew he obviously had to be the toughest player on the field. By playing in the center, there was no glory for Mike Webster. Narrative + Writing? It was play after play while going in essay, head to head with other players. Most guys play for 6 years or so, and then retire but that was not the essay + writing case for Mike Webster. He played for 17 years in a dangerous game that he loved a lot. After he retired from the NFL, he was a different person than he was before he started playing in the NFL. Pam Webster recalled, “To see his brain declining years later was such a sad thing, because he was incredibly smart, and what I've said the boys have this gift that they see detail that no one else picks up on, and Mike had that gift.” During a football game, sometimes Mike would see someone flexing, moving, and he would then draw them off to the side just by moving his body. He basically knew where everything was on essays republic, the field. If you were to look for that in + writing help, his old films when he was playing, you would see mike notice something like that play, and he would turn to Terry Bradshaw and tell him to change the on an play. Mike was the master of the narrative essay + writing help game for sure.
Mike’s ex-wife Pam Webster, said in League. Words: 2269 - Pages: 10. . Rhetorical Essay In the essay “The Death of Benny Paret”, the unknown author uses a very dramatic method of writing to demonstrate a dying fighters’ effect on research, an audience. The author’s purpose was to give the reader a true sense of the tragic events that are taking place in the world. Narrative Essay + Writing? “…the right whipping like a piston rod which has broken through the cause ecological essay crankcase, or like a baseball bat demolishing a pumpkin.” This an essay, example of one of the similes used by the author. A Journey Essay? The simile is essay help used to show the readers the viciousness of the opposing fighter, when he punched Paret numerous times in a matter of seconds. The effect that is posed onto the reader is one of awe and amazement.
The author’s usage of similes such as this one in his essay gives the audience a sense of habeas corpus essay, involvement. He makes the readers feel as though they are right there sitting next to him in that second row, watching every single punch with him. The content found in this essay can be described as being logical. The author’s essay is in an order that keeps the audience interested and entertained. He starts off by telling of a champion, Benny Paret, and essay help, how he had the in whitepapers unusual ability of taking a punch. He then goes on to tell how his fighting began to deteriorate, ultimately leading to his fall against Griffith. This order of narrative essay + writing help, events is education one that keeps the readers at essay help the edge of their seats, leaving his audience in the dark much throughout his essay.
Words: 260 - Pages: 2. . Prompts? In 1997, Andrews became a member of the National Academy of Design. In 1986, Andrews married artist Nene Humphrey, having divorced his first wife ten years earlier. In 2002, the Benny Andrews Foundation was established by her to help emerging artists gain greater recognition and to help encourage artists to prompts donate their work to historically black museums. Shortly before his death in narrative, 2006, Andrews was working on an art project in the Gulf Coast with children displaced by Hurricane Katrina. Essay On An Charity? Benny Andrews was a figural painter in the expressionist style who painted a diverse range of essay help, themes of suffering and injustice. The work of Benny Andrews is narrative and passionate and always carries a message. Collage has always been a sustaining umbilical medium for the artist and it is somewhere between surrealism and social realism that his work resides.
A master draftsman, Andrews imbues his line drawings with a rare vitality and a journey essay, fervor. Essay Help? Andrews wanted to express himself differently from other artists in essay, order to create his own unique individuality. His works are delicate, subtle, and intimate. Whatever the medium, they are always linear, narrative, and abstract. He draws from essay help his past private life in Georgia and essay act of, his social life in New York. Essay + Writing Help? The inclusion of rugged surfaces, found scraps of papers, cloth, and built-up sections gives the paintings a surreal reality in relation to the past and present of a person. His collages are at times illusionary and representational. Essay? Christian. Words: 1813 - Pages: 8. . Raksha Rao Professor James Wynn Rhetoric and Public Policy 2 April 2014 Rhetorical Analysis: Euthanasia Particular Analysis There are three key audiences of the text for William F. May's “Rising to the Occasion of narrative, Our Death.” The first audience, in this case, would be legislative organizations or lawmakers who have researched and studied similar cases regarding euthanasia.
Since May was as an ethics professor at Southern Methodist University, his tone is decidedly intellectual. An uneducated individual would find it more difficult to read his essay; for example, in declarations such as “Advocates of active euthanasia appeal to the principle of patient autonomy,” May's syntax and essay on an act of charity, tone is narrative formal, informative, and utilizes heavy technical jargon (May 662). In other words, it is authoritative, and enables the audience to view him as a credible source due to his syntactical confidence. Other organizations, lobbyists, or lawmakers who are researching evidence on euthanasia would certainly benefit from reading his expert opinion on the matter. Moreover, his desire to develop a “judicious, regulated policy” is a certain acknowledgement that he is attempting to legally call for regulations on euthanasia (May 662). The second audience that May is appealing to essay are conservative Christians, who are distinctively pro-life. As his article was originally published in well-circulated The Christian Century magazine, addressing this audience exposes members of May's audience who.
Words: 3937 - Pages: 16. . was back on a hoodlum’s street. C.M.: The syntax forces the reader to move quickly from narrative line to line and clause to clause. C.M. Telugu Model? This mirrors the speed of the events in the ring and emphasizes the almost out-of-control feeling that Mailer has while watching the fight unfold. C.D.: In contrast, as the author describes Paret’s final moment and decent to narrative + writing the mat the syntax too slows and mirrors this surreal quality of the moment when “something happened to everyone who was in research in whitepapers, psychic range of the event.
Some part of his death reached out to us….” This slowed pace is evident as Paret “passed, so his limbs descended beneath him, and he sank slowly to the floor. He went down more slowly than any fighter had ever gone down, he went down like a large ship which turns on narrative help, end and slides second by second into its grave.” C.M.: As Mailer manipulates the in whitepapers pace of the descriptions he controls the emotional impact on the reader. C.M.: The speed of the essay help fight catches the reader off-guard and the surreal slowing of the citing research fighter’s death brings the essay + writing reader’s attention to cause ecological essay in marxism natural focus. C.S. The juxtaposition of the turning points in the fight and the syntax used to share them has just as much effect on the reader as the content of the description. V. Conclusion Paragraph For better or worse, Norman Mailer’s article allows the narrative essay + writing help reader to experience the violent end of Benny Paret. The author’s style and control of rhetoric influences the reader’s perception of the two men as well as the ferocity.
Words: 1334 - Pages: 6. . Nicholas Hamilton Rhetoric 20 Amy J. February 17, 2015 The Irony in Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche writes in his essay “On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense” about the understandings of knowledge, truth, and morality. Interestingly the translation of the original title for Nietzsche’s work might have been “On Truth and Lie in the Extramoral Sense.” This is interesting because the telugu essays republic translated version that is given for readers is “Nonmoral”; however another possible translation could have been “Extramoral” which shows that his writing may either be something not consistent with morality, but it may also be overly moral as well. Kenneth Burke writes in his work “Four Master Tropes”, about the tropes of metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and help, irony. He provides numerous definitions of citing, irony as well as the narrative essay three temptations of irony. Model Day? Nietzsche’s writing and ideas about “truth and lies” are “ironic” based on the definition and examples Burke uses as well as the standard dictionary definition of irony. Narrative + Writing? This irony accomplishes incongruity with what appears to be truth and lies and what it actually is; since there is telugu model republic day no concrete truth, this is ironic in narrative essay, itself.
Individuals often confuse and misuse the term ironic, but Kenneth Burke gives his opinion of what irony is. Habeas Corpus Papers? He says, “Irony arises when one tries, by the interaction of essay + writing help, terms upon essay one another, to narrative + writing produce a development which uses all the terms…they are all voices, personalities, or positions, integrally affecting one another” (432.
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6th grade essay Sixth Grade Writing Standards. Writing standards for sixth grade define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at narrative essay this grade level. Habeas Corpus Essay Papers? By understanding 6th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 6th Grade Writing? Sixth grade students are expected to produce cohesive, coherent, and error-free multi-paragraph essays on essay + writing, a regular basis. Sixth-graders write essays of increasing complexity containing formal introductions, ample supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students select the appropriate form and develop an identifiable voice and style suitable for the writing purpose and the audience. Sixth grade student writing should demonstrate a command of standard American English and writing skills such as organizing ideas, using effective transitions, and choosing precise wording.
Sixth-graders use every phase of the ecological essay in marxism natural writing process and continue to build their knowledge of narrative essay + writing, writing conventions, as well as how to evaluate writing and conduct research. Essay? The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as 6th grade benchmarks in writing proficiency: Sixth grade writing standards focus on + writing, the writing process as the primary tool to help children become independent writers. In Grade 6, students are taught to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: In grade 6, students generate ideas and organize information for essay, writing by narrative essay using such prewriting strategies as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and logs. Students choose the form of writing that best suits the intended purpose and then make a plan for writing that prioritizes ideas, addresses purpose, audience, main idea, and logical sequence. Drafting: In sixth grade, students develop drafts by categorizing ideas, organizing them into paragraphs, and blending paragraphs within larger units of text. Writing exhibits the students’ awareness of the audience and purpose. Students analyze language techniques of professional authors (e.g., point of telugu, view, establishing mood) to enhance the use of descriptive language and word choices. Revising: In sixth grade, students revise selected drafts by elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearranging text. + Writing Help? Other grade 6 revision techniques include adding transitional words, incorporating sources directly and indirectly into writing, using generalizations where appropriate, and connecting conclusion to beginning (e.g., use of the circular ending). Goals for revision include improving coherence, progression, and the logical support of ideas by citing research focusing on narrative essay + writing help, the organization and consistency of ideas within and between paragraphs. Students also evaluate drafts for use of voice, point of education prompts, view, and language techniques (e.g., foreshadowing, imagery, simile, metaphor, sensory language, connotation, denotation) to create a vivid expression of narrative help, ideas.
Editing: Students edit their writing based on a journey essay, their knowledge of grammar and usage, spelling, punctuation, and other features of polished writing, such as clarity, varied sentence structure, and word choice (e.g., eliminating slang and selecting more precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives). Essay + Writing Help? Students also proofread using reference materials, word processor, and other resources. Publishing: Sixth graders refine selected pieces frequently to “publish” for essay, intended audiences. Published pieces use appropriate formatting and narrative essay help, graphics (e.g., tables, drawings, charts, graphs) when applicable to enhance the on an act of appearance of the document. Use of technology: Sixth grade students use available technology to + writing help support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Students compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).
In sixth grade, students write to express, discover, record, develop, and by train, reflect on ideas. They problem solve and produce texts of at least 500 to 700 words. Essay + Writing Help? Specifically, 6th grade writing standards stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Students write narrative accounts that establish a point of cause ecological natural, view, setting, and plot (including rising action, conflict, climax, falling action, and resolution). Writing should employ precise sensory details and concrete language to + writing develop plot and character and use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense, and figurative language) to enhance style and tone. Expository: Students write to describe, explain, compare and contrast, and problem solve. Essays should engage the interest of the reader and include a thesis statement, supporting details, and introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs. Students use a variety of organizational patterns, including by categories, spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order. Research Reports: Students pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to essay in marxism natural be thoroughly covered.
Writing supports the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches), and includes a bibliography. Persuasive: Students write to influence, such as to persuade, argue, and request. In grade 6, persuasive compositions should state a clear position, support the position with organized and relevant evidence, anticipate and address reader concerns and narrative essay + writing, counter arguments. A Journey Essay? Creative: Students write to entertain, using a variety of expressive forms (e.g., short play, song lyrics, historical fiction, limericks) that employ figurative language, rhythm, dialogue, characterization, plot, and/or appropriate format. Responses to + writing Literature: Sixth grade students develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and research, insight. Writing shows organization around clear ideas, premises, or images, supported by examples and textual evidence. In addition, sixth graders choose the appropriate form for their own purpose for writing, including journals, letters, editorials, reviews, poems, presentations, and narratives, and + writing, instructions. Grade 6: Writing Evaluation. Sixth grade students learn to respond constructively to education essay others#8217; writing and determine if their own writing achieves its purposes. In Grade 6, students also apply criteria to evaluate writing and analyze published examples as models for writing. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to + writing help set goals as a writer.
In addition, sixth grade students evaluate the purposes and effects of film, print, and technology presentations. A Journey? Students assess how language, medium, and presentation contribute to meaning. Grade 6: Written English Language Conventions. Students in sixth grade are expected to write with more complex sentences, capitalization, and punctuation. In particular, sixth grade writing standards specify these key markers of proficiency:
—Write in complete sentences, using a variety of sentence structures to expand and embed ideas (e.g., simple, compound, and complex sentences; parallel structure, such as similar grammatical forms or juxtaposed items). —Employ effective coordination and subordination of ideas to express complete thoughts. —Use explicit transitional devices. —Correctly employ Standard English usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun referents, and the eight parts of + writing, speech (noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection). Ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects. —Use verb tenses appropriately and cause ecological essay natural, consistently such as present, past, future, perfect, and progressive. —Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns. —Use adjectives (comparative and superlative forms) and adverbs appropriately to make writing vivid or precise. —Use prepositional phrases to elaborate written ideas. —Use conjunctions to connect ideas meaningfully. —Use regular and narrative help, irregular plurals correctly. —Write with increasing accuracy when using pronoun case such as “He and they joined him.” —Punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning such as using hyphens, semicolons, colons, possessives, and sentence punctuation. —Use correct punctuation for clauses (e.g., dependent and independent clauses), appositives and on an charity, appositive phrases, and in cited sources, including quotations for exact words from sources. —Write with increasing accuracy when using apostrophes in contractions such as doesn’t and possessives such as Maria’s. —Capitalize correctly to narrative + writing clarify and enhance meaning. —Sixth grades pay particular attention to capitalization of major words in titles of books, plays, movies, and in marxism natural, television programs. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? —Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek and Latin root words. —Spell frequently misspelled words correctly (e.g., their, they’re, there). —Write with accurate spelling of roots words such as drink, speak, read, or happy, inflections such as those that change tense or number, suffixes such as -able or -less, and cause essay natural, prefixes such as re- or un. —Write with accurate spelling of contractions and syllable constructions, including closed, open, consonant before -le, and syllable boundary patterns. —Understand the influence of other languages and help, cultures on essays republic day, the spelling of English words. —Use resources to find correct spellings and spell accurately in final drafts. Narrative + Writing? —Write fluidly and legibly in cursive or manuscript as appropriate. Grade 6: Research and Inquiry. In sixth grade, students select and use reference materials and resources as needed for writing, revising, and editing final drafts. Students learn how to gather information systematically and use writing as a tool for research and inquiry in the following ways: Search out multiple texts to complete research reports and projects. Organize prior knowledge about a topic in essay charity a variety of ways such as by producing a graphic organizer. Formulate a research plan, take notes, and apply evaluative criteria (e.g., relevance, accuracy, organization, validity, publication date) to select and use appropriate resources. Frame questions for research. Evaluate own research and raise new questions for further investigation.
Select and use a variety of essay, relevant and authoritative sources and essay on an, reference materials (e.g., experts, periodicals, online information, dictionary, encyclopedias, online information) to essay help aid in habeas papers writing. Summarize and organize ideas gained from multiple sources in useful ways such as outlines, conceptual maps, learning logs, and timelines. Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information. Follow accepted formats for writing research, including documenting sources. Explain and demonstrate an essay help understanding of the importance of ethical research practices, including the need to avoid plagiarism, and know the associated consequences. Sixth Grade Writing Tests. In some states, sixth graders take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or, increasingly, on a computer. Students will be given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as a timed essay writing exercise, in habeas corpus essay which they must write an essay in response to narrative + writing a writing prompt. While tests vary, some states test at intervals throughout the year, each time asking students to respond to essay on an a different writing prompt that requires a different form of writing, (i.e., narrative, expository, persuasive).
Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. Students are also given classroom-based sixth grade writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to essay state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to education what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to narrative help be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. Research? These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. Essay Help? State departments of education often include information on papers, writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including sample questions.
Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in sixth grade is essay help, simply encouraging your child to write, raising awareness of the written word, and offering guidance on writing homework. For example, you can talk about the different purposes of writing as you encounter them, such as those of letters, recipes, grocery lists, instructions, and menus. By becoming familiar with 6th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. By Train Essay? Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them use the strategies of writing process to narrative essay + writing help revise their own work. Essay Charity? Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 6th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an excellent complement to narrative essay help sixth grade writing curriculum.
Developed by habeas corpus papers classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the help individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on corpus essay papers, a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for + writing help, sixth grade. For more information about general learning objectives for sixth grade students including math and language arts, please visit Time4Learning.com. *K-12 writing standards are defined by ecological in marxism natural each state.
Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the essay help National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.
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colour purple essay This is + writing help all published freely on the internet by research in whitepapers, us to further the scene, not to give any seller undeserved credibility. We Do Not Authorise any Copying, Republishing or Quoting of any of our Sections on + writing ebay, any sales sites or anywhere else. Record Info Contract Press pages: Original research, photos of our records text ©2017 by select45rpm. PLEASE DO NOT EMAIL ASKING FOR FREE ADVICE. Citing In Whitepapers? YOU'RE GETTING MORE ADVICE HERE THAN ANYWHERE ELSE, SO UNLESS YOU WANT TO PAY US TO RESEARCH SOMETHING, DON'T EXPECT ANYTHING MORE FOR FREE! Buying Vinyl today, or anything that makes more money than most similar items, you really do need to be sure you are actually buying the narrative essay + writing help Original if you are paying a price that the republic day Original would command. Essay? If you are only buying cheap records then it's unlikely you'll get any Fakes, but Where The Money Is Goes The Faker.
The amount of genuine reissues on different labels and numbers is also mixed with a large amount of papers, repros that are now over essay help 30 years old looking very similar to ecological essay in marxism natural the real item, which are unlicensed bootlegs. Also the amount of new Bootleg copies of rare 45s available seems to grow every week the copyright owners aren't doing anything about it, so more are to come from varied sources. Some Official Licensed reissues may confuse too, so look for text on the label to show they are. + Writing? Only Comparing to telugu known Real Ones will teach you. To the narrative + writing help experienced buyer these stand out obviously as repros but you have to learn to a journey by train essay spot real from repro without wasting money when other bids may hint at an item being more than it is, and the Sheep Effect gains more bidders who think if others bid it must be right. Those other bidders may not really exist however. One seller of obvious (to us) Fake Beatles Demos relists them for narrative + writing help the third time in late Nov 2013 after getting lots of bids on the previous outings, enough to trap the unwary be sure one will sell as an Xmas Gift to model essays day an unwary buyer. Only proves ebay don't care, so only you can safeguard your money from these parasites with fake items. See handle a lot of narrative essay help, real original records.
Records aren't as around 'on the street' as much as they used to be, the corpus essay easiest place is likely a car boot sale just to find some junk 45s to learn from. Essay Help? A typical rare item, eg a ?300 50s London was issued amid Pat Boone records or a Major Lance Columbia was amid Ken Dodd 45s, so buy a cheap handful of those see what they are like. Habeas Papers? But you're not going to find many pre 1956 Sun 45s to + writing help compare your Elvis too confusingly each one looks different had variations in pressing! 60s Mod Psych collectors will see the UK biggies are mostly on big labels, so buying a Seekers or Walker Brothers hit cheaply will give you a good item to compare your prized 45 to. as a Reliable Reference to see what Original Records look like. We photo all our Stock out of the essay act of sleeve. Note UK vinyl peculiarities like pronged centres, serrated raised rims on the label edge area ridges bumps in the label area.
There are very few sellers who photo out of sleeves our photo technique gives a good 3D idea of what the narrative essay vinyl looks like, especially on on an charity the darker labels. They were and are still usually openly sold as repros when new to those who are into the music styles. But age of them lack of knowledge of their existance can confound even seasoned record buyers. The early repros from the early 70s of narrative essay, Rock Roll Doowop may now be aged looking as nearly 40 years old when the original is just 50 years old. But a repro is worth a fiver unless there is demand for it it's an early one. Big profits too: costs under ?1 each to press a few hundred copies with no royalties to research pay. + Writing Help? You as the education essay prompts buyer will likely get stung by buying a repro at some time, especially the Northern Soul scene where 95% of essay, copies of Gloria Jones 'Tainted Love' (origs are on styrene with black labels a Delta number) and also Coasters 'Crazy Baby' (origs always have the AT notation on the vinyl can be either thick vinyl or styrene).
But if you are happy with a repro, and most are of a journey, good sound quality, then don't just avoid them because they are unofficial. The LP market is help similar, but as card covers are involved, the cause ecological essay in marxism cheaper quality lack of narrative + writing help, age smell on citing research a supposed 30+ year old LP gives them away. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? There is essay prompts even a strange USA-looking repro of a UK London Skyliners track, which must be from 1979 when Art Garfunkel had a hit with 'Since I Don't Have You'. Other odd USA-looking repros of UK items are the Davy Jones King Bees Vocalion oddly the help Southlanders on Decca. This is getting a bit too much now. One Top Rated Seller on ebay makes up Fake Demo Labels sticks them on habeas essay the Original Vinyl. ?12+ for a 10p print out a 25p scratchy record!
To those who know, these are obviously Fake but sadly you can be sure they will be passed off as Original by others as some have tried with the + writing help No-Centre bootlegs. In Whitepapers? Odds are a person buying one of these now or later will never be a collector but want a Rarity on the cheap and never research what they are buying. All we can say is read this page carefully look at our Record Sales Pictures simply as an narrative help idea of what the Original Vintage Vinyl looks like. Why would anybody want these things? They are Rubbish. It is like those who buy Fake Rolex watches or Gucci Handbags, they think these fake things will impress people as unaware as they are. You can hear people in in whitepapers the Future saying It has a serrated edge the stamper numbers like the help regular issue, it's worth a fortune! But naturally only those unaware of a proper Demo label, as these are Fakes are basically copying one, will not realise the Original Demo Labels were Pressed Into The Vinyl, not stuck on. Be careful out there folks if we get any, we'll smash them up as we have with similar Fake label on Original Vinyl jobs. There are even Fake Beatles Polydor Demos that use a Demo label from 1965 on 1962-64. Now we had a genuine Polydor demo of cause ecological in marxism, 'Ain't She Sweet' another 1963 Polydor demo, so we know what they should look like.
Nothing like the fakes. Are people stupid enough to stick Fake Demo labels on essay the original UK Polydor vinyl? Seems unlikely. It leads sadly to Fakes being offered as Genuine to more casual buyers after a Historical Collectable, not real record collectors. They'll be conned. By the education prompts amount of these EMI must have made many dozens. In reality a Genuine Factory Sample you'd be lucky to ever see 5-12 of narrative + writing, ever as they were thrown away or used through time in low grade. All we've seen are pathetic fakes with gummed labels soaked off others poorly glued on hiding tears writing by their awkward positioning. Looking at the bids, there is telugu republic day often an eager underbidder keeping interest alive yet they oddly never win.
If buyers believe these fake stickers stuck on genuine but label-damaged copies are worth ?200+ then it's their call, just wait until you try to sell the narrative essay + writing help things. We see buyers willingly pay high prices for fakes, repros bootlegs thinking they are real. The Vinyl is essay natural Original as is easy to see, but the foolish bidders are tricked with worthless gummed stickers. Caveat Emptor seems to + writing be forgotten in the false excitement of essay, bidding for a record probably only help worth ?20-?50 once it's fake stickers are removed revealing tears writing. Love Me Do on on an 1962 Red Parlophone is a very common Top 20 record, Please Please Me is narrative essay much harder to find but there are always lots of copies around. We saw some very obvious ones on ebay from a seller in 2013. Beatles Abbey Road Export LP a few Beatles Demos . All Fake scanned labels stuck onto in marxism natural common original vinyl. UK EMI labels are pressed with the vinyl, not glued on!
The Abbey Road was hand cut easy to essay + writing spot it was fake, but sadly bidders only see a bargain and some gullible fool paid ?500+ for it! One Beatles Demo had two sets of serrated record edges, one on the real black label it was the other from the Fake label, slightly shrunk to stick in the label space. EMI Demos usually have bigger labels that go beyond the serrated edge. The obvious untidily cut with a scalpel centre push out spaces means we spot it in a second. Education Essay Prompts? Yet if they were real they'd make high prices. + Writing Help? Sadly the fakes sold for telugu model republic ?275 to ?500. All hidden under Private listings which usually means fake bids to give it an air of authenticity. They had a Fake Stones Come On Demo too got ?250+ for it. Ebay clearly don't care as the + writing guy relists the same ones again shortly after, third time now!
So why bother reporting the ecological essay natural fakes? If you have ?100s to spend on Beatles Demos, do yourself a favour have a good look at all our label photos of other EMI Demos to see what a real one looks like. Another Fake with bids over ?100 was Beatles 'From Me To You' typical UK vinyl with a Fake 'Dick James Music' demo label on. How exiting! How FAKE! These labels were only used on acetates so any bidder is as fake or gullible. Essay + Writing? It's annoying perhaps, but unlikely there are any real bidders (we hope). One seller of Billy Fury items had a batch of perfectly genuine Demos Acetates, but we spotted one faked up Demo amid the real items. It sold. the buyer was happy with it as feedback proves as they bought several others with it. Oh well. Go buy a cheap one of papers, a far less wanted artist see what a Real Demo looks like.
Beyond that, you are really on your own. to buy these items on ebay is as trustworthy as buying a Rolex or a Gucci handbag. Narrative Essay + Writing? Well faked up. Always a problem on existing Rare picture sleeves, but over the last few years, there are an increasing amount of Fake Fantasy picture sleeves turning up on by train essay ebay. Narrative + Writing? In reality you can see they are modern, but on ebay people believe vague descriptions or no description pay high for fake goods. These look instantly wrong to one who knows the essay act of scene with things not looking right, but with there being Export Picture sleeves in Europe with UK vinyl inside, people are too willing to believe. Narrative Essay? One we've seen as a Fake multiple times is a Diana Dors 1960 Pye one,. How anyone thinks that looks real beggars belief, bad typeface, not a good picture cheaply printed, but a ?10 record sells for a high price.
Similar Fake Billy Fury sleeves appear be sure many Beatles Elvis similarly. We saw with Coins years ago that High Value items were being recreated sold as Replicas. It's just how any market is cause essay natural be sure many unaware buyers have bought non-Original items. Fantasy Items means an essay help item that never existed but is faked up to appear Original amid other items. A Journey? The possibilities are endless these started in the 1970s with Beatles David Bowie fakes that oddly now are collected for being early Fakes. But to the collector, they know exactly what they are. There are some titles that so often get passed off as originals. If buyer doesn't bother to check, then it's their choice. Narrative Help? The most common bootlegs-repros that look old as 1970s ones are Gloria Jones-Tainted Love on blue-green Champion Barbara Mills Queen Of Fools on fake USA Hickory using UK style lettering but with a USA type large centre. A Journey Essay? But two we see that make high prices are more worrying.
The Coasters Crazy Baby has more than one Bootleg that gets sold as an narrative essay help original, the Originals are thick East Coast Pressings or Styrene West Coast ones but always have groove markings like other Atlantic-Atco 45s, easy to compare easy to mark them in so we'll not say. Cause? The originals are Hifi quality the Bootlegs sound rough. Essay + Writing Help? Another we often see sold as Original is The Vibrations-Cause You're Mine . The original Epic is a white-red Promo or a Yellow issue with Narrow Tall Print. The one we see making big money is an early 1970s Repressing with Stereo on telugu essays day the label , it's status is like the narrative + writing Okeh ones with 'small 45rpm' is is official product with stamped numbers but an early 1970s pressing to essay cope with the + writing huge demand for certain 45s. No-one wonders why they are always Mint? Buyers think the Mono 45 with Stereo 1970s wider print is on an act of charity real in essay + writing help July 2015 insanely pay ?180-?200+ for essay a repressing! Other 1970s Bootlegs passed off as originals because they have Stamped Matrix Numbers are The Fuller Brother-Time's A Wasting Lorenzo Manley-Swoop Down On You.
But the poor sound quality gives it away to essay find a genuine stock copy of essay, Lorenzo one we've only seem Bootlegs, if the white Promos are real. Narrative Essay Help? The Fullers one has a totally different label design to essay papers the original there are enough sites detailing the original on glossy RCA type pressings. These are neatly machine etched like an engraving machine with thin letters like UK EMI Parlophone, Columbia, Philips Stateside, Decca, London, Pye etc or thick letters like 1965 era Sue, Island etc. USA vinyl is narrative similar. A Journey By Train Essay? Some are stamped like Philips, Fontana etc. There is usually a style that is narrative essay help typical to the era, eg Island started with Stamped numbers in 1962, they were thick machine etched in 1964, the 1966-68 white reggae series were thin machine etched the telugu model essays day pink 1967 era onwards were machine stamped. The number in the run out area usually relates to a matrix number on the vinyl. But to essay understand this, buy a box of cheap 50s 60s vinyl and learn what there is. Some matrix numbers show in our Record Sales photos as we photo out telugu model essays republic day, of the sleeve.
But be aware there is essay + writing no 100% rule, some 1965 UK Polydor have hand etched numbers, some are more confusing like USA early 1950s RCA with DJ copies often hand etched, but Stock copies that are machine stamped. Many post 1970 UK records are handwritten, eg Pye changed from machine etched to handwritten in cause ecological in marxism natural the early 1970s. USA vinyl is usually handwritten again East Coast (vinyl) West Coast (styrene) pressed copies can vary as some are stamped others not. Only by seeing original vinyl of + writing, 'worthless' artists on a similar era label will you be able to tell all the signs an item is real or not. If you are buying Demos of name artists as artifacts, be sure 9/10 Beatles Demos on ebay in citing research in whitepapers 2013 are fake, though no-one will fake a Ken Dodd demo, so buy one to see what it looks like. and can spot reissues later pressings with ease. Essay + Writing Help? We collected USA vinyl in several genres at one time so are aware of those that got reissued or bootlegged. You can be sure we can tell it's an Original. The Beatles 45s were reissued repressed many times, if not always constantly available in between.
These records were repressed with the style of label etc that was the citing in whitepapers standard at the time of repress. Essay + Writing? A 4th pressing of an LP is often sold as an Original, just like in books certain 1940s Annuals with ISBN codes are sold as originals, but ISBN codes only began in education prompts 1966. In years to come, records with barcodes that first appeared mid 80s will be passed off as 60s or 70s originals unaware people will believe it! like any sweeping statements there will be exceptions, but this will help weed out fake 45s even LPs. + Writing? A fake or repro 45 of any track is worth ?6-10 unless that repro itself has got established as a collectable in essay on an it's own right, ie the issued 1973 dated Mariano 1950s RR and RB USA 45s plenty of Northern Soul. Only you can decide what a non genuine item is narrative + writing worth. No Bootleg or 'Repro' is worth more than ?6-8 unless there is a known collector demand for essay in marxism natural the Repro. Narrative? Azie Lawrence new bootleg for prompts ?30 is an insult! Some late 1960s-early 1970s bootlegs of narrative essay, Soul Rockabilly are now collected in their own right, especially if the essay on an original is unfindable usually highly priced. to describe any record some amateur has: eg 1954 London Slim Whitman on essay + writing round centre with a silver top could be a 6th pressing, yet it'll still be called a rare 1st pressing. Prince Buster 'Al Capone' on the beige label is telugu a 1972 press, not the + writing Original often touted.
Most issues are on essay dark blue, but with it being a 1965 record belatedly becoming a chart hit in narrative essay help 1967, only an citing in whitepapers expert can pick out the 1st 1965 press from the 1967 one! Similar with The Skatalites 'Guns Of Navarone'. Fake Demo Labels Stuck On Original Vinyl. There was a batch of essay + writing help, these done by one person in the late 1990s now others are selling these on model essays republic ebay which we find unacceptable. They got original common vinyl by big Names, ie Beatles, Stones, Billy Fury etc and narrative + writing help, scanned up real demo labels from essay other less valuable records. They then carelessly used any modern font copied the wording on a computer artwork program printed them out. They then stuck them onto help the original vinyl used a scalpel to telugu republic day cut out the push out centre area centre hole. This is the narrative essay big giveaway: know the Font used, know UK Demos generally have labels pressed with the essays republic day vinyl know the narrative help dodgy cut-out of the by train centre holes. If we ever get any we smash them up so they are gone, but sadly these are still around one creep on ebay got some idiot to narrative pay ?100 for a fake Beatles PPM demo.
Buyers of model republic, these items want an artifact know sod all about vinyl sadly are the narrative essay victims of research, their own lack of knowledge. Narrative? We knew one guy who bought some from this seller when it was just starting his scam was to model essays day price a ?100 demo for ?30, so the gullible-greedy buyer would jump at narrative essay such a big bargain not bother to check what the item really was. Naturally only telugu republic inexperienced buyers would fall for it this person is narrative essay still active on ebay. If a UK Demo has an official Not For Sale white label with the act of charity Label name it will be pressed with the + writing vinyl always. The only exception were UK MGM who done odd Demos with basic details printed on the White demo label then had Pink MGM demo labels glued over. As these often come loose, look under you'll see the basic one. were never used before 1983 on records. Essay Prompts? Fax numbers were new in the 1980s website names in essay + writing the later 1990s. of classic Studio One tracks look aged as they are poorly pressed on old equipment.
The 'noise' on these repressings is actually from using the corroded copper plates raw, rather than preparing them first. The vinyl itself is not the noisy part, the corpus papers noise is narrative gaps in the record surface the verdigris (green copper rust) that the research humidity creates on narrative essay help the copper. This is a Minefield too. For example, the Billy Fury 10 LP was originally a 1960 LP, a thick slab of vinyl, but it was reissued in 1982 on a thinner pressing but official product so quality is good. Many will think their 31 years old one if not so new looking is real. But the telugu model republic 1982 has 'LFT' as the narrative help catalog number and handwritten matrix numbers. The original has 'LF' and is machine stamped. Then Elvis 10 LPs were repressed in habeas essay France as sort of narrative + writing, bootlegs too: the Janis Elvis one you see forever relisted at a high price on ebay is one of citing, these, there is a HMV Best Of Elvis too. These were sold shrinkwrapped, possibly with a Collector Issue note on it from essay + writing help what we remember seing them sold as new on markets. Prompts? Then there are more modern nasty fakes of + writing, Beatles Gold Please Please Me that will trap the unwary.
Again, only cause essay Money items are faked. Buying on ebay is not safe for the Artifact Buyer who doesn't know enough about + writing Vinyl. Be sure, unless you buy from a dealer who has plenty of Old Vinyl, that your ?100-?500 Bargain when they are ?1000 from on an act of others is a Fake. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? There are Fakes in any area of Collecting where Money Items are involved. Republic Day? Even in narrative essay + writing help Hifi, you'd think no-one would Fake an Amplifier, but there are Official Collector's Editions of Quad, Marantz McIntosh as well as others possibly, but these are prestige items, but still the buyer may think they are getting a Vintage 1960s one. Learn your Subject. To say all USA records with them are original is wrong, as is research in whitepapers saying all ZTSP with handwritten ones are fake. Help? Early 50s RCA promos had handwritten matrixes whist the issues had stamped ones. Essay Prompts? USA Columbia pressed vinyl or styrene have been seen with handwritten matrix numbers. 1970s Northern Soul repros of + writing, Lorenzo Manley and education essay, Fuller Brothers with stamped matrices but poor sound when compared to the originals shows they are duds, but you won't read that anywhere else.
The Lorenzo one cut lower much duller sounding is essay + writing always passed off as an original! All well us saying these things, but what is a Matrix Number? It is a number-letter code on the vinyl in the gap between the end of the music grooves the label edge. Habeas Corpus Papers? The term used for narrative essay + writing this space that has a spiral groove to activate an autochanger is 'Dead Wax' from the days of early 78s, or 'Run Out Area' for other folks. Depending on the record company, eg Parlophone used 7XCE, Stateside used 45KR many others. The Matrix number is essays republic noted on the label too, eg Parlophone R5200 which is essay + writing help Beatles 'I Feel Fine' has the Catalog number R 5200 on the right of the label and essay on an act of, 7XCE 18171 on the left. The number stamped in the vinyl is 7XCE 18171-1N. Narrative Essay Help? Looking at the record, assuming the matrix number is at the bottom, to a journey the left at 9 o'clock position is KT and a number, to the right at narrative + writing help the 3 o'clock position will be a code from the GRAMOPHLTD letters relating to a number 1-9 0, eg R is essay on an 2. Depending on how many copies sold how late your pressing is. This may be G, GA or GOD as we had on one got a Tenner for it as someone liked that!
On a Decca pressed record, eg London, eg 1962, you'll find a letter from BUCKINGHAM. If a Decca pressing has BH in one line it is the + writing help 18th one, if it has B with H below, ignore the H and it's the 1st. Matrix numbers are generally unimportant despite the ebay BS hype, but they can be useful for cause ecological research. Similarly the presence of narrative + writing help, this doesn't always mean the same either! This serrated 'grip' edge began on UK vinyl in early 1957 because popular cheap record players at the time until the essay prompts mid 80s were autochangers where you stacked up records played up to 8 records in narrative + writing help one go, like a jukebox. From Dansettes to corpus essay papers flimsy BSR turntables, the autochanger was rife. The serrated edge simply stopped the labels slipping spoiling the narrative music. A Journey? For this reason, HMV Elvis unless barely played have the serrated bit worn through to the white base paper from repeated playing. To confuse the narrative + writing help issue, you find some USA records with serrated edges, not many, but look at USA Capitol pressings from corpus papers 1968-70s they have this so do a few originally USA-only Northern Soul repros pressed in narrative essay + writing the UK in the 70s, eg the Tommy Navarro one.
Several other countries adopted the telugu model serrated edge, from Singapore and Holland to India. Having said that, a UK record with the serrated edge can be looked on narrative essay + writing help as 'official product' made between 1957 and 1984 . The presence of this or not is no clue to ecological essay in marxism originality as many UK pressings are only recognisable as UK pressings by narrative essay + writing help, other features as often no country is essay act of charity stated. Non UK pressed repros can still copy this text making confusion. is more for LP and EP buyers. Some early 50s EPs came without lamination, only to have later issues laminated. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? Lamination is a thin layer of plastic film attached permanently to usually only the front of in whitepapers, a record sleeve to protect it. Help? As years age the earliest ones, the education glue has gone hard the lamination starts to essay help crack peel. By circa 1969 it was common to cause ecological see unlaminated sleeves by + writing help, the 70s it was usual. See all the paper tears top right corner from careless sticker removal! Some earlier unlaminated UK ones had an odd varnish type covering, meaning if you remove dry tape marks with meths, off comes the printing too! You may see a Velvett Fogg 1969 Pye LP with no lamination a barcode, we heard of a collector receiving one instead of the real one his money paid expected.
This one relates to LPs mainly. Some LPs had a flap of paper from the front part of the cover bent over to glue to the back part creating a neat join. These are called flipback sleeves. The Decca pressed ones to about 1961 had a curved section cut out, to habeas essay papers accomadate the shape of the narrative + writing vinyl put in education prompts the cover. After that it was just a plain strip.
By 1964-65 Decca pressings could have either a flipback or not as the flap is essay sealed inside the cover, not outside it randomly done so, neither early or late unless other factors showed otherwise. A 1959 LP with no flipback can be seen to be a 1965 or later issue, in those days some LPs stayed available for several years. The 1965 press would have a subtly different label and habeas corpus, pressing moulding. we've seen as a way to show the BS ebay seller had a rare export copy prices it to the unaware. Again look at essay a large amount of UK vinyl covering 50s to habeas corpus papers 70s, and you'll see many EMI Decca pressed records often showing these letters.
All it means is the record could be exported to eg Holland be official product, based on specific copyright terms. The fact it was sold in essay help the UK means it's not a proper Export, only a journey essay those with alternate catalog numbers or different B sides are proper exports. Cliff's Gee Whizz It's You was an export issue, as the catalog number shows, but it was also sold in the UK as it made the Top 10, despite not being an official UK release. The easy ones first: Oriole had some solid centres in 1962 as regular stock copies, nothing special. Oriole Contracts of essay + writing help, 1963-64 Beatles on Parlophone exist but these are likely just test pressings only education different by being solid centre. Whether any actualy sold for ?500 asking prices is unlikely. Pye similarly done solid centres occasionally from narrative + writing 1960-69 with the earliest Lonnie Donegan Dustman from 1960, again nothing special. EMI started in a journey essay 1952 with large hole pressings, if the 4 prong centre was introduced mid 1953 continued until 1966. After this solid 4 prong centres are often found if some titles that didn't sell from narrative essay 1967-69 will be only found with solid centres, eg Bobby Goldsboro Too Many People is only on a journey solid centre as far as we know if the Demo is help a pronged centre for jukeboxes.
Big hits like Pink Floyd Emily are commonly found as either solid or pronged centre. Decca is the oddity here though. The first UK Decca 45s were the model 45000 series export Blue Gold Decca in 1950 into the 900-1000 series London exports, some of which by 1954 had thick tri centres, if the USA type large centre. Tri centres changed from Aug 1954 Thick Tri to Jan 1955 Long Thin Tri to March 1955 standard Tri as on essay the London pages, if dates are never precise. By Train Essay? The Tri centre continued until March 1960 if Round centres started September 1959. Round centres with 4 prongs are standard Decca style until 1980 when Polygran bought Decca. Every single Decca pressed 45 has a 4 prong centre.
One sided Demos in narrative + writing help the 1950s-1960 could be solid centre or tri centre, a mix of act of, both even on narrative help the same A+B pair. A Journey? But there are Solid Centre Pressings made from 1955 to narrative help at least 1964. Citing? These are actually reject copies with rough edges trimmed with scissors, a centre hole but no centre shape for Tri or Round. These we've had over the years they are usually poor grade look untidy so even having Gold London Bill Haley Fontane sisters, we didn't like them as they weren't real records. But as RCA pressed Elvis Presley Rolling Stones who have a wide collector base, these rejects can be offered for ?100, again whether they sell is another thing as they look messy. But if colectors like them, prices rise, but we aren't sure anyone but the tiny few care once they have them there is narrative + writing help no interest.
All UK 45s from 1953 to 1980s have either with small LP-size centre holes, obvious exceptions are 1953 EMI, 1967-73 Polydor early 50s Decca exports, or those 1967 on that have been 'dinked' for a jukebox, as they were made with a solid centre: either roughly by a hand tool or by cause essay in marxism, a machine. UK record centres: Decca used a triangle centre from 1954 to 1960. Essay + Writing Help? EMI used round centres 1953 onwards, after the few early large centre issues (see other pages of ours). All other labels used a 3-prong or 4-prong round centre that could be removed for jukeboxes or the early USA record players. Essay On An Charity? There are also the jigsaw removable-replaceable centres too, see another page of ours - '50s Odd Centres'. A UK record with a centre is mistakenly called a 'Tri Centre' by some European sellers, unaware Tri means Triangle, rather than just any centre. A restuck centre, often found with Tri Centres is only worth the narrative same as a NO CENTRE record (or less if it was messily glued), ie 25%-75% of the with-centre copy.
Stuck centres easily come out, ping one with your finger see it fly across the essay charity room! Then put an adaptor in essay + writing instead. maybe viewed with suspicion, as the essay act of charity general style of centre is the large jukebox middle. Not so, USA Columbia introduced a failed attempt to compete with RCA's 45rpm with their 33rpm 7, see the essay + writing Tri Centres page for photos. Some were unfinished or factory-only test items, like the essay on an charity Okeh one, just like you see UK Gold London with solid centres oversized edges as untrimmed. You still see UK sellers saying a USA record is a NOC or 'no original centre', clearly unaware of the + writing history of the on an act of 45. The 33rpm Jukebox single from the early 60s with or without the narrative essay help thick card mini cover slicks is another example. You rarely find a Jamaican early 60s issue with the solid centre a small LP size hole, these again are unfinished items.
Slade on education prompts 1970s Polydor are found as USA pressings with UK numbers solid centres. In the + writing help 1973-74 era with all the problems, contract pressings imported contract pressings are numerous, to a journey essay the point some hits on the first press are USA import only, like David Bowie with Rebel Rebel, see elsewhere on our site. The presence of a proper one that is real, not just a printed part of the narrative essay + writing label design, means it is a genuine item, though it may be a much later pressing. Cutting out the area to make the centre a push-out one appears to be very expensive, so bootleggers don't bother. Habeas Papers? New Zealand pressings used a square centre for some years late 50s early 60s Japan used a shaped tri centre in a similar era. But again, a few modern reissues or retro style releases are appearing with pronged centres. of a proper released record will be of some hifi quality. If it is boomy with little crispness like USA bootlegs of 50s music in the 70s taken from 78s, that's a big giveaway. Today vinyl repros get the noise digitally reduced. Narrative? Having heard some, as always the model republic amateur has gone too far with the noise reduction settings lost the ambience from the music, making the music sound very unnatural. Narrative Essay? Mastering records listening through 6 speakers is a fool's game.
A lot of the essay prompts recent UK 60s Bootleg 45s are mastered much lower than the original 45. eg ^56778 on USA vinyl continued into the 70s, so if your 50s/60s music record has one over approx ^90000 then it's a 70s repro. Some originals were pressed at narrative essay + writing Monarch in papers the USA in the 60s the repro/bootlegs were made there too years later. Narrative Help? They are often styrene records, a harder type of vinyl that plays beautifully as regards surface noise on a high grade copy, but it can wear badly. Early Delta numbers turn up on records 1954-55 and on citing research in whitepapers vinyl. Some reissues, like the narrative + writing help Buster Eddie on on an charity Class use the old metal stampers with the 1960s Delta, only the label colour difference gives it away. are scans or photocopies, though today's printing techniques can be very advanced. Some recreate the typeface in a modern similar font and others add numbers or wording to the original scanned design which helps show the reissue from the narrative essay real. can be a good clue too, as can the texture.
An original will always be on a better quality paper with a crisper typeface with no blurring. A very modern repro will still get things wrong: those 60s Beat repros get the Pye pink very wrong as they are just scans as earlier were photocopies*. Of course, some will use much higher resolution paperwork but even then, you can't match the republic vinyl even if the essay help labels are 99% perfect. * It appears we must add that the image of the original is research in whitepapers scanned or photocopied then printed on typical paper ink. + Writing? Photocopy paper is dust that is heat bonded and is never used raw. Only the source image is derived from a photo, scan or photocopy . The usual way for cause ecological a UK 45 to have it's label applied is having it pressed into the vinyl when made. This means you cannot pick it away at the edge it does not lay above the surface. Certain USA labels always used a stuck-on label, eg Styrene always had a stuck-on label applied with glue.
Later Styrene pressings had ink printed directly onto the blank label are with no paper. Narrative Help? A basic rule is essays day a Vinyl pressed record (ignoring acetates) will have a pressed-on label. Essay? Exceptions include small-run private type labels, eg the early 1965-66 Blue Horizon. Any Decca sporting a stuck-on Demo label is essay papers highly likely to be fake, although again some exceptions regarding test pressings allowed these fakes to + writing help get accepted. Any record with the centre prongs showing in the label area will be precisely cut as they were cut whilst the vinyl was being pressed. This gets a little tricky, as hinted already, as you see blank white label or blank record company logo labels with applied sticker labels showing info. This applies to the Beatles Apple Demos, which are fairly glossy blank white labels with an Apple label stuck over.
You can find standard stock copies of a journey by train, a wide range of labels with added Emidisc or similar labels, these are genuine, but the narrative essay + writing ease of education, adding such should not make them hugely valuable, more like a nice issue defaced! Another exception as mentioned already, is MGM by 1967 it became independently pressed in essay help the UK (by EMI still, in plain white sleeves), the Demos here are plain white with basic details printed on the labels, but oddly a more typical pink MGM demo label stuck over! Confusing is the word. used is a vague one, though see a Sun 45 with a too-modern looking crisp font it's a modern (80s on) repro. Modern Soul repros make little attempt to copy the original label. Oddly a 1928 RCA Victor Blues 78 with it's plain font looks much newer than it is. Overall, experience is what gets you picking original from repro.
added to ordinary records, or even old ones added to repro ones! Even old ones soaked from cheapo 45s to add onto a Beatles makes a ?5 record a ?40 one, what a bargain. These silly items are created to make an ordinary item appear special to novices thinking they are getting a Beatles Demo or similar on the cheap. Citing? Genuine EMI, Decca or Philips group sample stickers are easy to tell once you've seen some the positioning of them will be apparent after seeing a large amount. Essay? No EMI sticker will turn up on a Decca record a 70s EMI one won't be on a mid 60s EMI.
EMI ones were of one sort then a later sort appeared. Does it matter? No. Essay On An Act Of? Is it Worth More? Not in narrative essay + writing help The Real World. Cause Ecological Essay In Marxism? It's a gummed label like a stamp. It can be used to + writing cover a tear or writing explaining the citing odd positions you see them put in. Narrative + Writing Help? It's easily transferred should add NOTHING to the value in the real world, a thing ebay clearly isn't. Pay ?. for a Beatles Factory Sample and then try to sell it yourself.
A Factory Sample Sticker is WORTHLESS! It's a Factory Test Sample or a cheap way of prompts, doing a Promo. Only a clearly different label design maybe in White with a big A and essay, a Release Date denotes a proper Demo. An Oriole demo from 1962 will just have a silver A on the centre of one side, unlike earlier later white demos. A UK Sue 45 with a Black rectangle is NOT a Demo, all the natural rectangle does is cover Sue Records USA on narrative 45s 'licensed' from on an act of other labels. If you still think it is, then no-one will mind charging you extra! Some records only narrative + writing help exist as Stock Copies with Factory Samples ie TMG 525 is not on a RW Demo, adding a sticker does not make ?100 into ?200, unless you are gullible.
The big pre mid 1965 Fontana sample stickers actually look ugly the education essay prompts record looks better without it as it's worth no difference unless the HN JP ones are hyped. fake '60s' acetates, faked items using old blank labels from 1940s 78 acetates stuck onto a Beatles record some fool pays ?150 for it. Computer printed demo labels stuck onto regular issues and badly cut out narrative + writing help, around the centre pushout. These fake items created to trap the unaware buyer thinking it's a bargain or something special. Citing? The buyers as evidenced by ebay feedback shows they aren't Record Buyers, but are after a piece of Memorabilia that is rare but have no knowledge of narrative + writing help, really what they are buying. The rule here is essay prompts it's not worth anything more than a standard copy if it basically looks like a standard copy. Narrative Essay? Only proper printed Demo or Promo labels are something special, as are Acetates.
An oddity is with some Australian promos: the added-on Demo sticker is stuck on the label BEFORE pressing. Removal or falling-off results in a dip in the vinyl as the sticker was originally level with the rest of the research label, rather than raised as a later added one would be. is another one to look out for. Any repro made since the 80s will not have the + writing help deep 'mono' grooves cut like an prompts original has. Essay + Writing? 70s repros still used older machinery so other signs must be checked. is not too helpful, those unplayed 50s Savoy stock look too new but are real early pressings, as do unplayed boxes of UK Blue Beat Wynonie Harris EPs. Similarly a scuffy or scratched disc with a worn label may easily be a repro aged up, but for it to a journey 'sell' only narrative big ?? items would be aged up. of older music often means a 70s press especially if the in whitepapers music is playing in Mono, look at your yellow Epic copy of Vibrations 'Cause You're Mine' with Stereo added then you'll see it's an early 70s press, not the 1969 one which had narrower smaller typeface!
Stereo 45s do exist from 1958, but will be easily proved originals from other factors. is of no use to decide if real or not, ignore those tedious ebay BS dealers saying 'original thick vinyl'. A 1949 USA RCA 45 is on narrative thin vinyl as is a 1956 one. Telugu Model Essays Day? A UK 1957 RCA is on thicker vinyl. Essay? A 1966 Blue Beat is on the thickest heavy vinyl you will find, they are Orlake pressings. A 1958 HMV LP is a strong heavy piece of model essays republic day, vinyl, yet some 1972-3 UK RCA LPs are so thin like a flexi. A thick heavy record with a silvery aluminium core seen through the centre is an + writing help Acetate can be genuine factory items with rare tracks, or especially in the early days of the Northern Soul scene, just a privately cut track for DJ use of no real value as a genuine studio acetate can have. Be aware a 60s track with felt tip pen writing is not an essay prompts old one! Handwritten biro, or ink on help the earlier ones are likely to be genuine. Habeas Corpus Essay? There are Fake Acetates of Rare Tracks we see occasionally on essay + writing ebay.
If it has no proper label, a 1960s track with felt tip details or just is too high grade, be Very Suspicious of it. Acetates last for decades, as you'd not see any if they didn''t, making a nonsense of the fragile not long lasting comments. You occasionally see 'Big Money' USA Northern Soul tracks cut back to back on one acetate. These are items a DJ made himself in the 1970s just to education essay be able to play it and as it's 100% unofficial as well as the sound quality usually being awful, they are not worth more than ?10 as curios. Of course there are Genuine Acetates of 60s Soul, but as with any acetate, there are clues.
These soul acetates can be crudely made, or nicely typed up on essay help EMIDISC labels as one PP Arnold Everything's one was with a totally unrelated B side. Essay? One 'expert' was happy to sell it giving the narrative essay + writing idea by association with other items that it was a 1960s original studio made one a buyer was happy to essay papers pay silly money, nearly ?150 for an unofficial item, not a fake was a 1970s item, but little different from a home tape. This same 'expert' had an extremely dodgy Beatles Faked Demo that he was quite indignant in us questioning him on, as some other 'expert' had confirmed it was 'real' so how dare we question. + Writing Help? Buyer beware is all you can say to that, keep it happily for 20 years then find out the truth. Telugu Essays Republic Day? There are quite a lot of Unissued Motown tracks turning up with 'Recoat' on the labels, these were rejected official items meant for reuse, but with so much Unissued Motown on CD now vinyl, these tracks no doubt will be faked up similarly. For the risk of getting silly, it can be a clue, but be aware how many smokers there were until recent years. A smoky smelling record may not be that old, but to tell if Sleeves are old, if they smell musty that is a clue of age, but not a sure one. Essay + Writing Help? If the vinyl has an obvious new plastic smell or a repro sleeve lacks crispness in the printing but gives you a paper cut it is likely a modern one. Repro 7 sleeves have been around years now can look old at a glance, but the blurry print or modern typeface added to recreate them gives it away.
They often come apart as the seams are poorly glued. was a UK Billy Fury Export EP, the 'Play It Cool' one. The catalog number of both as RC shows is telugu essays republic day identical, yet the cover is the clear steep difference in value. Now a seller had a repro cover and offered the + writing standard record inside it. The sleeve remember was a repro of no collector value. Yet excited (foolish) ebayers paid ?50 for essay act of it? Eh? Duh more like. ?10 the + writing record ?40 for a repro sleeve. Citing Research? Keeps us in the know smiling! Special AKA Gangsters was a huge hit rightly so. Essay + Writing? The majority are on paper labels worth no more than ?6, the only rarity is the handstamped sleeve, which has been repro'd and also the habeas papers silver ink later 1980 press label for completists.
The RC TT1-3 being rare is essay + writing help nonsense, the citing in whitepapers majority have this, so a ?6 record in reality. The first pressings are by Rough Trade via CBS and you'll find EMI Pye contract pressings too as demand was high. Now here's the thing: Pye vinyl was black in normal light, but from 1972-1980ish some held up to a light it shines varied shades of help, red. Hold it up to the light black vinyl becomes red. Habeas Corpus Essay Papers? BFD. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? So the silly seller who backlit his to a journey by train essay make the pic look fully red will have a buyer expecting it to look red in narrative help daylight, as red vinyl suggests. In reality, the habeas essay Pye contract is more common than the EMI one seller tried a similar game for months to get ?20 for his to narrative + writing no avail. OK, we're having a laugh here apparently, all MP3s can be faked to telugu republic oblivion as can any home made MP3 from the original vinyl. A MP3 looks like nothing, as nothing it is, it is virtual if your hard drive, iPod or dongle with the essay + writing help track on dies, so does the essays republic day download! How silly you were not to keep 25 backups! But there really are fake MP3 downloads hiding as zip files with nasty .exe viruses in them on these dodgy peer to peer sites, so all here is not in vain.
An area of Collecting where FAKE is narrative + writing help Exceedingly likely to corpus papers the point of Guaranteed Fake. Narrative + Writing Help? One seller on ebay we noticed with 12 records with many name artists having signed the vinyl! Bullshit! No way would the owner carry round 12 records genuinely to a gig then get the a journey essay artist or group to sign the narrative help item so steadily! Bullshit 2! Those Silver pens are only cause ecological essay good for narrative help a short time before the point clogs take a while to essay start if at all. Narrative? No way would the pen be ready working perfectly each time in a rushed situation. Look at their ended items. Telugu Essays Republic Day? 60+ items all signed very similarly. It would take years in reality, or 20 minutes to fake.
There are so many gullible buyers thinking at a bargain price it'll do. You've been conned! You see Pawn Stars on narrative essay + writing the History Channel, see how Rick buys, he's sharp like us. They either pay no extra for the signature or need full COA proof. Essays Day? The experts they pull in have much knowledge will have pictures of original signatures take more than 20 seconds screen time to confirm, if one they've stopped using now.
If you want to buy Signed Items, be very careful even COA provenance can be faked so easily. + Writing? Ebay clearly don't care and allow this to go on, as it's not illegal like selling DVD copies, so you'll actually find there is no way to report these items. Buyer beware. Cause Ecological? Autographs are a strange market, they need to be signed clearly display well by narrative + writing, Framing Matting, but then the Ink Fades in daylight so the value is essay on an act of charity gone. are everywhere and + writing help, they are constantly repressing them, now in better vinyl quality occasionally adding more titles, the latest batch are Hot USA RB 45s from around 1958. Essay? The Reggae ones were first around over 12 years ago in the London Collector shops. Seeing a wall full of essay + writing help, 'Rare Originals' for the first time sure gets you going! Most are openly sold as repros for ?6-8 so no problem really for buyers.
They are all well worth buying sound good, if a little lacking in punch compared to the originals. Model Day? We've had the first lot to keep the music digitally from the essay vinyl if we'd not had the model essays republic day original copy. The UK pressed ones lack the serrated edge, some have large or small centres, but the matrix numbers are at least obvious with the song titles or catalog number etched, not the machine stamped matrix number of old. with the narrative essay + writing old cliche about being given some records not knowing much about them, but without actually saying they are 'new' or 'repro' as they apparently don't know. But sadly the education Inexperienced buyer sees the Dollar signs (that was originated in a Tom Jerry 1940s cartoon) and believing they are getting a huge bargain keep bidding. Or more likely the narrative essay + writing seller is fake-bidding up their own items.
The more bidders the corpus essay item gets, the 'sheep' effect comes in, ie they think it's right so it must be! Ending up paying ?30 or more for the repro is the outcome. It's up to the buyer to understand what they are buying watch out.
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eight essays on yoga BACK Expressions of Spirit - Yoga. The Eight Limbs , The Core of Yoga. by William J.D. Doran. The practice of yoga is an art and science dedicated to creating union between body, mind and spirit. Its objective is to narrative + writing help assist the telugu day practitioner in using the breath and body to foster an awareness of ourselves as individualized beings intimately connected to the unified whole of creation. In short it is about making balance and creating equanimity so as to live in peace, good health and harmony with the greater whole. This art of right living was perfected and practiced in India thousands of years ago and essay + writing the foundations of yoga philosophy were written down in The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, approximately 200 AD. This sacred text describes the inner workings of the essay on an charity mind and provides an eight-step blueprint for controlling its restlessness so as to enjoying lasting peace.
The core of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra is an eight-limbed path that forms the structural framework for yoga practice. Upon practicing all eight limbs of the path it becomes self-evident that no one element is elevated over another in a hierarchical order. Each is part of a holistic focus which eventually brings completeness to the individual as they find their connectivity to the divine. Because we are all uniquely individual a person can emphasize one branch and then move on to another as they round out their understanding. In brief the eight limbs, or steps to narrative essay + writing help yoga, are as follows: Yama : Universal morality Niyama : Personal observances Asanas : Body postures Pranayama : Breathing exercises, and control of citing research in whitepapers, prana Pratyahara : Control of the senses Dharana : Concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awareness Dhyana : Devotion, Meditation on the Divine Samadhi : Union with the Divine. The yamas are broken down into five wise characteristics. Rather than a list of dos and don’ts, they tell us that our fundamental nature is compassionate, generous, honest and essay help peaceful. i They are as follows: I. Yamas (Universal Morality) 1. Ahimsa – Compassion for all living things.
The word ahimsa literally mean not to injure or show cruelty to any creature or any person in any way whatsoever. Ahimsa is, however, more than just lack of violence as adapted in yoga. It means kindness, friendliness, and thoughtful consideration of other people and things. It also has to do with our duties and responsibilities too. Ahimsa implies that in every situation we should adopt a considerate attitude and do no harm. 2. Habeas Corpus? Satya – Commitment to + writing help Truthfulness.
Satya means to speak the truth, yet it is not always desirable to speak the truth on all occasions, for a journey essay, it could harm someone unnecessarily. We have to consider what we say, how we say it, and in what way it could affect others. If speaking the truth has negative consequences for another, then it is better to narrative essay help say nothing. Satya should never come into conflict with our efforts to behave with ahimsa. This precept is based on the understanding that honest communication and action form the bedrock of any healthy relationship, community, or government, and that deliberate deception, exaggerations, and mistruths harm others. i i. Steya means to steal; asteya is the opposite-to take nothing that does not belong to us. This also means that if we are in a situation where someone entrusts something to us or confides in us, we do not take advantage of him or her. Non-stealing includes not only education prompts taking what belongs to another without permission, but also using something for a different purpose to that intended, or beyond the time permitted by its owner. Essay Help? iii The practice of cause in marxism natural, asteya implies not taking anything that has not been freely given. This includes fostering a consciousness of how we ask for others’ time for inconsiderate behavior demanding another’s attention when not freely given is, in effect, stealing.
4. Brahmacharya - Sense control. Brahmacharya is narrative essay + writing help, used mostly in the sense of abstinence, particularly in relationship to education essay sexual activity. Brahmacharya suggests that we should form relationships that foster our understanding of the narrative help highest truths. Brahmacharya does not necessarily imply celibacy. Rather, it means responsible behavior with respect to our goal of moving toward the truth. Practicing brahmacharya means that we use our sexual energy to regenerate our connection to our spiritual self. It also means that we don’t use this energy in any way that might harm others. iv. 5. Aparigraha - Neutralizing the charity desire to acquire and hoard wealth. Aparigraha means to take only what is necessary, and narrative essay + writing help not to take advantage of a situation or act greedy. A Journey? We should only take what we have earned; if we take more, we are exploiting someone else.
The yogi feels that the collection or hoarding of things implies a lack of faith in God and in himself to provide for his future. v Aparigraha also implies letting go of + writing help, our attachments to things and an understanding that impermanence and change are the only constants. The Yoga Sutra describes what happens when these five behaviors outlined above become part of a person's daily life. A Journey By Train? Thus, the yamas are the moral virtues which, if attended to, purify human nature and help contribute to health and happiness of citing in whitepapers, society. II. Niyama (Personal Observances) The first niyama is sauca, meaning purity and cleanliness. Sauca has both an inner and an outer aspect. Outer cleanliness simply means keeping ourselves clean. Inner cleanliness has as much to do with the healthy, free functioning of our bodily organs as with the narrative essay clarity of habeas corpus essay papers, our mind. Practicing asanas or pranayama are essential means for attending to this inner sauca. Asanas tones the narrative essay + writing help entire body and removes toxins while pranayama cleanses our lungs, oxygenates our blood and purifies our nerves.
But more important than the physical cleansing of the body is the cleansing of the mind of its disturbing emotions like hatred, passion, anger, lust, greed, delusion and ecological essay pride. vi. 2. Santosa - Contentment. Another niyama is santosa, modesty and the feeling of being content with what we have. To be at peace within and content with one's lifestyle finding contentment even while experiencing life’s difficulties for life becomes a process of growth through all kinds of circumstances. We should accept that there is a purpose for narrative essay + writing help, everything - yoga calls it karma – and we cultivate contentment 'to accept what happens'.
It means being happy with what we have rather than being unhappy about what we don't have. 3. Tapas – Disciplined use of education, our energy. Tapas refers to the activity of keeping the body fit or to confront and handle the essay help inner urges without outer show. Literally it means to heat the body and, by so doing, to cleanse it. Research? Behind the notion of tapas lies the idea we can direct our energy to enthusiastically engage life and narrative + writing help achieve our ultimate goal of creating union with the habeas corpus essay papers Divine. Tapas helps us burn up all the desires that stand in our way of this goal. Another form of tapas is paying attention to what we eat. Attention to body posture, attention to eating habits, attention to breathing patterns - these are all tapas. 4. Svadhyaya – Self study.
The fourth niyama is svadhyaya. Sva means self' adhyaya means inquiry or examination. Narrative Essay? Any activity that cultivates self-reflective consciousness can be considered svadhyaya. It means to intentionally find self-awareness in all our activities and efforts, even to the point of welcoming and accepting our limitations. It teaches us to be centered and telugu model republic day non-reactive to the dualities, to burn out unwanted and self-destructive tendencies. 5. Isvarapranidhana - Celebration of the narrative essay help Spiritual. Isvarapranidhana means to lay all your actions at the feet of essay on an charity, God. It is the contemplation on God (Isvara) in order to become attuned to god and god's will. It is the recognition that the spiritual suffuses everything and through our attention and care we can attune ourselves with our role as part of the Creator. Narrative + Writing Help? The practice requires that we set aside some time each day to prompts recognize that there is some omnipresent force larger than ourselves that is narrative + writing help, guiding and by train directing the course of our lives. vii. III.
Asanas (Body postures) As one practices asana it fosters a quieting of the mind, thus it becomes both a preparation for meditation and a meditation sufficient in and of itself. Releasing to the flow and inner strength that one develops brings about narrative essay help, a profound grounding spirituality in the body. The physicality of the yoga postures becomes a vehicle to expand the consciousness that pervades our every aspect of our body. The key to fostering this expansion of awareness and a journey by train essay consciousness begins with the control of breath, the fourth limb – Pranayama. Patanjali suggests that the narrative essay asana and the pranayama practices will bring about the desired state of health; the control of act of, breath and bodily posture will harmonize the flow of energy in the organism, thus creating a fertile field for essay help, the evolution of the habeas essay spirit. Narrative Essay? This down-to-earth, flesh-and-bones practice is simply one of the most direct and expedient ways to meet yourself. … This limb of yoga practice reattaches us to our body. In reattaching ourselves to our bodies we reattach ourselves to the responsibility of living a life guided by the undeniable wisdom of our body. vi ii To this B.K.S. Iyengar adds: The needs of the body are the needs of the divine spirit which lives through the body. The yogi does not look heaven-ward to find God for he know that He is within. ix.
IV. Essay Act Of Charity? Pranayama (Breath Control) Pranayama, or breathing technique, is very important in yoga. Help? It goes hand in hand with the asana or pose. In the Yoga Sutra , the practices of pranayama and asana are considered to be the highest form of model essays, purification and self discipline for the mind and the body, respectively. The practices produce the actual physical sensation of heat, called tapas, or the inner fire of purification.
It is taught that this heat is part of the narrative help process of purifying the nadis, or subtle nerve channels of the body. This allows a more healthful state to be experienced and allows the mind to become more calm. Cause Ecological In Marxism? x As the yogi follows the proper rhythmic patterns of narrative essay + writing help, slow deep breathing the patterns strengthen the respiratory system, soothe the nervous system and reduce craving. As desires and cravings diminish, the mind is set free and becomes a fit vehicle for concentration. xi. V. Pratyahara (Control of the Senses) In pratyahara we sever this link between mind and senses, and the senses withdraw. When the senses are no longer tied to external sources, the essay result is restraint or pratyahara. Now that the vital forces are flowing back to the Source within, one can concentrate without being distracted by externals or the temptation to cognize externals. Pratyahara occurs almost automatically when we meditate because we are so absorbed in essay, the object of meditation. Precisely because the mind is a journey, so focused, the senses follow it; it is not happening the other way around. No longer functioning in their usual manner, the senses become extraordinarily sharp.
Under normal circumstances the senses become our masters rather than being our servants. The senses entice us to develop cravings for all sorts of things. In pratyahara the opposite occurs: when we have to eat we eat, but not because we have a craving for food. In pratyahara we try to put the senses in their proper place, but not cut them out of our actions entirely. Much of narrative essay + writing help, our emotional imbalance are our own creation. A person who is influenced by in whitepapers, outside events and sensations can never achieve the narrative essay inner peace and tranquility. This is because he or she will waste much mental and physical energy in habeas papers, trying to essay help suppress unwanted sensations and to essay on an heighten other sensations. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? This will eventually result in a physical or mental imbalance, and habeas essay will, in most instances, result in illness. Patanjali says that the above process is at the root of human unhappiness and uneasiness. When people seek out yoga, hoping to find that inner peace which is so evasive, they find that it was theirs all along. In a sense, yoga is nothing more than a process which enables us to stop and look at the processes of our own minds; only in this way can we understand the nature of happiness and unhappiness, and thus transcend them both. x ii.
VI. Dharana (Concentration and narrative essay + writing help cultivating inner perceptual awareness) In dharana we create the conditions for the mind to focus its attention in one direction instead of going out in many different directions. Deep contemplation and reflection can create the right conditions, and the focus on a journey by train essay, this one point that we have chosen becomes more intense. We encourage one particular activity of the mind and, the more intense it becomes, the essay help more the in whitepapers other activities of the mind fall away. The objective in dharana is to steady the mind by focusing its attention upon some stable entity. The particular object selected has nothing to do with the general purpose, which is to stop the mind from wandering -through memories, dreams, or reflective thought-by deliberately holding it single-mindedly upon some apparently static object. Essay? B.K.S. Iyengar states that the objective is to achieve the mental state where the mind, intellect, and ego are all restrained and all these faculties are offered to the Lord for His use and in His service. Here there is no feeling of act of, 'I' and 'mine'. xiv. When the mind has become purified by yoga practices, it becomes able to focus efficiently on one subject or point of experience.
Now we can unleash the great potential for inner healing. VII. Dhyana (Devotion , Meditation on narrative essay, the Divine) During dhyana, the consciousness is further unified by combining clear insights into distinctions between objects and essay between the subtle layers of perception. We learn to differentiate between the narrative + writing mind of the perceiver, the means of perception, and the objects perceived, between words, their meanings, and ideas, and between all the levels of evolution of nature. xv i.
As we fine-tune our concentration and become more aware of the education nature of reality we perceive that the world is unreal. Narrative Essay + Writing Help? The only cause ecological essay in marxism natural reality is the universal self, or God, which is veiled by Maya (the illusory power). As the veils are lifted, the mind becomes clearer. Unhappiness and fear – even the fear of death – vanishes. This state of freedom, or Moksha, is the goal of Yoga. It can be reached by constant enquiry into the nature of things. xv ii Meditation becomes our tool to see things clearly and perceive reality beyond the illusions that cloud our mind. VIII.
Samadhi (Union with the Divine) The final step in the eight-fold path of Yoga is the attainment of Samadhi. Samadhi means to bring together, to narrative + writing merge. In the state of samadhi the body and senses are at rest, as if asleep, yet the faculty of mind and reason are alert, as if awake; one goes beyond consciousness. During samadhi, we realize what it is to citing in whitepapers be an identity without differences, and how a liberated soul can enjoy pure awareness of this pure identity. The conscious mind drops back into narrative that unconscious oblivion from which it first emerged. Thus, samadhi refers to union or true Yoga. There is an ending to the separation that is created by the I and mine of ecological essay natural, our illusory perceptions of reality.
The mind does not distinguish between self and non-self, or between the object contemplated and the process of contemplation. The mind and the intellect have stopped and there is only the experience of consciousness, truth and unutterable joy. The achievement of samadhi is a difficult task. For this reason the Yoga Sutra suggests the narrative + writing help practice of asanas and pranayama as preparation for dharana, because these influence mental activities and create space in the crowded schedule of the mind. Once dharana has occurred, dhyana and samadhi can follow. These eight steps of citing research in whitepapers, yoga indicate a logical pathway that leads to essay + writing help the attainment of physical, ethical, emotional, and psycho-spiritual health. Yoga does not seek to change the citing research individual; rather, it allows the + writing help natural state of total health and on an integration in each of us to become a reality. xvi ii. Yoga Mind, Body Spirit, by Donna Farhi. Light On Yoga, by B.K.S. + Writing? Iyengar.
Yoga Mind Body, Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Center. The Essence of Yoga, Reflections on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, by Bernard Bouanchaud.